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Topography, a term in geography, has come to refer to the "lie of the land", or the geographic characteristics of land in terms of elevation, slope, and orientation. "Terrain" is a similar concept, used more to describe the land itself than the study of it. "Relief" is often used to refer to the third dimension of a map whether in actuality (as in a "raised relief" map, or drawn, as with contours, or shading) or the territory it describes.
Psychology and topography
Amongst the issues of interest to psychololgists are related to how people and animals recognise and remember topographic cues and use these to navigate. An additional puzzle is how people read maps and are then able to produce models of the topography.
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