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Value is a measure of where a particular color lies along the lightness–darkness axis. A color's value is its amplitude. Various color models have an explicit term which places the color on a scale from utter black to pure white. The HSV color model and Munsell color model have an explicit value, while the HSL color model uses a related parameter called lightness instead.
In the HSV and Munsell color models, a color with a low value is nearly black, while one with a high value is the pure color.
The image shows three hues in the Munsell color model. Each color differs in value from top to bottom in equal perception steps. The right column undergoes a dramatic change in perceived color.
In subtractive color, i.e. paints, value changes can be achieved by adding black or white to the color.
Chiaroscuro and Tenebrism both take advantage of dramatic contrasts of value to heighten drama in art. Artists may also employ shading, subtle manipulation of value.
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