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Social Processes: Methodology · Types of test

Test coaching is the tutoring process of preparing for a psychological assessment by practicing with the tests beforehand. Psychologists are interested in how much such practice affects the result of testing. Such coaching experience is one way of achieving of testwiseness.

See also[]



  • Crocker, L. (2005). Teaching For the Test: How and Why Test Preparation is Appropriate. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Flippo, R. F., Becker, M. J., & Wark, D. M. (2000). Preparing for and taking tests. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Hickling, E. J., Taylor, A. E., Blanchard, E. B., & Devineni, T. (1999). Simulation of motor vehicle accident-related PTSD: Effects of coaching with DSM-IV criteria. New York, NY: Elsevier Science.
  • Hooper, A. C., Cullen, M. J., & Sackett, P. R. (2006). Operational Threats to the Use of SJTs: Faking, Coaching, and Retesting Issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Plake, B. S. (2005). Doesn't Everybody Know That 70% is Passing? Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Suhr, J. A., & Gunstad, J. (2007). Coaching and malingering: A review. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.


Allalouf, A., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1998). The effect of coaching on the predictive validity of scholastic aptitude tests: Journal of Educational Measurement Vol 35(1) Spr 1998, 31-47.

  • Alliger, G. M., & Dwight, S. A. (2000). A meta-analytic investigation of the susceptibility of integrity tests to faking and coaching: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 60(1) Feb 2000, 59-72.
  • Beckert, L., Wilkinson, T. J., & Sainsbury, R. (2003). A needs-based study and examination skills course improves students' performance: Medical Education Vol 37(5) May 2003, 424-428.
  • Bents, R., & Ilona, E. (2007). Questionnaires in organizational consulting and coaching: Pszichoterapia Vol 16(4) Aug 2007, 222-255.
  • Berry, C. M., Sackett, P. R., & Wiemann, S. (2007). A review of recent developments in integrity test research: Personnel Psychology Vol 60(2) Sum 2007, 271-301.
  • Bloemers, W. (2007). The smart applicant: Effects of test preparation and coaching on intelligence tests: Psycholoog Vol 42(3) Mar 2007, 138-144.
  • Briggs, D. C. (2005). Meta-Analysis: A Case Study: Evaluation Review Vol 29(2) Apr 2005, 87-127.
  • Burns, G. N., Siers, B. P., & Christiansen, N. D. (2008). Effects of providing pre-test information and preparation materials on applicant reactions to selection procedures: International Journal of Selection and Assessment Vol 16(1) Mar 2008, 73-77.
  • Chaleff, C., & Toranzo, N. (2000). Helping our students meet the standards through test preparation classes: American Annals of the Deaf Vol 145(1) Mar 2000, 33-40.
  • Coleman, R. D., Rapport, L. J., Millis, S. R., Ricker, J. H., & Farchione, T. J. (1998). Effects of coaching on detection of malingering on the California Verbal Learning Test: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology Vol 20(2) Apr 1998, 201-210.
  • DiCarlo, M. A., Gfeller, J. D., & Oliveri, M. V. (2000). Effects of coaching on detecting feigned cognitive impairment with the Category Test: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology Vol 15(5) Jul 2000, 399-413.
  • Dunn, T. M., Shear, P. K., Howe, S., & Ris, M. D. (2003). Detecting neuropsychological malingering: Effects of coaching and information: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology Vol 18(2) Mar 2003, 121-134.
  • Erdal, K. (2004). The effects of motivation, coaching, and knowledge of neuropsychology on the simulated malingering of head injury: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology Vol 19(1) Jan 2004, 73-88.
  • Feldstein, S., Durham, R. L., Keller, F. R., Klebe, K., & Davis, H. P. (2000). Classification of malingerers on a nondeclarative memory task as a function of coaching and task difficulty: American Journal of Forensic Psychology Vol 18(2) 2000, 57-78.
  • Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Karns, K., Hamlett, C. L., Dutka, S., & Katzaroff, M. (2000). The importance of providing background information on the structure and scoring of performance assessments: Applied Measurement in Education Vol 13(1) 2000, 1-34.
  • Gervais, R. O., Green, P., Allen Iii, L. M., & Iverson, G. L. (2001). Effects of coaching on symptom validity testing in chronic pain patients presenting for disability assessments: Journal of Forensic Neuropsychology Vol 2(2) 2001, 1-19.
  • Green, A. (2006). Watching for washback: Observing the influence of the International English Language Testing System Academic Writing test in the classroom: Language Assessment Quarterly Vol 3(4) 2006, 333-368.
  • Gunstad, J., & Suhr, J. A. (2001). Efficacy of the full and abbreviated forms of the Portland Digit Recognition Test: Vulnerability to coaching: Clinical Neuropsychologist Vol 15(3) Aug 2001, 397-404.
  • Hager, W., & Hasselhorn, M. (1997). Retest effects and effects of developmental changes on the CFT 1 Score in testing first grade children: Zeitschrift fur Psychologie mit Zeitschrift fur angewandte Psychologie Vol 205(2) 1997, 205-229.
  • Hardison, C. M., & Sackett, P. R. (2008). Use of writing samples on standardized tests: Susceptibility to rule-based coaching and the resulting effects on score improvement: Applied Measurement in Education Vol 21(3) Jul-Sep 2008, 227-252.
  • Heil, M. C., Detwiler, C. A., Agen, R., Williams, C. A., Agnew, B. O., & King, R. E. (2002). The effects of practice and coaching on the Air Traffic Selection and Training test battery: FAA Office of Aviation Medicine Reports DOT/FAA/AM-02/24 Dec 2002, 1-8, A1-A2.
  • Hurtz, G. M., & Alliger, G. M. (2002). Influence of coaching on integrity test performance and unlikely virtues scale scores: Human Performance Vol 15(3) Sep 2002, 255-273.
  • Jelicic, M., Merckelbach, H., Candel, I., & Geraerts, E. (2007). Detection of feigned cognitive dysfunction using special malinger tests: A simulation study in naive and coached malingerers: International Journal of Neuroscience Vol 117(8) Aug 2007, 1185-1192.
  • Kenny, D. T., & Faunce, G. (2004). Effects of academic coaching on elementary and secondary school students: Journal of Educational Research Vol 98(2) Nov-Dec 2004, 115-126.
  • Kunde, K., & Rimmer, J. H. (2000). Effects of pacing Vs. nonpacing on a one-mile walk test in adults with mental retardation: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly Vol 17(4) Oct 2000, 413-420.
  • Martinez-Cardenoso, J., Muniz, J., & Garcia Cueto, E. (2000). Coaching effects on test scores: Psicothema Vol 12(Suppl2) 2000, 363-367.
  • Nijenhuis, J. t., Voskuijl, O. F., & Schijve, N. B. (2001). Practice and coaching on IQ tests: Quite a lot of g: International Journal of Selection and Assessment Vol 9(4) Dec 2001, 302-308.
  • Powers, D. E., & Rock, D. A. (1999). Effects of coaching on SAT I: Reasoning Test scores: Journal of Educational Measurement Vol 36(2) Sum 1999, 93-118.
  • Robie, C., Curtin, P. J., Foster, T. C., Phillips, H. L. I. V., Zbylut, M., & Tetrick, L. E. (2000). The effects of coaching on the utility of response latencies in detecting fakers on a personality measure: Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement Vol 32(4) Oct 2000, 226-233.
  • Rose, F. E., Hall, S., & Szalda-Petree, A. D. (1998). A comparison of four tests of malingering and the effects of coaching: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology Vol 13(4) May 1998, 349-363.
  • Roznowski, M., & Bassett, J. (1992). Training test-wiseness and flawed item types: Applied Measurement in Education Vol 5(1) 1992, 35-48.
  • Shean, G., Burnett, T., & Eckman, F. S. (2002). Symptoms of schizophrenia and neurocognitive test performance: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 58(7) Jul 2002, 723-731.
  • Storm, J., & Graham, J. R. (2000). Detection of coached general malingering on the MMPI--2: Psychological Assessment Vol 12(2) Jun 2000, 158-165.
  • Strahl, N. R. (2001). Clinical study guide for the oral boards in psychiatry. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
  • Suhr, J. A., & Gunstad, J. (2000). The effects of coaching on the sensitivity and specificity of malingering measures: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology Vol 15(5) Jul 2000, 415-424.
  • Victor, T. L., & Abeles, N. (2004). Coaching Clients to Take Psychological and Neuropsychological Tests: A Clash of Ethical Obligations: Professional Psychology: Research and Practice Vol 35(4) Aug 2004, 373-379.
  • Vrij, A., Akehurst, L., Soukara, S., & Bull, R. (2002). Will the truth come out?: The effect of deception, age, status, coaching, and social skills on CBCA scores: Law and Human Behavior Vol 26(3) Jun 2002, 261-284.
  • Zickar, M. J., & Robie, C. (1999). Modeling faking good on personality items: An item-level analysis: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 84(4) Aug 1999, 551-563.
  • Zimmerman, B. J., Bonner, S., & Kovach, R. (1996). Goal 5: Developing test anticipation and preparation skills. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


  • Huskey, M. L. (2006). The experience of malingering: Test performance, coaching, personal knowledge, strategies, and face validity. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Joseph, M. W. (2004). A detailed and comprehensive operationalization of SAT coaching and an analysis of coaching efficacy. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Luebbe, D. M. (2005). The three-way mirror of executive coaching. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Olsen, C. M. (2006). Potential coaching clients and their perceptions of helpful coaching behaviors: A Q-methodological study. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Tian, S.-P. (2000). TOEFL reading comprehension: Strategies used by Taiwanese students with coaching-school training. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Turner, C. A. (2004). Executive coaching: The perception of executive coaching from the executive's perspective. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Vunovich, P. L. (1997). Fluency training on quantitative skills tested by the Graduate Record Examination. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.