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Psychology: Debates · Journals · Psychologists

This is a timeline of psychology.

See history of psychology for a description of the development of the subject, and psychology for a general description of the subject.

Also see timeline of psychotherapy.

Ancient history - B.C.E.[edit | edit source]

  • ca. 1550 BCE - The Ebers Papyrus briefly mentioned clinical depression.
  • ca. 600 BCE - Many cities had temples to Asklepios that provided cures for psychosomatic illnesses.[1]
  • 460 BC - 370 BCE - Hippocrates introduced principles of scientific medicine based upon observation and logic, and denied the influence of spirits and demons in diseases.[2][3]
  • 387 BCE - Plato suggested that the brain is the seat of mental processes. Plato's view of the "soul" (self) is that the body exists to serve the soul: "God created the soul before the body and gave it precedence both in time and value, and made it the dominating and controlling partner." from Timaeus[4]
  • ca. 350 BCE – Aristotle wrote on the psuchê (soul) in De Anima, first mentioning the Tabula Rasa concept of the mind.
  • ca. 340 BCE - Praxagoras
  • 123-43 BCE - Themison was a pupil of Asclepiades of Bithynia and founded a school of medical thought known as "methodism." He was criticized by Soranus for his cruel handling of mental patients. Among his prescriptions were darkness, restraint by chains, and deprivation of food and drink. Juvenal satirized him and suggested that he killed more patients than he cured.[2]
  • ca. 100 BCE – The Dead Sea Scrolls noted the division of human nature into two temperaments.[citation needed]

Ancient history - C.E.[edit | edit source]

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First century[edit | edit source]

  • ca. 50 - Aulus Cornelius Celsus died, leaving De Medicina, a medical encyclopedia; Book 3 covers mental diseases. The term insania, insanity, was first used by him. The methods of treatment included bleeding, frightening the patient, emetics, enemas, total darkness, and decoctions of poppy or henbane, and pleasant ones such as music therapy, travel, sport, reading aloud, and massage. He was aware of the importance of the doctor-patient relationship.[2]
  • ca. 100 - Rufus of Ephesus believed that the nervous system was instrumental in voluntary movement and sensation. He discovered the optic chiasma by anatomical studies of the brain. He stressed taking a history of both physical and mental disorders. He gave a detailed account of melancholia, and was quoted by Galen.[2]
  • 93-138 - Soranus of Ephesus advised kind treatment in healthy and comfortable conditions, including light, warm rooms.[2]

Second century[edit | edit source]

  • ca. 130-200 - Galen "was schooled in all the psychological systems of the day: Platonic, Aristotelian, Stoic, and Epicurean"[3]
  • ca. 150-200 - Aretaeus of Cappadocia[3]

Third century[edit | edit source]

  • 205-270 Plotinus wrote Enneads a systematic account of Neoplatonist philosophy, also nature of visual perception and how memory might work.[4]

Fourth century[edit | edit source]

Fifth century[edit | edit source]

  • 5th century - Caelius Aurelianus opposed harsh methods of handling the insane, and advocated humane treatment.[2]
  • ca. 423-529 - Theodosius the Cenobiarch founded a monastery at Kathismus, near Bethlehem. Three hospitals were built by the side of the monastery: one for the sick, one for the aged, and one for the insane.[2]
  • ca. 451 - Patriarch Nestorius of Constantinople: his followers dedicated themselves to the sick and became physicians of great repute. They brought the works of Hippocrates, Aristotle, and Galen, and influenced the approach to physical and mental disorders in Persia and Arabia[2]

Seventh century[edit | edit source]

  • 625-690 - Paul of Aegina suggested that hysteria should be treated by ligature of the limbs, and mania by tying the patient to a mattress placed inside a wicker basket and suspended from the ceiling. He also recommended baths, wine, special diets, and sedatives for the mentally ill. He described the following mental disorders: phrenitis, delirium, lethargus, melancholia, mania, incubus, lycanthropy, and epilepsy

Eighth century[edit | edit source]

Ninth century[edit | edit source]

Tenth century[edit | edit source]

  • ca. 900 – The concept of mental health (mental hygiene) was introduced by Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi. He also recognized that illnesses can have both psychological and/or physiological causes.[7]
  • ca. 900 – al-Razi (Rhazes) recognized the concept of "psychotherapy" and referred to it as al-‘ilaj al-nafs.[8]

Eleventh century[edit | edit source]

Twelfth century[edit | edit source]

Thirteenth century[edit | edit source]

  • ca. 1180-1245 Alexander of Hales
  • ca. 1190 -1249 William of Auvergne
  • 1215 -1277 Peter Juliani taught in the medical faculty of the University of Siena, and wrote on medical, philosophical and psychological topics. He personal physician to Pope Gregory X and later became archbishop and cardinal. He was elected pope under the name John XXI in 1276.[4][11]
  • ca. 1214–1294 Roger Bacon
  • 1221 – 1274 Bonaventure
  • 1193 – 1280 Albertus Magnus
  • 1225 – Thomas Aquinas
  • 1240 - Bartholomeus Anglicus published De Proprietatibus Rerum, which included a dissertation on the brain, recognizing that mental disorders can have a physical or psychological cause.
  • 1247 - Bethlehem Royal Hospital in Bishopsgate outside the wall of London, one of the most famous old psychiatric hospitals was founded as a priory of the Order of St. Mary of Bethlem to collect alms for Crusaders; after the English government secularized it, it started admitting mental patients by 1377 (1403?), becoming known as Bedlam Hospital; in 1547 it was acquired by the City of London, operating until 1948; it is now part of the British NHS Foundation Trust.[12]
  • 1266 – 1308 Duns Scotus
  • ca. 1270 - Witelo wrote Perspectiva, a work on optics containing speculations on psychology, nearly discovering the subconscious.
  • 1295 Lanfranc writes Science of Cirurgie[4]

Fourteenth century[edit | edit source]

  • 1347-50 - The Black Death devastated Europe.
  • ca. 1375 - English authorities regarded mental illness as demonic possession, treating it with exorcism and torture.[13]

Fifteenth century[edit | edit source]

  • ca. 1400 - Renaissance Humanism caused a reawakening of ancient knowledge of science and medicine.
  • 1433-1499 Marsilio Ficino was a renowned figure of the Italian Renaissance, a Neoplatonist humanist, a translator of Greek philosophical writing, and the most influential exponent of Platonism in Italy in the fifteenth century.[3]
  • ca. 1450 - The pendulum in Europe swings, bringing Witch Mania, causing thousands of women to be executed for witchcraft until the late 17th century.

Sixteenth century[edit | edit source]

  • 1590 – Scholastic philosopher Rudolph Goclenius coined the term "psychology"; though usually regarded as the origin of the term, there is evidence that it was used at least six decades earlier by Marko Marulić.

Seventeenth century[edit | edit source]

Eighteenth century[edit | edit source]

  • 1781 - Immanuel Kant published Critique of Pure Reason, rejecting Hume's extreme empiricism and proposing that there is more to knowledge than bare sense experience, distinguishing between "a posteriori" and "a priori" knowledge, the former being derived from perception, hence occurring after perception, and the latter being a property of thought, independent of experience and existing before experience.

Nineteenth century[edit | edit source]

1800s[edit | edit source]

  • ca. 1800 - Franz Joseph Gall developed Cranioscopy, the measurement of the skull to determine psychological characteristics, which was later renamed Phrenology; it is now discredited.
  • 1807 - Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel published Phenomenology of Spirit (Mind), which describes his Thesis-Antithesis-Synthesis dialectical method, according to which knowledge pushes forwards to greater certainty, and ultimately towards knowledge of the noumenal world.

1810s[edit | edit source]

1820s[edit | edit source]

1840s[edit | edit source]

1850s[edit | edit source]

1860s[edit | edit source]

1870s[edit | edit source]

1880s[edit | edit source]

1890s[edit | edit source]

Twentieth century[edit | edit source]

1900s[edit | edit source]

1910s[edit | edit source]

1920s[edit | edit source]

1930s[edit | edit source]

1940s[edit | edit source]

1950s[edit | edit source]

1960s[edit | edit source]

1970s[edit | edit source]

1980s[edit | edit source]

1990s[edit | edit source]

Twenty-first century[edit | edit source]

2000s[edit | edit source]

2010s[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Silverberg, Robert (1967). The dawn of medicine, Putnam. URL accessed 21 April 2013.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 (1984) A reference companion to the history of abnormal psychology, Greenwood Press. URL accessed 3 November 2012. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "HowellsOsborn1984" defined multiple times with different content
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Radden, Jennifer (2002-04-04). The Nature of Melancholy: From Aristotle to Kristeva, Oxford University Press. URL accessed 2 November 2012.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Kemp, Simon (1990). Medieval psychology: Simon Kemp, Greenwood Press. URL accessed 27 April 2013.
  5. Henry Chadwick, Augustine (Oxford, 1986), p.3.
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  7. (2005). Mental health in Islamic medical tradition. The International Medical Journal 4 (2): 76–79.
  8. Haque, Amber (2004). Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists. Journal of Religion and Health 43 (4): 357–377 [376].
  9. S Safavi-Abbasi, LBC Brasiliense, RK Workman (2007), "The fate of medical knowledge and the neurosciences during the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongolian Empire", Neurosurgical Focus 23 (1), E13, p. 3.
  10. Muhammad Iqbal, The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, "The Spirit of Muslim Culture" (cf. [2] and [3])
  11. (2009-01-01) Handbook to Life in the Medieval World, 3-Volume Set, 480–, Infobase Publishing. URL accessed 28 April 2013.
  12. Shorter, E. (1997)
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  15. Benjamin Rush - Medical Inquiries and Observations, Upon Diseases of the Mind
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  17. Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind - Vol. 1 by James Mill | Questia, Your Online Research Library
  18. Classics in the History of Psychology - Dewey (1896)
  19. Timeline - Psychology's Feminist Voices
  21. Review of Foundations of Normal and Abnormal Psychology
  22. Melanie Klein Facts, information, pictures | articles about Melanie Klein
  23. Ганнушкин П. Б. (2000). Клиника психопатий, их статика, динамика, систематика. Издательство Нижегородской государственной медицинской академии. ISBN 5-86093-015-1.
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  26. American Psychosomatic Society
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  30. Hitler's Euthanasia Decree
  31. Paris, Karen Horney: a psychoanalyst's search. Part 5. Horney's mature theory.
  32. Eysenck, H. J. (1952). The effects of psychotherapy: An evaluation.. Journal of Consulting Psychology 16 (5): 319–324.
  33. Lambert, M. J.; Bergin, A. E., & Garfield, S. L.. "Introduction and Historical Overview" Lambert, M. J. Bergin and Garfield's Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change, 3–15, John Wiley & Sons.
  34. Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct
  35. Humanistic psychology - John Cohen - Google Boeken
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  37. Bion, W. R. (1962) A theory of thinking, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, vol.43
  38. Tomkins, S. (1962). Affect Imagery Consciousness: The Positive Affects (Vol. 1). New York: Springer
  39. California Social Work Hall of Distinction
  40. Webster University
  41. 41.00 41.01 41.02 41.03 41.04 41.05 41.06 41.07 41.08 41.09 41.10 41.11 41.12 41.13 Timeline - Psychology's Feminist Voices
  42. Main M, Solomon J (1986). "Discovery of an insecure disoriented attachment pattern: procedures, findings and implications for the classification of behavior". Affective Development in Infancy. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. ISBN 0-89391-345-6. 
  43. 43.0 43.1 Bayer, Ronald (1987). Homosexuality and American Psychiatry: The Politics of Diagnosis, Princeton: Princeton University Press.Template:Page needed
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  47. The Quantum Psychology Project®
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  51. Личко А. Е. Психопатии и акцентуации характера у подростков. — Речь, 2010. — ISBN 978-5-9268-0828-6.
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  62. Plomin, R., McLearn, G.E. (1992) Nature, Nurture, and Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
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