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Uta Frith Edit

Uta Frith is a leading developmental psychologist working at the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience at University College London. She has published many papers on autism and dyslexia, as well as several books. The most well known is 'Autism: Explaining the Engima' which provides an introduction to the cognitive neuroscience of autism.

Uta's work on theory of mind in autism established the idea that people with autism have specific difficulties understanding other people's beliefs and desires.

See alsoEdit



  • Frith, U. (2003).Autism: Explaining the Enigma. Second edition. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Houston, R., & Frith, U. (2000). Autism in history: The case of Hugh Blair of Borgue Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Frith, U. and Hill, E. (2004) (eds).Autism: Mind and Brain Oxford University Press.
  • Frith, U. (1991)(Ed) .Autism and Asperger Syndrome Cambridge University Press.
  • Blakemore, S-J and Frith, U. (2005). The Learning Brain: Lessons for Education. Oxford: Blackwell.

Book ChaptersEdit


  • Dakin S. and Frith U. (2005) Vagaries of visual perception in autism. Neuron. 3;48(3):497-507. Full text
  • McCrory, E., Mechelli, A., Frith, U., & Price, C. (2005). More Than Words: A Common Neural Basis for Reading and Naming Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia? Brain, 128; 261-267. Full text
  • Frith, U., & de Vignemont, F. (2005). Egocentrism, allocentrism and Asperger Syndrome. Consciousness and Cognition,Full text
  • Blakemore, S-J., Winston, J., & Frith, U. (2004) Social cognitive neuroscience: where are we heading? Trends in Cognitive Science, 8; 216-222.Full text
  • Blakemore, S-J., Frith, U. (2004) How does the brain deal with the social world? Neuroreport, 15; 119-128.[Full text]
  • Frith, U. (2004) Emanuel Miller lecture: confusions and controversies about Asperger syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45; 672-686 Full text
  • Bird, C.M., Castelli, F., Malik, O., Frith, U., & Husain, M. (2004). The impact of extensive medial frontal lobe damage on 'Theory of Mind' and cognition. Brain, 127; 914-928.
  • Stewart, L., Walsh, V., & Frith, U. (2004). Music Reading Shapes Spatial Representation in Pianists. Perception and Psychophysics, 66; 183-195. Full text
  • Hamilton, A., Wolpert, D., & Frith, U. (2004). Your Own Action Influences How You Perceive Another Person's Action. Current Biology, 14; 493-498.Full text
  • Hill, E.L., Berthoz, S., & Frith, U. (2004). Cognitive processing of own emotions in individuals with autistic spectrum disorder and their relatives. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 229-235.
  • Blakemore S-J & Frith CD (2003). Self-awareness and action. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 13, 219-224.
  • Blakemore S-J, Oakley DA & Frith CD (2003). Delusions of alien control in the normal brain. Neuropsychologia 41, 1058-1067.
  • Frith, U., & Frith, C.D. (2003). Development and neurophysiology of mentalising. Philosophical Transactions, Series B (Frith, C.D. and Wolpert, D., eds) Special issue on Mechanisms of social interaction. Full text
  • Hill, E., & Frith, U. (2003). Autism - insights from mind and brain. Philosophical Transactions, Series B (Frith, U. and Hill, E., eds) Special issue on Autism, mind and brain.Full text
  • Kampe, K., Frith, C.D., & Frith, U. (2003). "Hey John": Signals conveying communicative intention towards the self activate brain regions associated with mentalising regardless of modality. Journal of Neuroscience, 23; 5258-5263. Full text

Ramus, F., Pidgeon, L., & Frith, U. (2003). The relationship between motor control and phonology in dyslexic children Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44; 712-722.

  • Ramus, F., Rosen, S., Dakin, S., Day, B.L., Castellote, J.M., White, S., & Frith, U. (2003). Theories of developmental dyslexia: Insights from a multiple case study. Brain, 126; 841-865. Full text
  • Snowling, M., Gallagher, A., & Frith, U. (2003). Family risk of dyslexia is continuous: individual differences in the precursors of reading skill. Child Development, 74; 358-373.Full text
  • Stewart, L., Henson, R., Kampe, K., Walsh, V., Turner, R. and Frith, U. (2003). Brain Changes Associated with Learning to Read and Play Music. Neuroimage, 20; 71-83.Full text
  • Blair, R.J.R., Frith, U., Smith, N., Abell, F., & Cipolotti, L. (2002). Fractionation of Visual Memory: Agency detection and its impairment in Autism. Neuropsychologia, 40; 108-118.Full text
  • Castelli, F., Frith, C.D., Happé, F., & Frith, U. (2002). Autism, Asperger syndrome and brain mechanisms for the attribution of mental states to animated shapes. Brain, 125; 1839-1849.Full text
  • Griffiths, S., & Frith, U. (2002). Evidence for an articulatory awareness deficit in adult dyslexics. Dyslexia, 8; 14-21. Full text
  • Kelly, S.W., Griffiths, S. & Frith U. (2002). Evidence for implicit sequence learning in dyslexia. Dyslexia, 8; 43-52.Full text
  • Briskman, J., Happé, F. & Frith, U. (2001). Exploring the cognitive phenotype of autism: Weak "central coherence" in parents and siblings of children with autism. II. Real-life skills and preferences. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42; 309-316.
  • Cardoso-Martins, C. & Frith, U. (2001). Can individuals with Down syndrome acquire alphabetic literacy skills in the absence of phoneme awareness? Reading and Writing, 14; 361-375.
  • Frith, U. (2001). Mind blindness and the brain in Autism. Neuron, 32; 969-979.Full text
  • Frith, U. (2001) What framework should we use for understanding developmental disorders? Developmental Neuropsychology, 20; 555-63.
  • Frith, U. & Frith, C. (2001). The biological basis of social interaction. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10; 151-155. Full text
  • Frith, U. & Vargha-Khadem, F. (2001). Are there sex differences in the brain basis of literacy related skills? Evidence from reading and spelling impairments after early unilateral brain damage. Neuropsychologia, 39; 1485-1488.
  • Happé, F., Briskman, J. & Frith, U. (2001). Exploring the cognitive phenotype of autism: Weak "central coherence" in parents and siblings of children with autism. I. Experimental tests. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42; 299-307
  • Kampe, K., Frith, C. D., Dolan, R. J. & Frith, U. (2001). Attraction and gaze – the reward value of social stimuli. Nature, 413; 589.Full text
  • Paulesu, E., Démonet, J., Fazio, F., McCrory, E., Chanoine, V., Brunswick, N., Cappa, S., Cossu, G., Habib, M., Frith, C. & Frith U. (2001). Dyslexia: Cultural Diversity and Biological Unity. Science, 291; 2165-2167.
  • Stewart, L., Walsh, V., Frith, U. & Rothwell, J.C. (2001). TMS produces two dissociable types of speech disruption. Neuroimage, 13; 472-478.
  • Stewart, L., Walsh, V., Frith, U. & Rothwell, J.C. (2001). Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Produces Speech Arrest but not Song Arrest. The Biological Foundations of Music. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 930; 433-435. [ Full text]

Abell, F., Happé, F. & Frith, U. (2000). Do triangles play tricks? Attribution of mental states to animated shapes in normal and abnormal development. Journal of Cognitive Development, 15; 1-20.

  • Blair, R.J.R. & Frith, U. (2000). Neurocognitive explanations of the Antisocial Personality Disorders. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 10; 66-81.
  • Castelli, F., Happé, F., Frith, U. & Frith, C. (2000). Movement and mind: A functional imaging study of perception and interpretation of complex intentional movement patterns. NeuroImage, 12; 314-325.
  • Frith, C.D. & Frith, U. (2000). The physiological basis of theory of mind. In S. Baron-Cohen, H. Tager-Flusberg, & D. Cohen (Eds.), Understanding other minds. (pp 334-356). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Gallagher, A., Frith, U. & Snowling, M. (2000). Precursors of literacy delay among children at genetic risk of dyslexia. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41; 203-213.
  • Gallagher, H.L., Happé, F., Brunswick, N., Fletcher, P., Frith, C.D. & Frith, U. (2000). Reading the mind in cartoons and stories: an fMRI study of 'theory of mind' in verbal and non-verbal tasks. Neuropsychologia, 38; 11-21.
  • McCrory, E., Frith, U., Brunswick, N. & Price, C. (2000). Abnormal functional activation during a simple word repetition task: A PET study of adult dyslexics. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12; 753-762.
  • Brunswick, N., Cappa, S.F., Cotelli, M., Cossu, G., Corte, F., Lorusso, M., Pesenti, S., Gallagher, A., Perani, D., Price, C., Frith, C.D. & Frith, U. (2000). A cultural effect on brain function. Nature Neuroscience, 3; 91-96. .
  • Scheuffgen, K., Happé, F., Anderson, M. & Frith, U. (2000). High “Intelligence”, low “IQ”? Speed of processing and measured IQ in children with autism. Development and Psychopathology, 12; 83-90.
  • Stewart, L., Meyer, B., Frith, U., Rothwell, J. (2000). Left posterior BA37 is involved in object recognition: a TMS study. Neuropsychologia, 39; 1-6.
  • Abell, F., Krams, M., Ashburner, J., Passingham, R., Friston, K.J., Frackowiak, R., Happé, F., Frith, C.D. & Frith, U. (1999). The neuroanatomy of autism: A voxel based whole brain analysis of structural MRI scans in high functioning individuals. NeuroReport, 10; 1647-1651.
  • Brunswick, N., McCrory, E., Price, C., Frith, C.D. & Frith, U. (1999). Explicit and implicit processing of words and pseudowords by adult developmental dyslexics: a search for Wernicke's Wortschatz? Brain, 122; 1901-1917.
  • Cipolotti, L., Robinson, G., Blair, J. & Frith, U. (1999). Fractionation of visual memory: Evidence from a case with multiple neurodevelopmental impairments. Neuropsychologia, 37; 455-465.
  • Frith, C. & Frith, U. (1999). Interacting minds - A biological basis. Science, 286; 1692-1695. Full text
  • Frith, U. (1999). Paradoxes in the definition of dyslexia. Dyslexia, 5; 192-214.
  • Frith, U. & Happé, F. (1999). Theory of mind and self consciousness: What is it like to be autistic? Mind and Language, 14; 1-22. Full text
  • Frederickson, N. & Frith, U. (1998). Identifying dyslexia in bilingual children: A phonological approach with Inner London Sylheti speakers. Dyslexia, 4; 119-131. Full text
  • Frith, U. (1998). Cognitive deficits in developmental disorders. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 39, 191-195.
  • Frith, U. (1998). What autism teaches us about communication. Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Vocology, 23; 51-58.Full text
  • Frith, U. & Happé, F. (1998). Why specific developmental disorders are not specific: On-line and developmental effects in autism and dyslexia. Developmental Science, 1; 267-272.
  • Frith, U., Wimmer, H. & Landerl, K. (1998). Differences in phonological recoding in German- and English-speaking children. Scientific Studies of Reading, 2; 31-54.Full text
  • Frith, U. & Frith, C. (1998). Modularity of mind and phonological deficit. In C. Von Euler, I. Lundberg and R. Llinas (Eds.), Basic Mechanisms in Cognition and Language. (pp 3-17). Elsevier Science.Full text
  • Landerl, K., Wimmer, H. & Frith, U. (1997). The impact of orthographic consistency on dyslexia: a German-English comparison. Cognition, 63; 315-334.Full text
  • Landerl, K., Frith, U. & Wimmer, H. (1996). Intrusion of orthographic knowledge on phoneme awareness: strong in normal readers, weak in dyslexic readers. Applied Psycholinguistics, 17; 1-14.
  • Paulesu, E., Frith, U., Snowling, M., Gallagher, A., Morton, J., Frackowiak, R. & Frith, C. (1996). Is developmental dyslexia a disconnection syndrome? Evidence from PET scanning. Brain, 119; 143-157.Full text
  • Frith, U., Landerl, K.& Frith, C. (1995). Dyslexia and verbal fluency: More evidence for a phonological deficit. Dyslexia, 1; 2-11.Full text
  • Frith, U. (1995). Dyslexia: can we have a shared theoretical framework? Educational and Child Psychology, 12; 6-17.Full text
  • Morton, J. & Frith, U. (1993). What lesson for dyslexia from Down's syndrome? Comments on Cossu, Rossini, and Marshall (1993). Cognition, 48; 289-296.
  • Snowling, M. & Frith, U. (1991). The role of sound, shape and orthographic cues in early reading. British Journal of Psychology, 72; 83-87.Full text
  • Frith, U. (1991). Dyslexia as a developmental disorder of language. In Bundesverband für Legasthenie. (pp 26-34).Full text
  • Frith, U. (1986). A developmental framework for developmental dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 36; 69-81. Full text
  • Frith, U. (1985). Beneath the surface of developmental dyslexia. In K. Patterson, J. Marshall, & M. Coltheart (Eds.), Surface Dyslexia, Neuropsychological and Cognitive Studies of Phonological Reading. (pp 301-330). London: Erlbaum.Full text
  • Frith, U. (1981).Experimental approaches to developmental dyslexia: an introduction. Psychological Research, 43; 97-109.Full text
  • Frith, U. (1980). Unexpected spelling problems. In U. Frith (Ed.), Cognitive Processes in Spelling. (pp 495-515). London: Academic Press.Full text
  • Frith, U. (1979). Reading by eye and writing by ear. In Kolers, P., Wrolstad, M. & Bouma, H. (Eds.), Processing of Visible Language, vol. 1. (pp 379-390). Plenum Publishing Corporation.Full text
  • Frith, U. (1978). From print to meaning and from print to sound, or how to read without knowing how to spell. Visible Language, 12; 43-54.Full text
  • Frith, U. (1974). Internal schemata for letters in good and bad readers. British Journal of Psychology, 65; 233-241.Full text
  • Frith, U. (1971).Why do children reverse letters? British Journal of Psychology, 62; 459-468.Full text
  • Happé, F., & Frith, U. (1996). The neuropsychology of autism. Brain, 19, 1377-1400.Full text
  • Happé, F., & Frith, U. (1996). Theory of mind and social impairment in children with conduct disorder. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14, 385-398.Full text
  • Happé, F., Ehlers, S., Fletcher, P., Frith, U., Johansson, M., Gillberg, C., Dolan, R., Frackowiak, R., & Frith, C.D. (1996). 'Theory of mind' in the brain. Evidence from a PET scan study of Asperger syndrome. NeuroReport, 8, 197-201.
  • Fletcher, P., Happé, F., Frith, U., Baker, S., Dolan, R., Frackowiak, R., & Frith, C.D. (1995). Other minds in the brain: a functional imaging study study of 'theory of mind' in story comprehension. Cognition, 57; 109-128.
  • Frith, U., & Happé, F. (1994). Autism: beyond "theory of mind". Cognition, 50; 115-132.
  • Frith, U., Happé, F., & Siddons, F. (1994). Autism and theory of mind in everyday life. Social Development, 2, 108-124.Full text
  • Hurlburt, R., Happé, F., & Frith, U. (1994). Sampling the form of inner experience in three adults with Asperger syndrome. Psychological Medicine, 24, 385-395.Full text

  • Frith, U. (1993). Autism. Scientific American, 268, 108-114. Full text
  • Shah, A., & Frith, U. (1993). Why do autistic individuals show superior performance on the block design task? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 1351-1364.Full text
  • Sodian, B., & Frith, U. (1992). Deception and sabotage in autistic, retarded and normal children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 591-605.Full text
  • Frith, C.D., & Frith, U. (1991). Elective affinities in schizophrenia and childhood autism. In P. Bebbington (Ed.), Social Psychiatry: Theory, Methodology and Practice. (pp. 65-88). Brunswick, NJ: Transactions.Full text
  • Frith, U. (1991). Asperger and his syndrome. In U. Frith (Ed.), Autism and Asperger Syndrome. (pp. 1-36). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Full text
  • Frith, U., Morton, J., & Leslie, A.M. (1991). The cognitive basis of a biological disorder: autism. Trends in Neurosciences, 14, 433-438.Full text
  • Frith, U. (1989). Autism and "Theory of Mind". In C. Gillberg (Ed.), Diagnosis and Treatment of Autism. (pp. 33-52). New York: Plenum Press.
  • Perner, J., Frith, U., Leslie, A.M., & Leekam, S. (1989). Explorations of the autistic child's theory of mind: Knowledge, belief and communication. Child Development, 60, 689-700.
  • Frith, U. (1989). A new look at language and communication in autism. British Journal of Disorders of Communication, 24; 123-150.Full text
  • Leslie, A.M., & Frith, U. (1988). Autistic children's understanding of seeing, knowing and believing. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 6, 315-324.[ Full text]
  • Attwood, A., Frith, U., & Hermelin, B. (1988). The understanding and use of interpersonal gestures by autistic and Down's Syndrome children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 18; 241-157.[ Full text]
  • Frith, U., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1987). Perception in autistic children. In D. Cohen, A. Donnellan, & R. Paul (Eds.), Handbook of Autism and Disorders of Atypical Development. (pp. 85-102). New York: Wiley.[ Full text]
  • Frith, U. (1987). A developmental model for autism. In Grémy, F., Tomkiewicz, S., Ferrari, P., Lelord, G. (Eds.), Autisme Infantile. (pp. 175-184). Colloque INSERM, vol. 146.[ Full text]
  • Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A.M., & Frith, U. (1986). Mechanical, behavioural and intentional understanding of picture stories in autistic children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 4; 113-125.[ Full text]
  • Snowling, M., & Frith, U. (1986). Comprehension in "hyperlexic" readers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 42, 392-415.[ Full text]
  • Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A.M., & Frith, U. (1985). Does the autistic child have a "theory of mind"? Cognition, 21; 37-46.[ Full text]
  • Shah, A., & Frith, U. (1983). An islet of ability in autistic children: a research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 613-620.[ Full text]
  • Frith, U., & Snowling, M. (1983). Reading for meaning and reading for sound in autistic and dyslexic children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 1; 329-342.[ Full text]
  • Frith, U. (1972). Cognitive mechanisms in autism: Experiments with color and tone sequence production. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 2, 160-173.[ Full text]
  • Frith, U. (1970). Studies in pattern detection II: Reproduction and production of color sequences. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 10, 120-135.[ Full text]
  • Aurnhammer-Frith, U. (1969). Emphasis and meaning in recall in normal and autistic children. Language and Speech, 12; 29-38.[ Full text]
  • Frith, U. (1998). Cognitive deficits in developmental disorders. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 39, 191-195.[ Full text]
  • Frith, U., & Happé, F. (1998). Why specific developmental disorders are not specific: On-line and developmental effect in autism and dyslexia. Developmental Science, 1, 267-272.[ Full text]
  • Morton, J., & Frith, U. (1995). Causal modeling: Structural approaches to developmental psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental Psychopathology. (pp. 357-390). New York: Wiley.[ Full text]
  • Frith, U. (1992). Cognitive development and cognitive deficit. The President's Award Lecture. The Psychologist, 5, 13-19.[ Full text]
  • Frith, U. (1992). Holes in the mind: Cognitive development and cognitive deficit. In L. Richards (Ed.), Set Research Information for Teachers, No2, Item 4. (pp. 6-6). Wellington, New Zealand: NZCER.[ Full text]
  • Henderson, D., Morris, J., & Frith, U. (1981). The motor deficit in Down's Syndrome children: a problem of timing. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 22, 233-245.[ Full text]
  • Frith, C.D., & Frith, U. (1978). Feature selection and classification: A developmental study. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 25, 413-428.[ Full text]
  • Frith, U., & Robson, J. (1975). Perceiving the language of films. Perception, 4, 97-103.[ Full text]
  • Frith, U. (1974). A curious effect of reversed letters explained by a theory of schema. Perception and Psychophysics, 16, 113-116.[ Full text]
  • Frith, C.D., & Frith, U. (1972). The Solitaire Illusion: An illusion of numerosity. Perception and Psychophysics, 11, 409-410.[ Full text]

External linksEdit

Her lab site is Uta Frith's lab

Her husband Chris Frith is also a leading neuroscientist.

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