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Social Processes: Methodology · Types of test

The Zulliger Z test was developed by Hans Zulliger. Also known as the Tafeln-Z-Test, it is is analogous to the better-known Rorschach test.

Two forms of the test have been developed

==Zulliger Group Test]] This was originally created in 1942 for the Swiss Army Psychological Service in order to effectively assess groups of recriuts. they had intended to use the standard [[Rorschach and Behn-Rorschach cards but realised this would take too much time to administer individually. So Zulliger selected 4 out of 600 inkblot stimuli he had made. Two further ones were subsequently added to make up six pixture to be shown. These have been standardized with a large sample and have proven to be reliable

Zulliger Indiviual TestEdit

A subset of three cards were then produced. Under the auspices of Robert Heiss of the Institute for Psychology and Characterology at the University of Freiburg in Breisgau they were published

See alsoEdit


Further readingEdit


Fritz Salomon (ed.) ( ) Zulliger, H.: The Zulliger Individual and Group Test. New Yor:International Universities Press, Inc.


  • Blouin, D. C., & Riopelle, A. J. (2004). The Difference Between t and z and the Difference It Makes: Journal of General Psychology Vol 131(1) Jan 2004, 77-84.
  • Bunchaft, G., Tavares, A. L. d. R., & Vasconcellos, V. L. P. (2002). Validation of the Zulliger test with transactional analysis as a guideline: Transactional Analysis Journal Vol 32(1) Jan 2002, 33-38.
  • D'Adamo, S. (1985). Negotiational typologies and personality structure: Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata No 173 Jan-Mar 1985, 25-33.
  • Exner, J. E., Jr. (2003). The Rorschach: A comprehensive system (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  • Lis, A., Magro, T., & Rossi, G. (1990). A comparison between the Zulliger Test (individually administered) and the Rorschach Test in children aged 6-11: British Journal of Projective Psychology Vol 35(2) Dec 1990, 35-48.
  • Mahmood, Z. (1982). The Zulliger Test: A diagnostic validation on a British sample: British Journal of Projective Psychology & Personality Study Vol 27(2) Dec 1982, 12-17.
  • Mahmood, Z. (1990). The Zulliger Test: Its past and future: British Journal of Projective Psychology Vol 35(2) Dec 1990, 2-16.
  • Mattlar, C.-E., Sandahl, C., Lindberg, S., Lehtinen, V., & et al. (1990). Methodological issues associated with the application of the comprehensive system when analysing the Zulliger, and the structural resemblance between the Zulliger and the Rorschach: British Journal of Projective Psychology Vol 35(2) Dec 1990, 17-27.
  • Morales, C., Serrat, D., Abad-Alegria, F., & Torrente, J. E. (1981). Sex differences in results of the Zulliger Test in a sample of university students: Revista de Psicologia General y Aplicada Vol 36(2) 1981, 263-267.
  • Murstein, B. I. (1970). Too Little, Too Late: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 15 (3), Mar, 1970.
  • Primi, R., Amaral Guntert, A. E., & Alchieri, J. C. (2002). Correlational study of the Battery of Reasoning Tests (BPR-5), R1 and TNRV with the Zulliger's Test: PSICO Vol 33(1) Jan-Jun 2002, 53-76.
  • Ruth, J. E., Obergi, P., Mattlar, C.-E., Sandahl, C., & et al. (1990). Old age and loneliness illustrated by the Zulliger: British Journal of Projective Psychology Vol 35(2) Dec 1990, 61-73.
  • Sandahl, C., Mattlar, C.-E., Carlsson, A., Vesala, P., & et al. (1990). The personality structure for the normal adult as revealed by the Zullinger: British Journal of Projective Psychology Vol 35(2) Dec 1990, 54-60.
  • Semeonoff, B. (1990). The Zulliger Test in a selection context: British Journal of Projective Psychology Vol 35(2) Dec 1990, 28-34.
  • Simon Hernandez, M. E. (1974). The clash of the green in the ZTT and the Rorschach: Revista de Psicologia General y Aplicada Vol 29(127) Mar-Apr 1974, 289-309.
  • Uhinki, A., Mattlar, C.-E., Sandahl, C., & Vesala, P. (1990). Personality traits characteristic for adolescents highlighted by the Zulliger: British Journal of Projective Psychology Vol 35(2) Dec 1990, 49-53.


  • Miller, K. L. (2003). The construction of an objective group test to discern tendencies to psychopathology in the first-grade child. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.

External linksEdit

Zulliger online For those using the test here is software that will help you to develop the Psychogram following Hans Zulliger's method.

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