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A substitute teacher is a person who teaches a school class when the regular teacher is unavailable; e.g., because of illness, personal leave, or other reasons. "Substitute teacher" (usually abbreviated as "sub") is the most commonly used phrase in the United States, India and Ireland, while supply teacher is the most commonly used term in Canada and Great Britain. Common synonyms for substitute teacher include relief teacher or casual teacher (used in Australia and New Zealand) and "emergency teacher" (used in the United States). Other terms, such as "guest teacher", are also used by some schools or districts. Regional variants in terminology are common, such as the use of the term teacher on call (T.O.C.) in the Canadian province of British Columbia and occasional or supply teacher in the Canadian province of Ontario.

General qualifications[edit | edit source]

In some regions, the qualifications for substitute teaching may not be as strict as those for a regular teacher. Some areas require a college degree and the successful completion of competency tests; others require only that the applicant possess a high school diploma or its equivalent; others again insist on full teaching qualifications.[1] Standards are often lower for short-term substitute teachers, who may only fill in for a teacher during a short illness or personal day, compared to long-term substitutes, who may be assigned to a class for up to an entire semester. Some authorities will allow a substitute teacher without any training in the subject to be taught, who will not cover new material but will simply supervise students working independently on work previously assigned by the regular teacher. Some school administrators may not hire full-time teachers unless they have had substitute teaching experience.[2] Often, the role of a substitute teacher may be covered by a retired teacher from that school or district; in school districts that have gone through layoffs, some furloughed teachers may substitute in the district where they previously held full-time positions.

Pay[edit | edit source]

Rates of pay for substitute teachers vary widely depending on geographic location, length of assignment and teacher qualifications. For instance, in California, certificated teachers are required to meet No Child Left Behind standards and if the district has a substitute teachers' union, that will impact the daily rate of pay. Some districts are considering going to hourly pay to further reduce expenses, leaving many substitute teachers earning wages below the national poverty line (as per Local SEIU 521).As well, after a set number of days in any one position, districts increase the rate of pay from say $100 a day to $130 a day retroactively (as per Local SEIU 521 and FUSD Employee Information). Unfortunately, schools in a district that cannot afford the difference in pay may suspend a valid instructor to avoid the financial burden before the date of change. Local Union SEIU 521 in California has noted this trend yet few frustrated substitute teachers come forward to contend the action.

In Australia, the rate can vary between states and between sectors. In the state of Victoria, teachers in a Catholic school can earn $41 per hour or $246 per day,[3] whereas in the New South Wales public school system, teachers can earn between $239 and $327 per day depending on experience.[4]

In the United States, the position's national average is about US$80 per day, with rural districts paying as low as $40 per day and larger, urban districts paying over $200 per day. The average in Southern California is $110 per day.[5][6] Most substitute teachers in the U.S. can be assigned to work in all academic subject areas as needed (except long-term substituting assignments). The substitute is generally responsible for closely following and continuing with the lesson plans left by the teacher, and to maintain student order and productivity. Substitute teachers can often work in multiple schools within one district, as well as for multiple school districts.

In the Republic of Ireland, substitute teachers are paid a rate of €20 to €45 per hour.

In Canada, substitute teachers are fully certified teachers, and are paid regular salary when employed as long-term occasionals (LTO), or paid a daily rate of about $200 per day.

In the United Kingdom, supply teachers employed by a local education authority or school directly must be paid a daily rate of 1/195 of the annual salary to which they would be entitled were they employed in the position on a full-time basis.[7] Teachers employed through agencies are not subject to this rule, unless they have been working for the same hiring institution for more than 12 weeks, but nevertheless daily rates are generally around UK£100–125.

Substitute Educator's Day[edit | edit source]

The United States observes a Substitute Educator's Day, which was instituted by the National Education Association (NEA). The purpose of this day is to highlight the role and importance of the substitute teacher by providing information about, advocating for, and helping to increase appreciation and respect for this unique professional. This day also focuses on the needs of substitutes, which include better wages and health benefits and continual professional development. Substitute Educator's Day is observed on the 3rd Friday of November during American Education Week. Other countries and jurisdictions have similar observances.[citation needed]

National Substitute Teacher Appreciation Week, or SubWeek, is also observed by many districts in the US and is held the first full week in May.[8]

Substitute teachers in fiction[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]

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