Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
Tachycardia refers to rapid beating of the heart. By convention it defined as a heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute in adults. Tachycardia may be normal, such as in exercise and stress, or abnormal, such as in cardiac arrhythmias. However, depending on the mechanism of the tachycardia and the health status of the person, tachycardia may be harmful and require medical treatment. In extreme cases, tachycardia can be life threatening.
The condition can be associated with anxiety.
Tachycardia can be harmful in three ways. First, if the heart is pumping too fast for an extended period of time it will change the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the hemoglobin in the blood; this is normal during exercise but when resting this is quite dangerous. Second, when the heart beats too rapidly, it may pump blood less efficiently as there is less time for the myocardium to relax between contractions. Third, the faster the heart beats, the more oxygen and nutrients the heart requires. This may leave patients feeling out of breath or cause angina in those suffering from ischemic heart disease.
- 1 Haemodynamic responses
- 2 Autonomic and endocrine causes
- 3 Cardiac arrhythmias
- 4 Treatments
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External Links
Haemodynamic responses[edit | edit source]
The body contains several feedback mechanisms to maintain adequate blood flow and blood pressure. If blood pressure decreases, the heart beats faster in an attempt to raise it. This is called reflex tachycardia.
This can happen in response to a decrease in blood volume (through dehydration or bleeding), or an unexpected change in blood flow. The most common cause of the latter is orthostatic hypotension (also called postural hypotension), a sudden drop of blood pressure that occurs with a change in body position (e.g., going from lying down to standing up). When tachycardia occurs for this reason, it is called postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS).
Autonomic and endocrine causes[edit | edit source]
An increase in sympathetic nervous system stimulation causes the heart rate to increase, both by the direct action of sympathetic nerve fibers on the heart and by causing the endocrine system to release hormones such as epinephrine (adrenaline), which have a similar effect. Increased sympathetic stimulation is usually due to physical or psychological stress (the so-called "fight or flight" response), but can also be induced by stimulants such as amphetamines.
Cardiac arrhythmias[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Arrythmias (heart)
The 12 lead ECG can help distinguish between the various types of tachycardias, generally distinguished by their site of pacemaker origin:
- Sinus tachycardia, which originates from the Sino-atrial (SA) node, near the base of the superior vena cava
- Ventricular tachycardia, any tachycardia which originates in the ventricles.
- Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), which is a tachycardia paced from the Atria or the AV node. SVT rhythms include:
It is sometimes useful to classify tachycardias as either narrow complex tachycardias (often referred to as supraventricular tachycardias) or wide complex tachycardias. "Narrow" and "wide" refer to the width of the QRS complex on the ECG. Narrow complex tachycardias tend to originate in the atria, while wide complex tachycardias tend to originate in the ventricles. Tachycardias can be further classified as either regular or irregular.
Sinus tachycardia[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Sinus tachycardia
The most common type of tachycardia is sinus tachycardia, which is the body's normal reaction to stress, including fever, dehydration, or blood loss (shock). It is a technical narrow complex tachycardia. In the absence of heart disease, it tends to have a narrow QRS complex on the ECG. Treatment is generally directed at identifying the underlying cause.
Ventricular tachycardia[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Ventricular tachycardia
Ventricular tachycardia (VT or V-tach) is a potentially life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia that originates in the ventricles. It is usually a regular, wide complex tachycardia with a rate between 120 and 250 beats per minute. Ventricular tachycardia has the potential of degrading to the more serious ventricular fibrillation. Ventricular tachycardia is a common, and often lethal, complication of a myocardial infarction (heart attack).
Exercise-induced ventricular tachycardia is a phenomenon related to sudden deaths, especially in patients with severe heart disease (ischaemia, acquired valvular heart and congenital heart disease) accompanied with left ventricular dysfunction. A case of a death from exercise-induced VT was the death on a basketball court of Hank Gathers, the Loyola Marymount basketball star, in March 1990.
SVT Rhythms[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Supraventricular tachycardia
Atrial fibrillation[edit | edit source]
Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common cardiac arrhythmias. It is generally an irregular, narrow complex rhythm. However, it may show wide QRS complexes on the ECG if a bundle branch block is present. At high rates, the QRS complex may also become wide due to the Ashman phenomenon. It may be difficult to determine the rhythm's regularity when the rate exceeds 150 beats per minute. Depending on the patient's health and other variables such as medications taken for rate control, atrial fibrillation may cause heart rates that span from 50 to 250 beats per minute (or even higher if an accessory pathway is present). However, new onset atrial fibrillation tends to present with rates between 100 and 150 beats per minute.
AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT)[edit | edit source]
AV nodal reentrant tachycardia is the most common reentrant tachycardia. It is a regular narrow complex tachycardia that usually responds well to vagal maneuvers or the drug adenosine. However, unstable patients sometimes require synchronized cardioversion. Definitive care may include catheter ablation.
AV reentrant tachycardia[edit | edit source]
AV reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) requires an accessory pathway for its maintenance. AVRT may involve orthodromic conduction (where the impulse travels down the AV node to the ventricles and back up to the atria through the accessory pathway) or antidromic conduction (which the impulse travels down the accessory pathway and back up to the atria through the AV node). Orthodromic conduction usually results in a narrow complex tachycardia, and antidromic conduction usually results in a wide complex tachycardia that often mimics ventricular tachycardia. Most antiarrhythmics are contraindicated in the emergency treatment of AVRT, because they may paradoxically increase conduction across the accessory pathway.
Junctional tachycardia[edit | edit source]
Junctional tachycardia is an automatic tachycardia originating in the AV junction. It tends to be a regular, narrow complex tachycardia and may be a sign of digitalis toxicity.
Treatments[edit | edit source]
Hypnosis[edit | edit source]
Physical treatment[edit | edit source]
Treatment of tachycardia is usually directed at chemical conversion (with antiarrythmics), electrical conversion (giving external shocks to convert the heart to a normal rhythm) or use of drugs to simply control heart rate (for example as in atrial fibrillation).
The treatment modality used depends on the type of tachycardia and the hemodynamic stability of the patient. If the tachycardia originates from the sinus node (sinus tachycardia), treatment of the underlying cause of sinus tachycardia is usually sufficient. On the other hand, if the tachycardia is of a potentially lethal origin (ie: ventricular tachycardia) treatment with anti arrhythmic agents or with electrical cardioversion may be required. Below is a brief discussion of some of the main tachyarrhythmias and their treatments.
The electrocardiac management of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter is either through medications or electrical cardioversion. Pharmacologic management of these arrhythmias typically involves diltiazem or verapamil as well as beta-blocking agents such as atenolol. The decision to use electrical cardioversion depends heavily on the hemodynamic stability of the presenting patient; in general those patients who are unable to sustain their systemic functions are electrically converted although conversion to a normal sinus rhythm can be performed with amiodarone. An interesting type of atrial fibrillation which must be carefully managed is when it appears in combination with Wolff-parkinson White. In this case, calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers and digoxin must be avoided to prevent precipitation of ventricular tachycardia. Here, procainamide or quinidine are often used. Of note: patients who have been in atrial fibrillation for more than 48 hours should not be converted to normal sinus rhythm unless they have been anti-coagulated to an INR of 2-3 for at least 4 weeks.
In the case of narrow complex tachycardias (juntional, atrial or paroxysmal), the treatment in general is to first give the patient adenosine (to slow conduction through the AV node) and then perform vagal maneuvers to slow the rhythm. If this does not convert the patient, amiodarone, calcium channel blockers or beta-blockers are commonly employed to stabilize the patient. Again as in atrial fibrillation, if a patient is unstable, the decision to electrially cardiovert him/her should be made.
With wide complex tachyarrhythmias or ventricular tachyarrhythmias, in general most are highly unstable and cause the patient significant distress and would be electrically converted. However one notable exception is monomorphic ventricular tachycardia which patients may tolerate but can be treated pharmacologically with amiodarone or lidocaine.
Above all, the treatment modality is tailored to the individual, and varies based on the mechanism of the tachycardia (where it is originating from within the heart), on the duration of the tachycardia, how well the individual is tolerating the fast heart rate, the likelihood of recurrence once the rhythm is terminated, and any co-morbid conditions the individual is suffering from.
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
Further reading[edit | edit source]
- Al-Khatib, S. M., LaPointe, N. M. A., Kramer, J. M., Chen, A. Y., Hammill, B. G., Delong, L., et al. (2005). A Survey of Health Care Practitioners' Knowledge of the QT Interval: Journal of General Internal Medicine Vol 20(5) May 2005, 392-396.
- Ambrose, A., & Salib, E. (1999). Amiodarone-induced depression: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 174 Apr 1999, 366-367.
- Anders, M., Kitzlerova, E., Kautzner, J., Buncova, M., & Dohnalova, A. (2002). Anxiety and/or depressive symptoms in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia: Ceska a Slovenska Psychiatrie Vol 98(4) 2002, 208-213.
- Anderson, J. J., & DiMicco, J. A. (1990). Effect of local inhibition of !g-aminobutyric acid uptake in the dorsomedial hypothalamus on extracellular levels of !g-aminobutyric acid and on stress-induced tachycardia: A study using microdialysis: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Vol 255(3) Dec 1990, 1399-1407.
- Archonti, C., Ruddel, H., & Jung, J. (2003). Relative Importance of Psychophysiological Reactivity and Psychometric Characteristics in Patients with Supraventrucular Tachycardia: Homeostasis in Health and Disease Vol 42(6) 2003, 269-276.
- Azaz-Livshits, T. L. T., & Danenberg, H. D. (1997). Tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension and profound weakness due to concomitant use of fluoxetine and nifedipine: Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 30(6) Nov 1997, 274-275.
- Bachman, J. A., Benowitz, N. L., Herning, R. I., & Jones, R. T. (1979). Dissociation of autonomic and cognitive effects of THC in man: Psychopharmacology Vol 61(2) 1979, 171-175.
- Bankier, B., Bach, M., Gutierrez, K., & Lenz, G. (1999). Malignant tachyarrhythmia, pacemaker and defibrillator implantation and panic disorder with agoraphobia: Verhaltenstherapie Vol 9(2) Jun 1999, 103-110.
- Bastecky, J., Kvasnicka, J., Vortel, J., Zapletalek, M., & et al. (1990). Suicidal ingestion of thioridazine as the cause of severe impairment of the cardiac rhythm: Polymorphous ventricular tachycardia: Ceska a Slovenska Psychiatrie Vol 86(4) Aug 1990, 264-268.
- Beale, M. D., Prichett, J. T., & Kellner, C. H. (1994). Supraventricular tachycardia in a patient receiving ECT, clozapine, and caffeine: Convulsive Therapy Vol 10(3) Sep 1994, 228-231.
- Benrud-Larson, L. M., Sandroni, P., Haythornthwaite, J. A., Rummans, T. A., & Low, P. A. (2003). Correlates of Functional Disability in Patients With Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Preliminary Cross-Sectional Findings: Health Psychology Vol 22(6) Nov 2003, 643-648.
- Bernadt, M. W., Silverstone, T., & Singleton, W. (1980). Behavioural and subjective effects of beta-adrenergic blockade in phobic subjects: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 137 Nov 1980, 452-457.
- Bracha, H. S., & Maser, J. D. (2008). Anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder in the context of human brain evolution: A role for theory in DSM-V? : Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice Vol 15(1) Mar 2008, 91-97.
- Brack, K. E., Jeffery, S. M. T., & Lovick, T. A. (2006). Cardiovascular and respiratory responses to a panicogenic agent in anaesthetised female Wistar rats at different stages of the oestrous cycle: European Journal of Neuroscience Vol 23(12) Jun 2006, 3309-3318.
- Brown, T. C. (1991). Psychological adjustment to the automatic internal cardioverter-defibrillator in the treatment of recurrent ventricular tachycardia: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Cabanac, M., & Aizawa, S. (2000). Fever and tachycardia in a bird ( gallus domesticus) after simple handling: Physiology & Behavior Vol 69(4-5) Jun 2000, 541-545.
- Cocchetto, D. M., & et al. (1981). Relationship between plasma delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol concentration and pharmacologic effects in man: Psychopharmacology Vol 75(2) Nov 1981, 158-164.
- Come, C. E., & Shapiro, P. A. (2005). Supraventricular Tachycardia Associated With Methylphenidate Treatment in a Heart Transplant Recipient: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 46(5) Sep-Oct 2005, 461-463.
- Corley, K. C., & et al. (1979). Myocardial dysfunction and pathology associated with environmental stress in squirrel monkey: Effect of vagotomy and propranolol: Psychophysiology Vol 16(6) Nov 1979, 554-560.
- Curry, S. H., Devane, C. L., & Wolfe, M. M. (1988). Hypotension and bradycardia induced by amitriptyline in healthy volunteers: Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental Vol 3(1) Mar 1988, 47-52.
- Defrenne, J., Lehert, P., & Mertens, C. (1979). Validation of a psychological questionnaire meant to differentiate patients with hypertension, tachycardia or angina pectoris from normal subjects: I. Structural validation: Acta Psychiatrica Belgica Vol 79(1) Jan-Feb 1979, 28-47.
- Dennison, S., & French, R. N. (1989). Cardiac problems in ECT: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 146(7) Jul 1989, 939.
- Derrickson, A. K., Baber, J. R., & Agarwal, A. (2007). A case of acute stress-induced ventricular tachycardia: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 69(8) Oct 2007, 825.
- Diamond, J. M. (1986). Sudden-onset tachycardia induced in a child by imipramine: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 143(8) Aug 1986, 1067.
- Doust, J. W. (1980). Sinus tachycardia and abnormal cardiac rate variation in schizophrenia: Neuropsychobiology Vol 6(6) 1980, 305-312.
- Durst, R., Rosca-Rebaudengo, P., & Admon, D. (1994). Phenothiazine-associated supraventricular tachycardia: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry Vol 28(2) Jun 1994, 333-336.
- Eckardt, L., Breithardt, G., & Haverkamp, W. (2002). Electrophysiologic characterization of the antipsychotic drug sertindole in a rabbit heart model of torsade de pointes: Low torsadogenic potential despite QT prolongation: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Vol 300(1) Jan 2002, 64-71.
- Edelstein, B. A., Keaton-Brasted, C., & Burg, M. M. (1983). The effects of caffeine withdrawal on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal responses: Health Psychology Vol 2(4) Fal 1983, 343-352.
- Engel, B. T., & Talan, M. I. (1991). Autonomic blockade does not prevent learned heart rate attenuation during exercise: Physiology & Behavior Vol 49(2) Feb 1991, 373-382.
- Forbes, L. M., & Chaney, R. H. (1978). Physical arousal concealed during emotional stress: Psychological Reports Vol 42(2) Apr 1978, 355-360.
- Furrows, D. C. (1999). Cardiotoxicity associated with use of intravenous haloperidol: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry Vol 33(2) Apr 1999, 284.
- Gauthier, P., Reis, D. J., & Nathan, M. A. (1981). Arterial hypertension elicited either by lesions or by electrical stimulations of the rostral hypothalamus in the rat: Brain Research Vol 211(1) Apr 1981, 91-105.
- Ghika, J., Goy, J. J., Naegeli, C., & Regli, F. (1994). Acute reversible ataxo-myoclonic encephalopathy with flecainide therapy: Schweizer Archiv fur Neurologie und Psychiatrie Vol 145(1) 1994, 4 & 6.
- Gleason, M. M., & Klitzke, M. (2008). Sustained hypertension and tachycardia associated with new onset psychiatric disorder in an adolescent: Primary Care & Community Psychiatry Vol 12(2) 2008, 89-95.
- Gracious, B. L. (1999). Atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia associated with stimulant treatment: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Vol 9(2) 1999, 125-128.
- Grasing, K. W., & Miller, N. E. (1989). Self-administration of morphine contingent on heart rate in the rat: Life Sciences Vol 45(21) 1989, 1967-1976.
- Greenberg, W. M. (1986). Are benzodiazepines anticholinergic? : Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 47(7) Jul 1986, 393.
- Gross, C., Santarelli, L., Brunner, D., Zhuang, X., & Hen, R. (2000). Altered fear circuits in 5-HT-sub(1A ) receptor KO mice: Biological Psychiatry Vol 48(12) Dec 2000, 1157-1163.
- Gupta, N., & Malhotra, P. (2002). Olanzapine: A proarrhythmic drug? : The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry / La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie Vol 47(7) Sep 2002, 683-684.
- Hammerness, P. G., Wilens, T. E., Berul, C. I., & Elkort, M. S. (2008). Supraventricular tachycardia in an adolescent with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 47(2) Feb 2008, 219-220.
- Harada, T., Tomotake, M., Ohkubo, A., Nishikado, A., Yamamoto, T., Wakatsuki, T., et al. (2002). Radiofrequency catheter ablation enabled antipsychotic treatment in a schizophrenic patient with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia: General Hospital Psychiatry Vol 24(4) Jul-Aug 2002, 277-278.
- Hatta, K., Takahashi, T., Nakamura, H., Yamashiro, H., Asukai, N., Matsuzaki, I., et al. (2001). The association between intravenous haloperidol and prolonged QT interval: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 21(3) Jun 2001, 257-261.
- Hofmann, B., Ladwig, K. H., Schapperer, J., Deisenhofer, I., Marten-Mittag, B., Danner, R., et al. (1999). Psycho-neurogenic factors in the genesis of life-threatening arrhythmias: Nervenarzt Vol 70(9) Sep 1999, 830-835.
- Hyner, G. C. (1979). Relaxation as principal treatment for excessive cigarette use and caffeine ingestion by a college female: Psychological Reports Vol 45(2) Oct 1979, 531-534.
- Isac, M., Stern, S., & Edelstein, E. L. (1972). The treatment of phenothiazine-induced tachycardia by propranolol: Israel Annals of Psychiatry & Related Disciplines Vol 10(3) Sep 1972, 272-277.
- Janssen, K. (1983). Treatment of sinus tachycardia with heart-rate feedback: Journal of Behavioral Medicine Vol 6(1) Mar 1983, 109-114.
- Janssen, K. H. L., & Berger, M. P. F. (1988). Treatment of sinus tachycardia with heart rate feedback: A group outcome study. Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons.
- Johansson, J., & Ost, L.-G. (1981). Applied relaxation in treatment of "cardiac neurosis": A systematic case study: Psychological Reports Vol 48(2) Apr 1981, 463-468.
- Jokerst, M. D., Gatto, M., Fazio, R., Stern, R. M., & Koch, K. L. (1999). Slow deep breathing prevents the development of tachygastria and symptoms of motion sickness: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 70(12) Dec 1999, 1189-1192.
- Jones, J. G., & Chevalier, R. B. (1985). Tachycardia in residents responding to cardiac arrests: Family Practice Research Journal Vol 5(1) Fal 1985, 13-20.
- Joseph, J. A., & Engel, B. T. (1981). Instrumental control of cardioacceleration induced by central electrical stimulation: Science Vol 214(4518) Oct 1981, 341-343.
- Justo, D., Gal-Oz, A., Paran, Y., Goldin, Y., & Zeltser, D. (2006). Methadone-associated Torsades de Pointes (polymorphic ventricular tachycardia) in opioid-dependent patients: Addiction Vol 101(9) Sep 2006, 1333-1338.
- Kim, C., Yokozuka, M., Sato, C., Nakanishi, K., Kitamura, A., & Sakamoto, A. (2007). Incessant non-sustained ventricular tachycardia after stimulus of electroconvulsive therapy with atropine premedication? : Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences Vol 61(5) Oct 2007, 564-567.
- Kiriike, N., Maeda, Y., Nishiwaki, S., Izumiya, Y., & et al. (1987). Iatrogenic torsade de pointes induced by thioridazine: Biological Psychiatry Vol 22(1) Jan 1987, 99-103.
- Kitzlerova, E., Anders, M., Kautzner, J., & Dohnalova, A. (2005). Evaluation of Psychopathology in Patients Suffering from Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia One Year after Radiofrequency Catheterization Ablation: Ceska a Slovenska Psychiatrie Vol 101(1) 2005, 15-20.
- Larsen, J. R., Hein, L., & Stromgren, L. S. (1998). Ventricular tachycardia with ECT: Journal of ECT Vol 14(2) Jun 1998, 109-114.
- Leitersdorf, E., Goshen, R., & Shefer, A. (1982). Atypical ventricular tachycardia in combined tetracyclic, antidepressant, neuroleptic and anticholinergic drugs interaction: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine Vol 12(2) 1982-1983, 85-91.
- Levenson, J. L., Mishra, A., Bauernfeind, R. A., & Rea, R. F. (1986). Lithium treatment of mania in a patient with recurrent ventricular tachycardia: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 27(8) Aug 1986, 594-596.
- Lin, L.-S., & Lin, M.-T. (1996). Hypothalamic serotonin release and raised blood pressure after raphe nuclei stimulation in rats: Brain Research Bulletin Vol 39(5) 1996, 305-309.
- Maeda, Y., Muro, M., Shono, M., Shono, H., & Iwasaka, T. (2006). Diurnal rhythms in fetal heart rate baseline and sustained fetal tachycardia in twin pregnancy: Early Human Development Vol 82(10) Oct 2006, 637-644.
- Malikovic, B., & Divac, M. (1977). Psychodynamic development of conversional neurosis and the treatment with individual psychotherapy: Psihijatrija Danas Vol 9(1) 1977, 77-85.
- Maneksha, F. R. (1991). Hypertension and tachycardia during electroconvulsive therapy: To treat or not to treat? : Convulsive Therapy Vol 7(1) Mar 1991, 28-35.
- Massana, J., Lopez Risueno, J. A., Masana, G., Marcos, T., Gonzalez, L., & Otero, A. (2001). Subtyping of panic disorder patients with bradycardia: European Psychiatry Vol 16(2) Mar 2001, 109-114.
- Memik, N. C., Tural, U., & Onder, M. E. (2003). Sinus tachycardia associated with quetiapine: Presentation of two cases: Psikiyatri Psikoloji Psikofarmakoloji Dergisi Vol 11(3) 2003, 235-239.
- Mraovitch, S., Kumada, M., & Reis, D. J. (1982). Role of the nucleus parabrachialis in cardiovascular regulation in cat: Brain Research Vol 232(1) Jan 1982, 57-75.
- Naranjo, J. R., & Fuentes, J. A. (1985). Association between hypoalgesia and hypertension in rats after short-term isolation: Neuropharmacology Vol 24(2) Feb 1985, 167-171.
- Newlin, D. B., Wong, C. J., & Cheskin, L. J. (1992). Cardiovascular responses to naloxone challenge in opiate-dependent individuals: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 43(2) Oct 1992, 357-360.
- Nicholson, J. (1999). Amiodarone and psychiatric symptoms: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 175 Aug 1999, 191-192.
- Nijsen, M. J. M. A., Croiset, G., Diamant, M., Broekhoven, M. H., De Wied, D., & Wiegant, V. M. (1998). Vagal activation in novelty-induced tachycardia during the light phase in the rat: Physiology & Behavior Vol 63(2) Jan 1998, 233-239.
- Odelola, A. T. (1999). More on amiodarone-induced depression: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 175 Dec 1999, 590-591.
- Ootsuka, Y., Blessing, W. W., & Nalivaiko, E. (2008). Selective blockade of 5-HT2A receptors attenuates the increased temperature response in brown adipose tissue to restraint stress in rats: Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress Vol 11(2) Jun 2008, 125-133.
- Pattij, T., Groenink, L., Hijzen, T. H., Oosting, R. S., Maes, R. A. A., van der Gugten, J., et al. (2002). Autonomic changes associated with enhanced anxiety in 5-HT-sub(1A ) receptor knockout mice: Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 27(3) Sep 2002, 380-390.
- Peris, J., & Cunningham, C. L. (1985). Dissociation of tolerance to the hypothermic and tachycardic effects of ethanol: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 22(6) Jun 1985, 973-978.
- Piovesan, E. J., Sobreira, C. F., Scola, R. H., Lorenzoni, P. J., Lange, M. C., Werneck, L. C., et al. (2008). Episodic migraine associated with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and vasovagal syncope: Migraine triggers neuromediated syncope: Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria Vol 66(1) Mar 2008, 77-79.
- Pohorecky, L. A., Peterson, J. T., & Carpenter, J. A. (1985). Development of tolerance to ethanol-induced tachycardia in rats: Alcohol & Drug Research Vol 6(6) 1985-1986, 431-439.
- Pozzi, U., & Regazzoli, T. (1982). Paroxysmal tachycardia as an expression of psychosomatosis due to emotional deprivation in the child: Medicina Psicosomatica Vol 27(2) Apr-Jun 1982, 153-158.
- Price, W. A., & Giannini, A. J. (1986). "Triazolam overdose": Drs. Price and Giannini respond: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 47(7) Jul 1986, 393.
- Rabins, P. V., & Folstein, M. F. (1982). Delirium and dementia: Diagnostic criteria and fatality rates: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 140 Feb 1982, 149-153.
- Rais, A. R., Kimmel, S., Shrestha, N., Rais, T. B., & Coffey, B. J. (2008). Atypical neuroleptic malignant syndrome in an adolescent: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Vol 18(2) Apr 2008, 215-220.
- Safi, A. M., Rachko, M., Yeshou, D., & Stein, R. (2002). Sexual activity as a trigger for ventricular tachycardia in a patient with implantable cardioverter defibrillator: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 31(3) Jun 2002, 295-299.
- Sartory, G., & Olajide, D. (1988). Vagal innervation techniques in the treatment of panic disorder: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 26(5) 1988, 431-434.
- Scott, R. W., Blanchard, E. B., Edmunson, E. D., & Young, L. D. (1973). A shaping procedure for heart-rate control in chronic tachycardia: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 37(1) Aug 1973, 327-338.
- Scott, R. W., & et al. (1973). The use of shaping and reinforcement in the operant acceleration and deceleration of heart rate: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 11(2) May 1973, 179-185.
- Seeck, M., Blanke, O., & Zaim, S. (2002). Temporal lobe epilepsy and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS): Epilepsy & Behavior Vol 3(3,Pt1) Jun 2002, 285-288.
- Shahar, A., & Marks, I. (1980). Habituation during exposure treatment of compulsive rituals: Behavior Therapy Vol 11(3) Jun 1980, 397-401.
- Stampfer, H., & Swanepoel, P. (2005). Severe tachycardia following low-dose clozapine treatment: Australasian Psychiatry Vol 13(1) Mar 2005, 80-82.
- Tan, N., Morimoto, A., Morimoto, K., Sone, R., Nishiyasu, T., Watanabe, T., et al. (2000). Involvement of central beta -adrenoceptors in the tachycardia induced by water immersion stress in rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 68(3) Jan 2000, 291-297.
- Usui, C., Hatta, K., Yokoyama, T., Oshima, M., Ito, M., Shibata, N., et al. (2008). Possible effect of beta-blocker on the prevention of ventricular tachycardia during electroconvulsive therapy: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences Vol 62(5) Oct 2008, 623.
- Vieweg, W. V., Hillard, J. R., Hoffman, M. A., David, J. J., & et al. (1988). Depression and the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 29(1) Win 1988, 113-116.
- Vogel, W. H., & Netter, P. (1990). The effect of ethanol on stress-induced tachycardia: Archiv fur Psychologie Vol 142(1) 1990, 9-23.
- Wain, H. J., Amen, D. G., & Oetgen, W. J. (1983). Cardiac arrhythmias and hypnotic intervention: Advantages, disadvantages, precautions, and theoretical considerations: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis Vol 26(1) Jul 1983, 1-4.
- Wain, H. J., Amen, D. G., & Oetgen, W. J. (1984). Hypnotic intervention in cardiac arrhythmias: Advantages, disadvantages, precautions, and theoretical considerations: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis Vol 27(1) Jul 1984, 70-75.
- Wang, W.-Q., Robertson, C., Dhalla, A. K., & Belardinelli, L. (2008). Antitorsadogenic effects of ()-N-(2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-(4[2-hydroxy-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)propyl]-1-piperazine (ranolazine) in anesthetized rabbits: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Vol 325(3) Jun 2008, 875-881.
- Weil, S., Arnold, S., Eisensehr, I., & Noachtar, S. (2005). Heart rate increase in otherwise subclinical seizures is different in temporal versus extratemporal seizure onset: Support for temporal lobe autonomic influence: Epileptic Disorders Vol 7(3) Sep 2005, 199-204.
- Wheeler, A. H., Ziegler, M. G., Insel, P. A., & Motulsky, H. J. (1985). Episodic catatonia, hypertension, and tachycardia: Elevated plasma catecholamines: Neurology Vol 35(7) Jul 1985, 1053-1055.
- Wilens, T. E., & Stern, T. A. (1990). Ventricular tachycardia associated with desipramine and thioridazine: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 31(1) Win 1990, 100-103.
- Wu, A., Wu, C., Jiang, W., Zhu, K., & et al. (1995). Relationship of depression to ventricular tachycardia in patients with coronary heart disease: Chinese Mental Health Journal Vol 9(1) Feb 1995, 1-3.
External Links[edit | edit source]
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|