Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
- Main article: Mental disorder
A major option for many mental disorders is psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is an interpersonal intervention, usually provided by a mental health professional, that employs any of a range of specific psychological techniques. There are several main types. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is used for a wide variety of disorders, based on modifying the patterns of thought and behavior associated with a particular disorder. There are various kinds of CBT therapy, and offshoots such as Dialectical Behavior Therapy. Psychoanalysis, addressing underlying psychic conflicts and defenses, has been a dominant school of psychotherapy and is still in use. Systemic Therapy or Family therapy is sometimes used, addressing a network of relationships as well as an individual themselves. Some psychotherapies are based on a humanistic approach. Some therapies are for a specific disorder only, for example Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy.
Mental health professionals often pick and choose techniques, employing an eclectic or integrative approach tailored to a particular disorder and individual. Much may depend on the therapeutic relationship, and there may be issues of trust, confidentiality and engagement.
Psychiatric medication is also widely used to treat mental disorders. These are licenced psychoactive drugs usually prescribed by a psychiatrist or family doctor. There are several main groups. Antidepressants are used for the treatment of clinical depression as well as often for anxiety and other disorders. Anxiolytics are used, generally shorter-term, for anxiety disorders and related problems such as insomnia. Mood stabilizers are used primarily in bipolar disorder, mainly targeting mania rather than depression. Antipsychotics are used for psychotic disorders, notably in schizophrenia. Stimulants are commonly used, notably for ADHD.
Despite the different conventional names of the drug groups, there can be considerable overlap in the kinds of disorders for which they are actually indicated. There may also be off-label use. There can be problems with adverse effects and adherence.
Electroconvulsive therapy ECT is sometimes used, for example in prolonged mood disorder unresponsive to other interventions. Psychosurgery, including Deep brain stimulation, is another available treatment for some disorders.
Lifestyle adjustments and supportive measures are often used, including peer support, self-help and supported housing or employment. Some advocate dietary supplements. Many things have been found to help at least some people. A placebo effect may play a role.
Often an individual may engage in different treatment modalities and use various mental health services. These may be under case management (sometimes referred to as "service coordination"), use inpatient or day treatment, utilize a psychosocial rehabilitation program, and/or take part in an Assertive Community Treatment program.
Mental health services may be based in hospitals, clinics or the community.
In America, half of people with severe symptoms of a mental health condition were found to have received no treatment in the prior 12 months.
Fear of disclosure, rejection by friends, and ultimately discrimination are a few reasons why people with mental health conditions often don't seek help.[How to reference and link to summary or text]
List of treatments
- Somatotherapy (type of pharmacotherapy; biology-based treatment)
- Psychotherapy (psychology-based treatment)
- Gazzaniga, M.S., & Heatherton, T.F. (2006). Psychological Science. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
- National Institute of Mental Health. (2006, January 31). Information about Mental Illness and the Brain. Retrieved April 19, 2007, from http://science-education.nih.gov/supplements/nih5/Mental/guide/info-mental-c.htm
- Crawford, Mike J., Talwar, Nakul, et al. (November 2006). Music therapy for in-patients with schizophrenia: Exploratory randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry (2006) 189: 405-409.
- Repper, J. & Perkins, R. (2006) Social Inclusion and Recovery: A Model for Mental Health Practice. Bailliere Tindall, UK. ISBN 0702026018
- America's Mental Health Survey, National Mental Health Association, 2001.
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|