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A teaching assistant (TA) (or paraprofessional educator, para-pros, instructional assistants or classroom assistants, is an individual who assists a teacher with instructional responsibilities. The role in higher education is somewhat different see: Teaching assistant in higher education

In UKEdit




Use with different categories of childrenEdit

Use in teaching in mental retardationEdit

Use in the teaching of pupils with learning difficultiesEdit

See alsoEdit



Further readingEdit


  • Brookson, M. (2006). Working as a teaching assistant. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.
  • Mendenhall, M. E. (1996). The foreign teaching assistant as expatriate manager. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Nyquist, J. D., & Wulff, D. H. (1996). Working effectively with graduate assistants. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Scharff, L. F. V. (2006). Using Teaching Assistants Effectively. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Scott, J. (1996). Recruiting, selecting, and training teaching assistants. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
  • Wortman, C. B., & Smyth, J. M. (1997). Using one's own passion and undergraduate TAs to transform the large-lecture introductory psychology course. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


  • Aanes, D., & Haagenson, L. (1978). Normalization: Attention to a conceptual disaster: Mental Retardation Vol 16(1) Feb 1978, 55-56.
  • Aird, R. (2000). The case for specialist training for learning support assistants employed in schools for children with severe, profound and multiple learning difficulties: Support for Learning Vol 15(3) Aug 2000, 106-110.
  • Allen, W. H. (1975). Intellectual abilities and instructional media design: AV Communication Review Vol 23(2) Sum 1975, 139-170.
  • Baker, L. M. (2008). Finding the balance: Review of Teachers and assistants working together: International Journal of Disability, Development and Education Vol 55(1) Mar 2008, 83-87.
  • Batarseh, G., & Cicenia, E. (1972). Teacher education at a residential facility for the retarded: Education & Training of the Mentally Retarded Vol 7(2) Apr 1972, 104-106.
  • Bernal, C. h., & Aragon, L. (2004). Critical Factors Affecting the Success of Paraprofessionals in the First Two Years of Career Ladder Projects in Colorado: Remedial and Special Education Vol 25(4) Jul-Aug 2004, 205-213.
  • Berrian, D. A. (1987). Special educator absenteeism as a function of selected characteristics: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Black, D. B., Bunyan, L. W., & Black, E. K. (1976). The effects of senior students as teacher aides with special reference to teaching behaviour: Alberta Journal of Educational Research Vol 22(2) Jun 1976, 140-148.
  • Boeding, C. H., & Kitchener, K. S. (1976). Training students to lead discussion groups: Journal of College Student Personnel Vol 17(5) Sep 1976, 391-395.
  • Bowers, T. (1997). Supporting special needs in the mainstream classroom: Children's perceptions of the adult role: Child: Care, Health and Development Vol 23(3) May 1997, 217-232.
  • Branstetter, S. A., & Handelsman, M. M. (2000). Graduate teaching assistants: Ethical training, beliefs, and practices: Ethics & Behavior Vol 10(1) 2000, 27-50.
  • Breyer, N. L., & Pollack, B. (1971). Behavioral consultation within the existing public school system: SALT: School Applications of Learning Theory Vol 4(1) Oct 1971, 2-13.
  • Buskist, W. (2000). Common mistakes made by graduate teaching assistants and suggestions for correcting them: Teaching of Psychology Vol 27(4) Fal 2000, 280-282.
  • Chavez, R., & Chesterfield, R. A. (1985). Teacher language use in a bilingual preschool setting: International Journal of the Sociology of Language No 53 1985, 83-97.
  • Chopra, R. V., & French, N. K. (2004). Paraeducator Relationships with Parents of Students with Significant Disabilities: Remedial and Special Education Vol 25(4) Jul-Aug 2004, 240-251.
  • Chopra, R. V., Sandoval-Lucero, E., Aragon, L., Bernal, C., De Balderas, H. B., & Carroll, D. (2004). The Paraprofessional Role of Connector: Remedial and Special Education Vol 25(4) Jul-Aug 2004, 219-231.
  • Clayton, T. (1993). Welfare assistants in the classroom: Problems and solutions: AEP (Association of Educational Psychologists) Journal Vol 8(4) Jan 1993, 191-197.
  • Cohen, P. A., Kulik, J. A., & Kulik, C.-l. C. (1982). Education outcomes of tutoring: A meta-analysis of findings: American Educational Research Journal Vol 19(2) Sum 1982, 237-248.
  • Cowen, E. L., Dorr, D. A., & Pokracki, F. (1972). Selection of nonprofessional child aides for a school mental health project: Community Mental Health Journal Vol 8(3) Aug 1972, 220-226.
  • Cremin, H., Thomas, G., & Vincett, K. (2003). Learning zones: An evaluation of three models for improving learning through teacher/teaching assistant teamwork: Support for Learning Vol 18(4) Nov 2003, 154-161.
  • Daly, B. (2006). Review of Teachers and assistants: Working together: Educational Psychology in Practice Vol 22(2) Jun 2006, 175-176.
  • Darr, R. F., & Arms, W. E. (1972). The California Test of Personality as a measure of change in the personality structure of teacher-aides in a 2-week workshop: Journal of Experimental Education Vol 41(1) Fal 1972, 9-11.
  • Dew-Hughes, D., Brayton, H., & Blandford, S. (1998). A survey of training and professional development for learning support assistants: Support for Learning Vol 13(4) Nov 1998, 179-183.
  • Durlak, J. A. (1973). Ninth graders as student aides: Making use of the helper therapy principle: Psychology in the Schools Vol 10(3) 1973, 334-339.
  • Ediger, M. (2003). Paraprofessionals in reading: Journal of Instructional Psychology Vol 30(1) Mar 2003, 93-96.
  • Escudero, G. R., & Sears, J. (1982). Teachers' and aides' perceptions of their responsibilities when teaching severely and profoundly handicapped students: Education & Training of the Mentally Retarded Vol 17(3) Oct 1982, 190-195.
  • Evans, J. (1975). A Comparative Study of Four Aids to Instruction in Teaching Music with Children of 8-9 Years of Age: Psychology of Music Vol 3(1) Apr 1975, 36-39.
  • Eyres, I., Cable, C., Hancock, R., & Turner, J. (2004). 'Whoops, I forgot David': Children's perceptions of the adults who work in their classrooms: Early Years An International Journal of Research and Development Vol 24(2) Sep 2004, 149-162.
  • Fabrega, C. C. (1978). Procedure in establishing a learning center for the severely handicapped: Education Vol 99(1) Fal 1978, 31-35.
  • Farrell, P., Balshaw, M., & Polat, F. (2000). The work of learning support assistants in mainstream schools: Implications for educational psychologists: Educational and Child Psychology Vol 17(2) 2000, 66-76.
  • Farrell, P., & Sugden, M. (1984). An evaluation of an EDY course in behavioural techniques for classroom assistants in a school for children with severe learning difficulties: Educational Psychology Vol 4(3) 1984, 185-198.
  • Fox, G. (2003). Review of Supporting children with behaviour difficulties--A guide for assistants in schools: British Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 73(1) Mar 2003, 138-139.
  • Frelow, R. D., Charry, J., & Freilich, B. (1974). Academic progress and behavioral changes in low achieving pupils: Journal of Educational Research Vol 67(6) Feb 1974, 263-266.
  • French, N. K. (2004). Introduction to the Special Series: Remedial and Special Education Vol 25(4) Jul-Aug 2004, 203-204.
  • Frith, G. H. (1981). Paraprofessionals: A focus on interpersonal skills: Education & Training of the Mentally Retarded Vol 16(4) Dec 1981, 306-309.
  • Frith, G. H., & Kelly, P. (1981). The parent/paraprofessional relationship in programs for severely and profoundly retarded children: Education & Training of the Mentally Retarded Vol 16(3) Oct 1981, 231-234.
  • Fullerton, S. (1973). Self-concept changes of junior high students: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 20(5) Sep 1973, 493-494.
  • Gerber, S. B., Finn, J. D., Achilles, C. M., & Boyd-Zaharias, J. (2001). Teacher aides and students' academic achievement: Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis Vol 23(2) Sum 2001, 123-143.
  • Gipps, C. (1982). Nursery nurses and nursery teachers: I. Their assessment of children's verbal-social behaviour: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry Vol 23(3) Jul 1982, 237-254.
  • Gipps, C. (1982). Nursery nurses and nursery teachers: II. Their attitudes towards pre-school children and their parents: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry Vol 23(3) Jul 1982, 255-265.
  • Godwin, D. C. (1977). The bilingual teacher aide: Classroom asset: The Elementary School Journal Vol 77(4) Mar 1977, 265-267.
  • Goodman, G. (1990). Utilising the paraprofessional in the mainstream: Support for Learning Vol 5(4) Nov 1990, 199-204.
  • Granum, R. A. (1975). Teacher study groups: Do they make a difference? : Elementary School Guidance & Counseling Vol 9(3) Mar 1975, 210-217.
  • Groom, B. (2006). Building relationships for learning: The developing role of the teaching assistant: Support for Learning Vol 21(4) Nov 2006, 199-203.
  • Groom, B., & Rose, R. (2005). Supporting the inclusion of pupils with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties in the primary school: The role of teaching assistants: Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs Vol 5(1) Mar 2005, 20-30.
  • Hansen, L. S. (1993). The Teachers' Aid Shop: Psykologisk Paedagogisk Radgivning Vol 30(3) Jun 1993, 223-231.
  • Haring, K. A., Saren, D., Lovett, D. L., & Shelton, M. N. (1992). A study of the demographic and attitudinal differences between paraprofessionals and teachers in self-contained special education classrooms: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities Vol 4(1) Mar 1992, 51-73.
  • Hughes, M., & Westgate, D. (1997). Assistants as talk-partners in early-years classrooms: Some issues of support and development: Educational Review Vol 49(1) Feb 1997, 5-12.
  • Inglis, M. (1993). The communicator style measure applied to nonnative speaking teaching assistants: International Journal of Intercultural Relations Vol 17(1) Win 1993, 89-105.
  • Jackson, W. K., & Simpson, R. D. (1983). A survey of graduate teaching assistant instructional improvement programs: College Student Journal Vol 17(3) Fal 1983, 220-224.
  • Jenkins, S. (2000). Cultural and linguistic miscues: A case study of international teaching assistant and academic faculty miscommunication: International Journal of Intercultural Relations Vol 24(4) Jul 2000, 477-501.
  • Jensen, J. M., Parsons, M. B., & Reid, D. H. (1998). Supervisory training for teachers: Multiple, long-term effects in an education program for adults with severe disabilities: Research in Developmental Disabilities Vol 19(6) Nov-Dec 1998, 449-463.
  • Johnson, J. L., & Fleisher, K. (1980). Reactions of teachers of emotionally disturbed children to group relations conferences: A new application of Tavistock training: Journal of Personality & Social Systems Vol 2(2-3) Sep 1980, 11-25.
  • Jones, L. W. (1972). Determining the role of teacher aides through identification of tasks within the psycho-motor, affective, and cognitive skills domains: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Kerry, T. (2005). Towards a typology for conceptualizing the roles of teaching assistants: Educational Review Vol 57(3) Aug 2005, 373-384.
  • Knoff, H. M. (1984). Stimulus control, paraprofessionals, and appropriate playground behavior: School Psychology Review Vol 13(2) Win 1984, 249-253.
  • Lewis, K. C. (2004). Instructional aides: Colleagues or cultural brokers? : The School Community Journal Vol 14(1) Spr-Sum 2004, 91-111.
  • Logan, A. (2006). The role of the special needs assistant supporting pupils with special educational needs in Irish mainstream primary schools: Support for Learning Vol 21(2) May 2006, 92-99.
  • Loos, F. M., Williams, K. P., & Bailey, J. S. (1977). A multi-element analysis of the effect of teacher aides in an "open style" classroom: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 10(3) Fal 1977, 437-448.
  • Martin, L., Wright, J., & Maertens, N. (1996). Introduction of a non-traditional group of students into teacher education: Journal of Instructional Psychology Vol 23(1) Mar 1996, 38-44.
  • Martin-Jones, M., & Saxena, M. (2003). Bilingual Resources and 'Funds of Knowledge' for Teaching and Learning in Multi-ethnic Classrooms in Britain: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism Vol 6(3-4) 2003, 267-282.
  • May, D. C., & Marozas, D. S. (1981). The role of the paraprofessional in educational programs for the severely handicapped: Education & Training of the Mentally Retarded Vol 16(3) Oct 1981, 228-231.
  • McKenzie, R. G., & Houk, C. S. (1986). Use of paraprofessionals in the resource room: Exceptional Children Vol 53(1) Sep 1986, 41-45.
  • McNally, R. D., Cole, P. G., & Waugh, R. F. (2001). Regular teachers' attitudes to the need for additional classroom support for the inclusion of students with intellectual disability: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability Vol 26(3) Sep 2001, 257-273.
  • Meyers, S. A., & Prieto, L. R. (2000). Training in the teaching of psychology: What is done and examining the differences: Teaching of Psychology Vol 27(4) Fal 2000, 258-261.
  • Meyers, S. A., & Prieto, L. R. (2000). Using active learning to improve the training of psychology teaching assistants: Teaching of Psychology Vol 27(4) Fal 2000, 283-284.
  • Minondo, S., Meyer, L. H., & Xin, J. F. (2001). The role and responsibilities of teaching assistants in inclusive education: What's appropriate? : Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps Vol 26(2) Sum 2001, 114-119.
  • Moran, A., & Abbott, L. (2002). Developing inclusive schools: The pivotal role of teaching assistants in promoting inclusion in special and mainstream schools in Northern Ireland: European Journal of Special Needs Education Vol 17(2) Jun 2002, 161-173.
  • Parsonson, B. S., Baer, A. M., & Baer, D. M. (1974). The application of generalized correct social contingencies: An evaluation of a training program: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 7(3) Fal 1974, 427-437.
  • Pearson, S. (2005). Review of A team approach to behaviour management: A training guide for SENCOs working with Teaching Assistants: European Journal of Special Needs Education Vol 20(1) Feb 2005, 121-122.
  • Persons, W. S., Brassell, W. R., & Rollins, H. A. (1976). A practical observation procedure for monitering four behaviors relevant to classroom management: Psychology in the Schools Vol 13(1) Jan 1976, 64-71.
  • Powell, A., & Vega, M. (1972). Correlates of adult locus of control: Psychological Reports Vol 30(2) Apr 1972, 455-460.
  • Prieto, L. R., & Meyers, S. A. (1999). Effects of training and supervision on the self-efficacy of psychology graduate teaching assistants: Teaching of Psychology Vol 26(4) Fal 1999, 264-266.
  • Rayder, N. F., & Body, B. (1975). The educational forces inventory: Psychometric properties: Journal of Experimental Education Vol 44(2) Win 1975, 35-44.
  • Reinoehl, R. B., & Halle, J. W. (1994). Increasing the assessment probe performance of teacher aides through written prompts: Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps Vol 19(1) Spr 1994, 32-42.
  • Richardson, D. C., & Havlicek, L. L. (1975). High school students as reading instructors: The Elementary School Journal Vol 75(6) Mar 1975, 389-393.
  • Rickel, A. U. (1982). Perceptions of adjustment problems in preschool children by teachers and paraprofessional aides: Journal of Community Psychology Vol 10(1) Jan 1982, 29-35.
  • Russell, A., Blatchford, P., Bassett, P., Brown, P., & Martin, C. (2005). The views of teaching assistants in English key stage 2 classes on their role, training and job satisfaction: Educational Research Vol 47(2) Jun 2005, 175-189.
  • Schepis, M. M., Ownbey, J. B., Parsons, M. B., & Reid, D. H. (2000). Training support staff for teaching young children with disabilities in an inclusive preschool setting: Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions Vol 2(3) Sum 2000, 170-178.
  • Schloss, P. J., Sedlak, R. A., Wiggins, E. D., & Ramsey, D. (1983). Stress reduction for professionals working with aggressive adolescents: Exceptional Children Vol 49(4) Jan 1983, 349-354.
  • Schortinghuis, N. E., & Frohman, A. (1974). A comparison of paraprofessional and professional success with preschool children: Journal of Learning Disabilities Vol 7(4) Apr 1974, 245-247.
  • Sciarra, D. J. (1971). Men in young children's lives make a difference: Child Care Quarterly Vol 1(2) Win 1971-1972, 111-118.
  • Sheldon, M. S., Nimnicht, G., & Rayder, N. F. (1973). The educational forces inventory: Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association 1973, 657-658.
  • Storey, K., Smith, D. J., & Strain, P. S. (1993). Use of classroom assistants and peer-mediated intervention to increase integration in preschool settings: Exceptionality Vol 4(1) 1993, 1-16.
  • Sulzer-Azaroff, B., Johnson, K. R., Dean, M. R., & Freyman, D. R. (1978). An experimental analysis of proctor quiz-scoring accuracy in personalized instruction courses: Journal of Personalized Instruction Vol 2(3) Sep 1978, 143-149.
  • Vadasy, P. F., Sanders, E. A., & Peyton, J. A. (2006). Code-oriented instruction for kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties: A randomized field trial with paraeducator implementers: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 98(3) Aug 2006, 508-528.
  • Vasquez, C. (2004). "Very carefully managed": Advice and suggestions in post-observation meetings: Linguistics and Education Vol 15(1-2) Spr 2004, 33-58.
  • Weis, L., Bushell, D., & McLaughlin, T. F. (1975). The effects of various teacher contact ratios in programmed reading: Improving Human Performance Quarterly Vol 4(1) Spr 1975, 23-36.
  • Werts, M. G., Harris, S., Tillery, C. Y., & Roark, R. (2004). What Parents Tell Us About Paraeducators: Remedial and Special Education Vol 25(4) Jul-Aug 2004, 232-239.
  • White, G. W., Nielsen, L., & Prus, J. S. (1984). Head Start teacher and aide preferences for degree of specificity in written psychological recommendations: Professional Psychology: Research and Practice Vol 15(6) Dec 1984, 785-790.
  • White, R. (2004). The Recruitment of Paraeducators Into the Special Education Profession: A Review of Progress, Select Evaluation Outcomes, and New Initiatives: Remedial and Special Education Vol 25(4) Jul-Aug 2004, 214-218.
  • Williams, P. (2006). Review of Psychology for teaching assistants: Educational Psychology in Practice Vol 22(1) Mar 2006, 93-94.


  • Barrett, S. C. (1981). An analysis of role conflict in teaching assistants: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Barron, J. (1980). Issues in bilingual education affecting performance needs of teacher aides with implications for teacher training programs: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bartoli, P. V. (2002). Burnout and job performance among education professionals and paraprofessionals. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Bower, N. J. (1978). A comparison of two models for training personnel for teaching the moderately and severely retarded: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bullerman, M. F. (1974). Parental perception of the educational program in certain selected schools: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Christenberry, M. A. (1975). An exploratory study to investigate the relationship between teaching effectiveness and level of empathic understanding of paraprofessional teachers of young children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Clemons, W. H. (1973). Variations in role expectations and role realization as perceived by teacher aide trainees, teachers of teacher aide trainees, teacher aides and teachers utilizing teacher aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Dalea, I. L. (1973). Change in self-perception in student teacher-aides following a work program: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • DiBartolomeo, T. R. (1980). The effects of modeling and discrimination training with expert generated feedback or self-generated feedback on teacher performance: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Dill, A. V. (1994). Instructional assistants in special education: An experiential study of stress arising from a gap between "what is" and "what ought to be". Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Doidge, D. A. (1975). Teacher perceptions of teacher behavior as related to paraprofessional teacher aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ferguson, R. C. (1977). Teachers and teacher aides: A case study of innovation in an elementary school: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Feuchtbaum, G. (1976). Relationships of self concept, interpersonal values, and role expectations of indigenous classroom paraprofessionals in selected elementary schools in New York City and Philadelphia: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Goodwin, S. S. (1983). The use of global and specific items in evaluating teaching in a teaching assistant training program: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Grangaard, D. R. (1977). Perceptions of the functions of paraprofessionals in the kindergarten: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Harris, S. L. (1979). Health misconceptions of elementary school teachers and teacher aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hockett, J. C. (1973). An examination of changes in teacher behaviors and learner perceptions associated with a program for teaching assistants at the Florida State University: A pilot study: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Hudson, W. L. (1975). An investigation of students' attitudes in teacher preparation: With and without the teacher aid program: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Huggins, J. W. (1985). A study to determine the teaching competencies needed by instructional assistants working with special needs students in area vocational centers in Michigan: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kelly, D. (1975). A study of the effects of high school students acting as instructional aides in elementary classrooms on the development of positive self-concepts in children with whom they work: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kuhirun, K. (1986). Job satisfaction of teaching assistants in the departments of mathematics in selected universities as related to their students' achievement: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lawrence, C. A. (1974). An analysis of selected presage characteristics of teacher aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Miller, N. I. (1984). Paraprofessionals' job satisfaction and their teachers' leadership style: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • O'Connell, C. P. (1977). Leader behaviors, leader styles, and management effectiveness of elementary teachers as related to paid teacher aides and volunteer teacher aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ortiz, M. N. (1978). Bilingual-bicultural instructional aide roles as perceived by teachers, administrators, and instructional aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Palmer, M. F. (1987). Student teachers as aides for middle school mathematics classes: An exploration: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Pekofsky, M. (1989). A comparison of perceived teaching styles in international teaching assistants receiving cross-cultural perceptiveness training: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Peters, R. M. (1973). A study of teacher aide impact and the economics of aide usage: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Prest, G. S. (1993). A study of instructional assistants' job satisfaction and supervising teachers' leadership behavior: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ritzman, E. R. (1973). Identity formation and effects of volunteer work experiences in community college students: An exploratory study with implications for counseling and education: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Roberts, C. A. (1974). An analysis of role definition consensus between teacher-coordinators and teacher aides in a career opportunities program: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Robertson, M. K. (1980). An assessment of the effects of a college aide program on selected motor skills of second and fifth graders: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ryan, E. F. (1976). A comparison of the perceptions of the role of teacher aides in special education classes for trainable and severely/profoundly mentally retarded children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Sears, M. H. (1982). Intellectual and creative talents in young children as perceived by teachers, teacher aides and parents: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Shannon, G. C. (1978). An analysis of the administration of the Education Aide Program in the Los Angeles Unified School District: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Schneiman, R. S. (1973). An evaluation of structured learning and didactic learning as methods of training behavior modification skills to low and middle socioeconomic level teacher-aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Sutton, G. W. (1982). The effects of behavioral and process models of consultation on the performance of professional and paraprofessional consultees: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Swartzendruber, L. (1979). Gains in moral reasoning through two discussion methods under teaching assistants varying in Socratic skill: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Taylor-Way, D. G. (1981). Adaptation of interpersonal process recall and a theory of educating for the conceptualization of college instruction: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Thomas, F. M. (2005). In-service for teachers and teacher aides working with children on the autistic spectrum. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Truxaw, K. O. (1974). Recidivism differences among delinquent teacher aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Wheeler, V. R. (1976). Measuring human development activities in an individually guided education workshop: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Wilson, B. J. (1972). A proposed training program for special education teacher aides in Virginia as a basis for behavioral objectives: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.

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