Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS) is a paper and pencil measure of trait anxiety, developed by Janet Taylor Spence.

Responses of 871 adults to the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale–Adult version (AMAS-A) were factor analyzed using the method of principal axis factoring with promax rotation. Factor analysis yielded a four-factor solution: three anxiety factors (Worry/Oversensitivity, Stress, and Physiological Anxiety) and a Lie factor. The AMAS-A’s three factor structure of anxiety is consistent with multidimensional theories of anxiety and lends support to the validity of the interpretation of the AMAS-A scores as reflecting anxiety in several dimensions. Temporal stability and convergent and discriminant validity of the AMAS-A test scores were also examined in a sample of 76 young and middleaged adults. Results indicated good to excellent test-retest reliability for the AMAS-A scores over a 2- to 3-week interval. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the AMAS-Ascores as measures of various aspects of anxiety was found. Implications of the findings are discussed.[1].

Comparisions[edit | edit source]

The TMAS is comapared alonsgside the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule in the manual of that measure.

See also[edit | edit source]


Availiblity[edit | edit source]

It is not currently published by any group, however it is floating around and tt can be taken online.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Lowe, P., (2004) Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol. 64, No. 4, 661-681

Further reading[edit | edit source]

  • Bedford, A., McIver, D., & Pearson, P. R. (1978). A further test of Foulds' personality and personal illness differentiae in a psychiatric group: Psychological Medicine Vol 8(3) Aug 1978, 467-470.
  • Brackbill, G., & Little, K. B. (1954). Mmpi Correlates of the Taylor Scale of Manifest Anxiety: Journal of Consulting Psychology Vol 18(6) Dec 1954, 433-436.
  • Brady, J. P. (1961). Comment on "Anxiety and Behavior Scientists' Behavior": American Psychologist Vol 16(9) Sep 1961, 602.
  • Buss, A. H., & Gerjuoy, I. R. (1958). Verbal conditioning and anxiety: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 57(2) Sep 1958, 249-250.
  • Chapman, L. J., & Campbell, D. T. (1959). Absence of acquiescence response set in the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale: Journal of Consulting Psychology Vol 23(5) Oct 1959, 465-466.
  • Correll, R. E. (1985). Relationship of anxiety and depression scores to WAIS performance of psychiatric patients: Psychological Reports Vol 57(1) Aug 1985, 295-301.
  • Crumpton, E., Grayson, H. M., & Keith-Lee, P. (1967). What Kinds of Anxiety Does the Taylor Ma Measure? : Journal of Consulting Psychology Vol 31(3) Jun 1967, 324-326.
  • De, B., & Singh, R. (1972). A cross-cultural study of the Maudsley Personality Inventory and the Manifest Anxiety scale: Behaviorometric Vol 2(1) 1972, 40-44.

E*riksen, C. W., & Davids, A. (1955). The Meaning and Clinical Validity of the Taylor Anxiety Scale and the Hysteria-Psychasthenia Scales from the Mmpi: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 50(1) Jan 1955, 135-137.

  • Eswara, H. S., & Suryarekha, A. (1974). The relationship between lie scores and anxiety scores on Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale: Journal of Psychological Researches Vol 18(3) Sep 1974, 88-90.
  • Fierro, A. (1982). Social desirability and acquiescence in the Manifest Anxiety Scale: Analisis y Modificacion de Conducta Vol 8(17) 1982, 93-127.
  • Frohlich, W. D., & Euler, H. A. (1967). Drive Level (Manifest Anxiety), Achievement Motivation, and the Learning of a T-Maze: Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie 14(1) 1967, 117-134.
  • Fromme, D. K., & Schmidt, C. K. (1972). Affective role enactment and expressive behavior: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 24(3) Dec 1972, 413-419.
  • Gersten, E. W. (1995). Multitrait-multimethod assessment of anxiety and depression scales. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Gilbert, A. R. (1967). Increased Diagnostic Value of the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale by Use of Response Latency: Psychological Reports 20(1) 1967, 63-67.
  • Goodstein, L. D., & Goldberger, L. (1955). Manifest anxiety and Rorschach performance in a chronic patient population: Journal of Consulting Psychology Vol 19(5) Oct 1955, 339-344.
  • Gotlib, I. H., & Cane, D. B. (1989). Self-report assessment of depression and anxiety. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
  • Hardy, R. E. (1967). A Study of Manifest Anxiety among Blind Residential School Students Using an Experimental Instrument Constructed for the Blind: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hicks, R. A., Ostle, J. R., & Pellegrini, R. J. (1980). A unidimensional short form of the TMAS: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 16(6) Dec 1980, 447-448.
  • Himelstein, P. (1956). Taylor Scale characteristics of volunteers and non-volunteers for psychological experiments: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 52(1) Jan 1956, 138-139.
  • Hojat, M., & Shapurian, R. (1986). Anxiety and its measurement: A study of psychometric characteristics of a short form of the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale in Iranian college students: Journal of Social Behavior & Personality Vol 1(4) Oct 1986, 621-630.
  • Kaliappan, K. V., Rajalakshmi, A. L., & Sarada Menon, M. (1982). An evaluation of Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale: Journal of Psychological Researches Vol 26(1) Jan 1982, 6-8.
  • Kamin, L. J., & Fedorchak, O. (1957). The Taylor Scale, hunger, and verbal learning: Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Vol 11(4) Dec 1957, 212-218.
  • Kendall, E. (1954). The Validity of Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale: Journal of Consulting Psychology Vol 18(6) Dec 1954, 429-432.
  • Kerrick, J. S. (1955). Some Correlates of the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 50(1) Jan 1955, 75-77.
  • Kinsman, R. A., Dirks, J. F., Dahlem, N. W., & Heller, A. S. (1980). Anxiety in asthma: Panic-fear symptomatology and personality in relation to manifest anxiety: Psychological Reports Vol 46(1) Feb 1980, 196-198.
  • Lazarus-Mainka, G. (1977). Some data on the validity of the Luck and Timaeus translations of the Manifest Anxiety Scale and the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale: Diagnostica Vol 23(2) 1977, 151-155.
  • Lebo, D., Toal, R. A., & Brick, H. (1958). Manifest anxiety in prisoners before and after CO-sub(2): Journal of Consulting Psychology Vol 22(1) Feb 1958, 51-55.
  • Livneh, H., & Redding, C. A. (1986). A factor analytic study of manifest anxiety: A transsituational, transtemporal investigation: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied Vol 120(3) May 1986, 253-263.
  • Lovaas, O. I. (1960). Supplementary report: The relationship of induced muscular tension to manifest anxiety in learning: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 59(3) Mar 1960, 205-206.
  • Martin, B. (1959). The validity of a self report measure of anxiety as a function of the time interval covered by the instructions: Journal of Consulting Psychology Vol 23(5) Oct 1959, 468.
  • Mayzner, M. S., Jr., Sersen, E., & Tresselt, M. E. (1955). The Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale and Intelligence: Journal of Consulting Psychology Vol 19(5) Oct 1955, 401-403.
  • Mednick, M. T. (1957). Mediated generalization and the incubation effect as a function of manifest anxiety: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 55(3) Nov 1957, 315-321.
  • Meyer, M. E. (1964). The nature of the responses on the Taylor Manifest Anxiety scale: Journal of Clinical Psychology 20(3) 1964, 378-381.
  • Miller, H. L. (1987). The effect of maternal stress on fetal birth weight. New York, NY: AMS Press.
  • Moerdyk, A. P., & Spinks, P. M. (1979). Preliminary cross-cultural validity study of Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale: Psychological Reports Vol 45(2) Oct 1979, 663-664.
  • Moore, P. N., Kinsman, R. A., & Dirks, J. F. (1984). Subscales to the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale in three chronically ill populations: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 40(6) Nov 1984, 1431-1433.
  • Murthy, S. R., & Reddi, N. Y. (1967). Manifest Anxiety and Psychomotor Learning: Research Bulletin of the Department of Psychology, Osmania U No 3 1967, 9-18.
  • Pratap, S., & Filella, J. (1966). Rorschach Correlates of the Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale for a Group of Normal People: Journal of Psychological Researches 10(3) 1966, 103-109.
  • Pylyshyn, Z. W., & Agnew, N. M. (1963). The Validity of Anxiety and Drive Scales and Their Relation to Global Self-Ratings: The Canadian Psychologist Vol 4a(2) Apr 1963, 42-50.
  • Redding, C. A., & Livneh, H. (1986). Manifest anxiety: A cluster analytic study: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 63(2, Pt 1) Oct 1986, 471-474.
  • Reynolds, S. L., & Burdsal, C. (1975). A factor analytic study of manifest anxiety and abstract-concrete word recall: Journal of Multivariate Experimental Personality & Clinical Psychology Vol 1(3) Win 1975, 150-164.
  • Sampson, H., & Bindra, D. (1954). "Manifest" anxiety, neurotic anxiety, and the rate of conditioning: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 49(2) Apr 1954, 256-259.
  • Schwab, J. J., Marder, L., & Clemmons, R. S. (1966). Anxiety, Severity of Illness and Other Medical Variables: Journal of Psychosomatic Research 10(3) 1966, 297-303.
  • Siegman, A. W. (1956). Cognitive, affective, and psychopathogological correlates of the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale: Journal of Consulting Psychology Vol 20(2) Apr 1956, 137-141.
  • Sinha, A. K., & Sinha, S. N. (1967). Mueller-Lyer Illusion in Subjects High and Low in Anxiety: Perceptual and Motor Skills 24(1) 1967, 194.
  • Sinha, N. C. (1972). Personality factors and scholastic achievement of school students: Behaviorometric Vol 2(1) 1972, 9-12.
  • Spinks, P. M., & Moerdyk, A. P. (1980). A comparison of responses between Indian and European South Africans to the TMAS: International Journal of Psychology Vol 15(1) Apr 1980, 43-52.
  • Taffel, C. (1955). Anxiety and the conditioning of verbal behavior: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 51(3) Nov 1955, 496-501.
  • Taylor, J. A. (1953). A personality scale of manifest anxiety: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 48(2) Apr 1953, 285-290.
  • Taylor, J. A. (1955). The Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale and intelligence: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 51(2) Sep 1955, 347.
  • Tramill, J. L., & et al. (1982). A proposed relationship between the unidimensional short form of the TMAS and the DAS: The effects of embedding vs. separate administration: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 19(4) Apr 1982, 209-211.
  • Trapp, E. P., & Kausler, D. H. (1959). Association tendencies of groups differentiated on the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale: Journal of Consulting Psychology Vol 23(5) Oct 1959, 387-389.
  • Watson, D. (1967). Relationship between Locus of Control and Anxiety: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 6(1) May 1967, 91-92.
  • Weitzner, M., Stallone, F., & Smith, G. M. (1967). Personality Profiles of High, Middle, and Low Mas Subjects: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied 65(2) 1967, 163-168.
  • Wen, S.-s., & McCoy, R. E. (1975). Relationships of selected nonacademic and academic variables to the grade point average of Black students: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 35(4) Win 1975, 935-939.
  • Williams, C. D., Tallarico, R. B., & Tedeschi, J. T. (1960). Manifest Needs and Manifest Anxiety: Journal of Consulting Psychology Vol 24(4) Aug 1960, 371.
  • Zdep, S. M. (1966). Intelligence, Creativity and Anxiety among College Students: Psychological Reports 19(2) 1966, 420.
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