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Withdrawal may be viewed as a psychological defence mechanism it is a psychoanalytic term and refers to the tendency to escape from or avoid situations that may be experienced as emotionally or psychologically challenging.
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
Books[edit | edit source]
- Cheek, J. M., & Krasnoperova, E. N. (1999). Varieties of shyness in adolescence and adulthood. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Honk, J. v., & Haan, E. H. F. d. (2001). Conscious and unconscious processing of emotional faces. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Rubin, K. H., & Burgess, K. B. (2001). Social withdrawal and anxiety. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Serbin, L. A., Moskowitz, D. S., Schwartzman, A. E., & Ledingham, J. E. (1991). Aggressive, withdrawn, and aggressive/withdrawn children in adolescence: Into the next generation. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Papers[edit | edit source]
- Adams, K. B. (2001). Depressive symptoms, depletion, or developmental change? Withdrawal, apathy, and lack of vigor in the Geriatric Depression Scale: The Gerontologist Vol 41(6) Dec 2001, 768-777.
- Adler, S., & Golan, J. (1981). Lateness as a withdrawal behavior: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 66(5) Oct 1981, 544-554.
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- Goldstein, J. A. (1971). Investigation of doubling as a technique for involving severely withdrawn patients in group psychotherapy: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 37(1) Aug 1971, 155-162.
- Griffeth, R. W., Gaertner, S., & Sager, J. K. (1999). Taxonomic model of withdrawal behaviors: The adaptive response model: Human Resource Management Review Vol 9(4) Win 1999, 577-590.
- Gruber, L. N. (1977). The no-demand, third person interview of the non-verbal patient: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care Vol 15(1) Jan-Mar 1977, 38-39.
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- Guedeney, A., Charron, J., Delour, M., & Fermanian, J. (2001). The evaluation of withdrawal behavior in infants during pediatric examinations using the Alarm Distress Scale (ADBB): Psychiatrie de l'Enfant Vol 44(1) 2001, 211-231.
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- Hanisch, K. A., Hulin, C. L., & Roznowski, M. (1998). The importance of individuals' repertoires of behaviors: The scientific appropriateness of studying multiple behaviors and general attitudes: Journal of Organizational Behavior Vol 19(5) Sep 1998, 463-480.
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- Hutchinson, S. (1987). Self-care and job stress: IMAGE: Journal of Nursing Scholarship Vol 19(4) Win 1987, 192-196.
- Hymel, S., Bowker, A., & Woody, E. (1993). Aggressive versus withdrawn unpopular children: Variations in peer and self-perceptions in multiple domains: Child Development Vol 64(3) Jun 1993, 879-896.
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- Johns, G. (1998). Aggregation or aggravation? The relative merits of a broad withdrawal construct: Journal of Organizational Behavior Vol 19(5) Sep 1998, 453-462.
- Johnson, S. B. (1979). Children's fears in the classroom setting: School Psychology Review Vol 8(4) Fal 1979, 382-396.
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- Kaczmarek, M. A., & LeVine, E. S. (1980). Expansion training: A counseling stance for the withdrawn rigid child: Elementary School Guidance & Counseling Vol 15(1) Oct 1980, 31-38.
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- Kaplitz, S. E. (1975). Withdrawn, apathetic geriatric patients responsive to methylphenidate: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Vol 23(6) Jun 1975, 271-276.
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- Kastner, S., & Podell, D. M. (1991). Psychotherapy as an approach to special education prevention: Perceptions of student behavior: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Vol 61(4) Oct 1991, 563-566.
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- Klein, J. (1992). The Lady of Shalott: British Journal of Psychotherapy Vol 8(4) Sum 1992, 413-416.
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- Koplow, L. (1983). Feeding the "turtle": Helping the withdrawn child to emerge in the classroom: Exceptional Child Vol 30(2) Jul 1983, 127-132.
- Kuppinger, H. E., Harrington, A., Kaczmerek, H. J., Panos, J. J., & Steinpreis, R. E. (1996). The effects of phencyclidine and amphetamine on social behavior in tether-restrained and freely moving rats: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 4(1) Feb 1996, 77-81.
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- Van Yperen, N. W., Hagedoorn, M., & Geurts, S. A. (1994). Withdrawal behaviors of employees: Turnover and absenteeism as reactions to inequity: Gedrag en Organisatie Vol 7(5) Oct 1994, 243-260.
- Verma, J. (1987). A case study of a withdrawn boy as measured through Rorschach: Indian Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 24(2) Jul 1987, 96-100.
- Vogel, D. L., & Karney, B. R. (2002). Demands and withdrawal in newlyweds: Elaborating on the social structure hypothesis: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships Vol 19(5) Oct 2002, 685-701.
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Dissertations[edit | edit source]
- Bauknight, C. B. (1977). Parent-child interaction on the Family Drawing Test as an indication of withdrawn behavior in children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Bowker, A. E. (1996). Coping with daily hassles in the peer group during early adolescence. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Briggs, R. S. (1992). Timid and withdrawn children. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
- Burgess, K. B. (1997). Self-schemas and behavioural adjustment of socially withdrawn children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Carrico, K. L. (1982). An examination of the social networks of normals and schizophrenics: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Chassine, E. A. (1993). A study of the differences between boys from divorced and intact families in relation to anxiety, aggression, and withdrawn behavior: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Childers, G. J. (1990). Relations among aggression, withdrawal, and victimization in peer-rejected children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Cochrane, N. J. (1982). The meanings that some adults derive from their personal withdrawal experiences: A dialogical inquiry: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Crawford, N. L. (1995). The emotional responses of aggressive and withdrawn preschoolers to peer interactions. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Cressey, K. N. (2000). Parallel formation processes of job, organization, and occupation withdrawal cognitions. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Daniels, T. L. (1996). Development and validation of the Withdrawal and Avoidance in Marriage scale. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Drew, K. D. (1986). Relationship of birth order to sociability in young children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Gooler, L. E. (1996). Coping with work-family conflict: The role of organizational support. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Gray, J. R. (2000). Emotional modulation of working memory. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Harrison, H. M. J. (1998). Modelling the structure of social (mal)adjustment during the developmental period. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Harrist, A. W. (1992). Synchronous and nonsynchronous parent-child interaction: Relations with children's later competence with peers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Hart, M. T. (1994). Social-cognitive processing in aggressive/withdrawn, aggressive/nonwithdrawn, and nondeviant children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Hirschfeld, N. B. (1986). Maternal intensity and infant disengagement in face to face play: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Howe, P. A. (1981). Patterns of playroom behavior in disturbed and adjusted preschool children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Kassier, M. R. (1979). The effects of televised modeling on selected pro-social behaviors of severely withdrawn children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Kim, W.-K. (1998). Social withdrawal and psychological well-being in older adults. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Lepore, S. J. (1992). Residential density and psychological distress: Some social explanations: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Loiacono, R. (1979). Differential response patterns of achievers and non-achievers as a function of locus of control: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- McAffer, V. J. (1992). A longitudinal study of intergenerational transfer of psychosocial risk: Aggressive and withdrawn girls as mothers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- McGuire, M. D. (1984). Attentional functions and information processing in adolescents at behavioral risk for schizophrenia: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Mott, A. L. (2006). The relationship between social withdrawal, friendship, and socioemotional adjustment in children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- O'Hearn, H. G. (1999). Daily patterns of anger and withdrawal in violent and nonviolent couples. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Partridge, R. T. (2000). A developmental contextual model of approach/withdrawal temperament. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Peters, P. L. (2000). Assortative mating among men and women with histories of aggressive, withdrawn, and aggressive-withdrawn behaviour. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Raybuck, C. (1991). Attributional and behavioral discriminators of aggressive-withdrawn versus aggressive children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Rigsby, R. K. (1995). An inquiry into the adaptive function of withdrawal: Focusing on depression and abusive relationships. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Ritzema, R. J. (1978). The labeling of mental illness by nonprofessionals: An attributional approach: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Schneider, M. J. (1984). A comparison of aggressive and withdrawn children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Schwartz, D. (1995). The social behavior of bullied children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Smith, K. B. (1996). Homeless school-age children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Stempniak, M. W. (1979). Rating scales of child behavior problems: Halo, sex, and race effects: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Vallejo, J. O. (1986). Withdrawal: A basic positive and negative adaptation in addition to compliance and rebellion: Transactional Analysis Journal Vol 16(2) Apr 1986, 114-119. (1996). A multimethod study of the structure of social withdrawal in middle childhood. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Warden, M. R. (1991). Withdrawal of academic effort: Implications for self-handicapping and self-worth theories: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Ventura-Cook, E. E. (1997). Attachment representations and socioemotional characteristics of lower-income solitary-passive, solitary-nonpassive, and nonwithdrawn preschool children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
|Level 1 - Pathological|
|Level 2 - Immature|
|Level 3 - Neurotic|
|Level 4 - Mature|