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The therapeutic environment is the environment in which treatment is conducted. The therapeutic environmnet may itself be a source of the improvement achieved through the therapy. See, for example, in milieu therapy.

In creating a therapeutic environment one should be mindful not only of the physical environment but also the institutional, psychological and social environmnent in which treatment occur.

Institutional environment[edit | edit source]

The facility environment and treatment facilities often set the tone for how therapy is conducted.

Physical environment[edit | edit source]

Psychological environment[edit | edit source]

Social environment[edit | edit source]

The environment in individual therapy[edit | edit source]

The environment in group therapy[edit | edit source]

The environment in family therapy[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References & Bibliography[edit | edit source]


Key texts[edit | edit source]

Books[edit | edit source]

  • Benninghoven, D., Krebeck, S., & Bohlen, U. (2005). The Context of Family Assessment. Ashland, OH: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.
  • Brabender, V., & Fallon, A. (1993). Dimensions of the inpatient setting. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Brabender, V., & Fallon, A. (1993). The seven models: A comparative analysis. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Carson, S. H., & Langer, E. J. (2004). Mindful Practice for Clinicians and Patients. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Chafetz, P. K., & Namazi, K. H. (2003). Structuring environments for people with cognitive impairment. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
  • Dishion, T. J., & Stormshak, E. A. (2007). The Ecology of the Child and Family Therapist. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Knapp, S. J., & VandeCreek, L. D. (2006). Multiple relationships and professional boundaries. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Kraus, J. E., & Stroup, T. S. (2006). Treatment of Schizophrenia in the Public Sector. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
  • Kushnir-Barash, N. (2003). Working as a Psychoanalyst in the Midst of Violence and Terror. New York, NY: Pace University Press.
  • Pachana, N. A. (2002). Designing therapeutic environments for residential care facilities. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Piper, W. E., Rosie, J. S., Joyce, A. S., & Azim, H. F. A. (1996). The psychosocial environment as a predictor of outcome in the day treatment program. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Randall, K. W., & Salem, D. A. (2005). Mutual-Help Groups and Recovery: The Influence of Settings on Participants' Experience of Recovery. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Ransom, S. (2006). The Eden Alternative: Nurturing the Human Spirit in Long-Term Care. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
  • Reinstein, D. K. (2006). To hold and be held: The therapeutic school as a holding environment. New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Timimi, S., & Moody, E. (2006). Adolescent in-patient units: Changing the therapeutic philosophy. London, England: Free Association Books.
  • Toran, R., & King, H. (2007). Building trust in the clinician's office and at the bedside. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Papers[edit | edit source]

Additional material[edit | edit source]

Books[edit | edit source]

  • Burnett, K. (2001). Self-help or sink-or-swim? The experience of residents in a UK concept-based therapeutic community. London, England: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  • Carman, J. (2006). Therapeutic Gardens. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
  • Cloitre, M., Cohen, L. R., & Koenen, K. C. (2006). Treating survivors of childhood abuse: Psychotherapy for the interrupted life. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Epstein, N. B., & Baucom, D. H. (2002). Conducting couples therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Firestone, R. W., & Catlett, J. (1986). The psychotherapeutic community. New York, NY: Human Sciences Press.
  • Granger, B. P., & Kogan, L. R. (2006). Characteristics of animal-assisted therapy/activity in specialized settings. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
  • Heller, L. (2003). Using dementia care mapping in health and social care settings. Baltimore, MD: Health Professions Press.
  • Innes, A. (2003). Using dementia care mapping data for care planning purposes. Baltimore, MD: Health Professions Press.
  • Janet, P., Guthrie, H. M., & Guthrie, E. R. (1924). Principles of psychotherapy. New York, NY: MacMillan Co.
  • Llewellyn, R. (2002). Sanity and sanctity: The counselor and multiple relationships in the church. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
  • McNeil, D. W., Sorrell, J. T., & Vowles, K. E. (2006). Emotional and Environmental Determinants of Dental Pain. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Parlett, M., & Lee, R. G. (2005). Contemporary gestalt therapy: Field theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Raimo, S. (2001). Democratic and concept-based therapeutic communities and the development of community therapy. London, England: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  • Rosqvist, J., Sundsmo, A., MacLane, C., Cullen, K., & Cartinella, J. (2005). Outside the Office Walls: Ecological Relevance in the Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Biomedical Books.
  • Savarimuthu, D. (2005). Can the 'Snoezelen' Affect Self-Injurious Behaviour? A Case Study. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
  • Schwekbe, S., & Gryski, C. (2003). Gravity and levity--pain and play: The child and the clown in the pediatric health care setting. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • Schneider, C. D., & O'Brien, D. E. (2001). Opportunities for clarity, understanding, and choice: The practice of divorce mediation. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Smith, D. C., Larson, J. D., DeBaryshe, B., & Salzman, M. (2000). Anger management for youths: What works and for whom? Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
  • Senroy, S., & Senroy, P. (2007). Rediscover, reclaim and rejoice: The Sesame approach of drama and movement therapy with exploited girls in India. London, England: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  • Stewart, K., & Schneider, S. (2000). The effects of music therapy on the sound environment in the NICU: A pilot study. New York, NY: The Louis & Lucille Armstrong Music Therapy Program.
  • Volkan, V. D. (2004). After the Violence: The Internal World and Linking Objects of a Refugee Family. Mahwah, NJ: Analytic Press.
  • Weisz, J. R., & Addis, M. E. (2006). The Research-Practice Tango and Other Choreographic Challenges: Using and Testing Evidence-Based Psychotherapies in Clinical Care Settings. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Zur, O. (2002). Out-of-office experience: When crossing office boundaries and engaging in dual relationships are clinically beneficial and ethically sound. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
  • Zur, O. (2007). The Home Office Practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Zur, O. (2007). Space for Therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Zur, O., & Gonzalez, S. (2002). Multiple relationships in military psychology. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.

Papers[edit | edit source]

Allen, J. R., & Hammond, D. (2003). Groups within Groups: Fractals and the Successes and Failure of a Child Inpatient Psychiatric Unit: Transactional Analysis Journal Vol 33(4) Oct 2003, 302-314.

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  • Salokangas, R. K. R., Honkonen, T., Stengard, E., & Koivisto, A.-M. (2002). Symptom dimensions and their association with outcome and treatment setting in long-term schizophrenia: Results of the DSP project: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry Vol 56(5) 2002, 319-327.
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Dissertations[edit | edit source]

  • Babson, L. J. C. (2008). Effectiveness of self-monitoring of negative self-statements with chronic pain patients. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Berry-Harris, T. A. (2008). Examining therapists' perceptions of confidentiality across various therapeutic environments, professional organizations, and client development (an exploratory study). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Dinapoli, V. A. (2008). Alterations in JAK/STAT signaling pathway and blood-brain barrier function: Mechanisms underlying worsened outcome following stroke in the aged rat. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Dudley, W. C. (2000). The effects of ward atmosphere on the therapeutic alliance. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Greene, P. E. (2005). The lived experience of psychiatric-mental health nurses who work with suicidal adolescents in inpatient psychiatric settings. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Gross, P. S. (2008). Biological children in therapeutic foster families: A phenomenological study. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Hartjes, D. T. (2004). The honeymoon period: An exploratory study. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • La Chance, C. P. (2008). Supporting the therapeutic environment: A program plan for training direct care staff within the shelter care environment. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Mitchell, K. N. (2003). Cultural knowing: A means to therapeutic alliance between White and African-American women. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Seo, M.-Y. (2008). Therapeutic and developmental design: The relationship between spatial enclosure and impaired elder-child social interaction. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Solomon-Mazzanti, A. (2000). Effects of a staff growth group on the therapeutic atmosphere of an adult female admissions unit. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Wentzel, E. G. (2008). The relationship between IDEIA disability identification and the developmental assets: Implications for a therapeutic setting. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.

External links[edit | edit source]

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