Psychology Wiki

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Cognitive Psychology: Attention · Decision making · Learning · Judgement · Memory · Motivation · Perception · Reasoning · Thinking  - Cognitive processes Cognition - Outline Index

Brain animated color nevit.gif

Types of stimulus (psychology)
Stimulus parameters
Related topics

Stimulus deprivation is the deprivation of stimulation of one kind or another. Included in this category is:

Impact on development[]

See also[]

References & Bibliography[]

Key texts[]


  • Goldberger, L. (1993). Sensory deprivation and overload. New York, NY: Free Press.


  • Adams, H. B. (1988). Studies in REST: III. REST, arousability, and the nature of alcohol and substance abuse: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment Vol 5(2) 1988, 77-81.
  • Aquino, C. C. (1982). Relationships between stimulus deprivation theory and creative communications: Journal of Creative Behavior Vol 16(2) 1982, 123-131.
  • Aschoff, J. (1993). On the passage of subjective time in temporal isolation: Psychologica Belgica Vol 33(2) 1993, 147-157.
  • Atkinson, R. P., & Sewell, M. M. (1988). Enhancement of visual perception under conditions of short-term exposure to sensory isolation: A comparison of procedures for altering vigilance: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 67(1) Aug 1988, 243-252.
  • Bagby, E. (1921). The psychological effects of oxygen deprivation: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 1(1) Feb 1921, 97-113.
  • Barabasz, A. F. (1990). Restricted environmental stimulation elicits spontaneous hypnosis for cold pressor pain control. -r (Trans H.-J. Hautkappe): Experimentelle und Klinische Hypnose Vol 6(2) 1990, 95-105.
  • Barabasz, A. F., Baer, L., Sheehan, D. V., & Barabasz, M. (1986). A three-year follow-up of hypnosis and restricted environmental stimulation therapy for smoking: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis Vol 34(3) Jul 1986, 169-181.
  • Barabasz, M. (1987). Trichotillomania: A new treatment: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis Vol 35(3) Jul 1987, 146-154.
  • Belozertseva, I. V., Sukhotina, I. A., Vossen, J. M. H., & Bespalov, A. Y. (2004). Facilitation of aggressive and sexual behaviors by saccharin deprivation in rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 80(4) Jan 2004, 531-539.
  • Binns, K. E., Withington, D. J., & Keating, M. J. (1995). The developmental emergence of the representation of auditory azimuth in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the guinea-pig: The effects of visual and auditory deprivation: Developmental Brain Research Vol 85(1) Mar 1995, 14-24.
  • Bohdanecky, Z., Indra, M., Lansky, P., & Radil-Weiss, T. (1984). Alternation of EEG alpha and non-alpha periods does not differ in open and closed eye condition in darkness: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis Vol 44(5) 1984, 229-232.
  • Borrie, R. A. (1990). The use of restricted environmental stimulation therapy in treating addictive behaviors: International Journal of the Addictions Vol 25(7A-8A) Jul 1990-1991, 995-1015.
  • Boutcher, S. H., & Trenske, M. (1990). The effects of sensory deprivation and music on perceived exertion and affect during exercise: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology Vol 12(2) Jun 1990, 167-176.
  • Brauer, L. H., Buican, B., & de Wit, H. (1994). Effects of caffeine deprivation on taste and mood: Behavioural Pharmacology Vol 5(2) Apr 1994, 111-118.
  • Bross, M., & Zubek, J. P. (1984). Changes in tactile sensitivity as a function of 14 days of auditory restriction: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 59(3) Dec 1984, 966.
  • Brouchon-Viton, M. (1975). Acquisition of visual-motor coordination: A lecture on recent experiences with kittens: Psychologie Francaise Vol 20(1-2) Sep 1975, 53-59.
  • Brown, M. F., & Bing, M. N. (1997). In the dark: Spatial choice when access to spatial cues is restricted: Animal Learning & Behavior Vol 25(1) Feb 1997, 21-30.
  • Canatsey, K., & Roper, J. M. (1997). Removal from stimuli for crisis intervention: Using least restrictive methods to improve the quality of patient care: Issues in Mental Health Nursing Vol 18(1) Jan-Feb 1997, 35-44.
  • Carvell, G. E., & Simons, D. J. (1996). Abnormal tactile experience early in life disrupts active touch: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 16(8) Apr 1996, 2750-2757.
  • Castro, L., Athanazio, R., Barbetta, M., Ramos, A. C., Angelo, A. L., Campos, I., et al. (2003). Central 5-HT-sub(2B/2C ) and 5-HT-sub-3 receptor stimulation decreases salt intake in sodium-depleted rats: Brain Research Vol 981(1-2) Aug 2003, 151-159.
  • Chalupa, L. M., Morrow, A. L., & Rhoades, R. W. (1978). Behavioral consequences of visual deprivation and restriction in the golden hamster: Experimental Neurology Vol 61(2) Sep 1978, 442-454.
  • Chang, F.-l. F., & Greenough, W. T. (1982). Lateralized effects of monocular training on dendritic branching in adult split-brain rats: Brain Research Vol 232(2) Jan 1982, 283-292.
  • Choh, V., Lew, M. Y., Nadel, M. W., & Wildsoet, C. F. (2006). Effects of interchanging hyperopic defocus and form deprivation stimuli in normal and optic nerve-sectioned chicks: Vision Research Vol 46(6-7) Mar 2006, 1070-1079.
  • Cleary, T. A., Clamon, C., Price, M., & Shullaw, G. (1988). A reduced stimulation unit: Effects on patients with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders: The Gerontologist Vol 28(4) Aug 1988, 511-514.
  • Coleman, S. R., Patterson, M. M., & Gormezano, I. (1966). Conditioned jaw movement in the rabbit: Deprivation procedure and saccharin concentration: Psychonomic Science Vol 6(1) 1966, 39-40.
  • Cooper, G. D., & Adams, H. B. (1988). Studies in REST: II. An overview of REST technology: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment Vol 5(2) 1988, 69-75.
  • Cooper, G. D., Adams, H. B., & Scott, J. C. (1988). Studies in REST: I. Reduced Environmental Stimulation Therapy (REST) and reduced alcohol consumption: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment Vol 5(2) 1988, 61-68.
  • Corke, P. P. (1964). Complex behavior in "old" and "young" rats: Psychological Reports 15(2) 1964, 371-376.
  • Dalrymple, A. J. (1989). Sensory extinction of stereotyped object-dropping: Identification of a reinforcer for skill training: Behavioral Residential Treatment Vol 4(2) Apr 1989, 99-111.
  • Denenberg, V. H., & et al. (1978). Infantile stimulation induces brain lateralization in rats: Science Vol 201(4361) Sep 1978, 1150-1152.
  • DiBattista, D. (1991). Examination of the negative alcohol-deprivation effect in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): Alcohol Vol 8(5) Sep-Oct 1991, 337-343.
  • Dick, M. B., Andel, R., Bricker, J., Gorospe, J. B., Hsieh, S., & Dick-Muehlke, C. (2001). Dependence on visual feedback during motor skill learning in Alzheimer's disease: Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition Vol 8(2) Jun 2001, 120-136.
  • Dorrian, J., Roach, G. D., Fletcher, A., & Dawson, D. (2006). The effects of fatigue on train handling during speed restrictions: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour Vol 9(4) Jul 2006, 243-257.
  • Ellemberg, D., Lewis, T. L., Defina, N., Maurer, D., Brent, H. P., Guillemot, J. P., et al. (2005). Greater losses in sensitivity to second-order local motion than to first-order local motion after early visual deprivation in humans: Vision Research Vol 45(22) Oct 2005, 2877-2884.
  • Erber, J. T. (1979). The institutionalized geriatric patient considered in a framework of developmental deprivation: Human Development Vol 22(3) 1979, 165-179.
  • Essock-Vitale, S. M. (1978). Comparison of ape and monkey modes of problem solution: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 92(5) Oct 1978, 942-957.
  • Fahy, T. A., DeSilva, P., Silverstone, P., & Russell, G. F. (1989). The effects of loss of taste and smell in a case of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 155 Dec 1989, 860-861.
  • Finitzo, T., Gunnarson, A. D., & Clark, J. L. (1990). Auditory deprivation and early conductive hearing loss from otitis media: Topics in Language Disorders Vol 11(1) Nov 1990, 29-42.
  • Forgays, D. G. (1987). Arousal and arousability in repeated isolation experiences: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 65(1) Aug 1987, 277-278.
  • Forgays, D. G. (1987). Flotation rest as a smoking intervention: Addictive Behaviors Vol 12(1) 1987, 85-90.
  • Forgays, D. G. (1989). Behavioral and physiological responses of stayers and quitters in underwater isolation: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 60(10, Sect 1) Oct 1989, 937-942.
  • Forgays, D. G., & Belinson, M. J. (1986). Is flotation isolation a relaxing environment? : Journal of Environmental Psychology Vol 6(1) Mar 1986, 19-34.
  • Forgays, D. G., & Forgays, D. K. (1992). Creativity enhancement through flotation isolation: Journal of Environmental Psychology Vol 12(4) Dec 1992, 329-335.
  • Forgays, D. G., & McClure, G. (1988). Heart-rate response to water-immersion isolation as a function of spatial orientation: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 67(1) Aug 1988, 163-167.
  • Friedrich, D., Libkuman, T., & Thomas, A. (1973). Input deficit and stimulus enrichment: A replication-with-expansion: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 77(6) May 1973, 687-693.
  • Fullgrabe, M. W., Vengeliene, V., & Spanagel, R. (2007). Influence of age at drinking onset on the alcohol deprivation effect and stress-induced drinking in female rats: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 86(2) Feb 2007, 320-326.
  • Galani, R., Jarrard, L. E., Will, B. E., & Kelche, C. (1997). Effects of postoperative housing conditions on functional recovery in rats with lesions of the hippocampus, subiculum, or entorhinal cortex: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory Vol 67(1) Jan 1997, 43-56.
  • Gao, Y., Hu, J., Guan, L., Kuang, P., Jiang, S., & Kuang, P. (1998). Expression of Jun-like protein in the hemisphere of the chick following monovisual deprivation and one-trial passive avoidance task: Acta Psychologica Sinica Vol 30(2) 1998, 187-192.
  • Garcia-Segura, L. M. (1977). Environment, behavior, and learning in adult mice: Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria Vol 35(1) Mar 1977, 49-56.
  • Geiger, J. F., & Barker, L. M. (1976). Alcohol consumption by rat and mouse strains: Functions of taste and alcohol deprivation: Journal of Studies on Alcohol Vol 37(7) Jul 1976, 950-958.
  • Gentilin, J. (1987). Room restriction: A therapeutic prescription: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services Vol 25(7) Jul 1987, 12-16.
  • Gonzalez, M. M. C., & Aston-Jones, G. (2008). Light deprivation damages monoamine neurons and produces a depressive behavioral phenotype in rats: PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Vol 105(12) Mar 2008, 4898-4903.
  • Gottschalk, J. M., Libby, M. E., & Graff, R. B. (2000). The effects of establishing operations on preference assessment outcomes: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 33(1) Spr 2000, 85-88.
  • Granqvist, P., & Larsson, M. (2006). Contribution of Religiousness in the Prediction and Interpretation of Mystical Experiences in a Sensory Deprivation Context: Activation of Religious Schemas: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied Vol 140(4) Jul 2006, 319-327.
  • Green, J., Pollak, C. P., & Smith, G. P. (1987). The effect of desynchronization on meal patterns of humans living in time isolation: Physiology & Behavior Vol 39(2) 1987, 203-209.
  • Hariu, T., & Ueno, H. (1964). Studies on sensory deprivation: II. With reference to the genetic process of perception: 4: Tohoku Psychologica Folia 22(3-4) 1964, 72-78.
  • Harminc, M. (1965). Influence of deprivation at an early age upon discriminative learning in rats: Psychologica 16(5) 1965, 263-276.
  • Harrison, J. R., & Barabasz, A. F. (1991). Effects of restricted environmental stimulation therapy on the behavior of children with autism: Child Study Journal Vol 21(3) 1991, 153-166.
  • Harrison, R. H., & Newirth, J. (1990). The effect of sensory deprivation and ego strength on a measure of autistic thinking: Journal of Personality Assessment Vol 54(3-4) Sum 1990, 694-703.
  • Hartman, E. C., & Klatt, K. P. (2005). The effects of deprivation, presession exposure, and preferences on teaching manding to children with autism: Analysis of Verbal Behavior Vol 21 2005, 135-144.
  • Hayashi, M., Morikawa, T., & Hori, T. (1992). EEG alpha activity and hallucinatory experience during sensory deprivation: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 75(2) Oct 1992, 403-412.
  • Heyser, C. J., Schulteis, G., & Koob, G. F. (1997). Increased ethanol self-administration after a period of imposed ethanol deprivation in rats trained in a limited access paradigm: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Vol 21(5) Aug 1997, 784-791.
  • Holter, S. M., Landgraf, R., Zieglgansberger, W., & Spanagel, R. (1997). Time course of acamprosate action on operant ethanol self-administration after ethanol deprivation: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Vol 21(5) Aug 1997, 862-868.
  • Hutchinson, R. R. (1972). The environmental causes of aggression: Nebraska Symposium on Motivation Vol 20 1972, 155-181.
  • Hyvarinen, J., & Hyvarinen, L. (1979). Blindness and modification of association cortex by early binocular deprivation in monkeys: Child Care, Health & Development Vol 5(6) Nov-Dec 1979, 385-387.
  • Ikeda, H. (1979). Physiological basis of visual acuity and its development in kittens: Child Care, Health & Development Vol 5(6) Nov-Dec 1979, 375-383.
  • Ison, J. R., & Black, H. (1965). The effects of deprivation level on differential-conditioning performance in rats: Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association 1965, 29-30.
  • Jackson, C. W., Jr., & Pollard, J. C. (1966). Some nondeprivation variables which influence the "effects" of experimental sensory deprivation: Journal of Abnormal Psychology Vol 71(5) Oct 1966, 383-388.
  • Jacobs, G. D., Heilbronner, R. L., & Stanley, J. M. (1984). The effects of short term Flotation REST on relaxation: A controlled study: Health Psychology Vol 3(2) 1984, 99-112.
  • Juliano, L. M., & Brandon, T. H. (1998). Reactivity to instructed smoking availability and environmental cues: Evidence with urge and reaction time: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 6(1) Feb 1998, 45-53.
  • Kalish, M. L. (1994). Idiosyncratic errors in visually directed reaching: Journal of Motor Behavior Vol 26(3) Sep 1994, 296-300.
  • Kaplan, G. M., & Barabasz, A. F. (1988). Enhancing hypnotizability: Differential effects of flotation Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique and Progressive Muscle Relaxation: Australian Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis Vol 16(1) May 1988, 39-51.
  • Kaye, M., Mitchell, D. E., & Cynader, M. (1981). Depth perception, eye alignment and cortical ocular dominance of dark-reared cats: Developmental Brain Research Vol 2(1) Aug 1981, 37-54.
  • Keilmann, A., & Herdegen, T. (1997). The c-Fos transcripition factor in the auditory pathway of the juvenile rat: Effects of acoustic deprivation and repetitive stimulation: Brain Research Vol 753(2) Apr 1997, 291-298.
  • Kirkwood, A., Rioult, M. G., & Bear, M. F. (1996). Experience-dependent modification of synaptic plasticity in visual cortex: Nature Vol 381(6582) Jun 1996, 526-528.
  • Klippel, J. A. (1978). Behavioral persistence following switchovers between environmental enrichment and impoverishment in mice: Developmental Psychobiology Vol 11(6) Nov 1978, 541-557.
  • Komisaruk, B. R., & Whipple, B. (1998). Love as sensory stimulation: Physiological consequences of its deprivation and expression: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 23(8) Nov 1998, 927-944.
  • Kriel, Y., Hampson, D. B., Lambert, E. V., Tucker, R., Albertus, Y., Claassen, A., et al. (2007). Visual stimulus deprivation and manipulation of auditory timing signals on pacing strategy: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 105(3, Pt 2) Dec 2007, 1227-1241.
  • Kumar, A., & Schliebs, R. (1992). Postnatal laminar development of cholinergic receptors, protein kinase C and dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium antagonist binding in rat visual cortex: Effect of visual deprivation: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience Vol 10(6) Dec 1992, 491-504.
  • Lancioni, G. E., O'Reilly, M. F., Singh, N. N., Oliva, D., Montironi, G., & Chierchie, S. (2004). Assessing a New Response-microswitch Combination With a Boy With Minimal Motor Behavior: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 98(2) Apr 2004, 459-462.
  • Landis, D. (1968). Erratum: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 13 (9), Sep, 1968.
  • Landis, D. (1968). Making the First Course Interesting: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 13 (5), May, 1968.
  • Lawton, M. P., Van Haitsma, K., Klapper, J., Kleban, M. H., Katz, I. R., & Corn, J. (1998). A stimulation-retreat special care unit for elders with dementing illness: International Psychogeriatrics Vol 10(4) Dec 1998, 379-395.
  • Lickliter, R., & Lewkowicz, D. J. (1995). Intersensory experience and early perceptual development: Attenuated prenatal sensory stimulation affects postnatal auditory and visual responsiveness in bobwhite quail chicks (Colinus virginianus): Developmental Psychology Vol 31(4) Jul 1995, 609-618.
  • Lickliter, R., Lewkowicz, D. J., & Columbus, R. F. (1996). Intersensory experience and early perceptual development: The role of spatial contiguity in bobwhite quail chicks' responsiveness to multimodal maternal cues: Developmental Psychobiology Vol 29(5) Jul 1996, 403-416.
  • Lightfoot, D. (2006). Minimizing government: Deletion as cliticization: Linguistic Review Vol 23(2) 2006, 97-126.
  • Loarer, E., & Savoyant, A. (1991). Visual imagery in locomotor movement without vision. Oxford, England: North-Holland.
  • Losey, G. S. (1979). Fish cleaning symbiosis: Proximate causes of host behaviour: Animal Behaviour Vol 27(3) Aug 1979, 669-685.
  • Maciejczyk, J. (1983). Effect of limited stimulation on psychomotoric and intellectual performance as dependent on temperamental properties: Przeglad Psychologiczny Vol 26(1) 1983, 93-102.
  • Macphail, E. M. (1966). Self-stimulation in pigeons: The problem of "priming." Psychonomic Science Vol 5(1) 1966, 7-8.
  • Maier, R. A. (1963). Maternal behavior in the domestic hen: The role of pretest restriction of movement: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 56(2) Apr 1963, 350-356.
  • Marcucella, H. (1989). Predicting the amount of ethanol consumed per bout from schedule of access to ethanol: Animal Learning & Behavior Vol 17(1) Feb 1989, 101-112.
  • McGrady, A., Turner, J. W., Fine, T. H., & Higgins, J. T. (1987). Effects of biobehaviorally-assisted relaxation training on blood pressure, plasma renin, cortisol, and aldosterone levels in borderline essential hypertension: Clinical Biofeedback & Health: An International Journal Vol 10(1) Spr-Sum 1987, 16-25.
  • McGuigan, N. (2007). Can young preschool children be trained to perform percept deprivation tasks? : Journal of Genetic Psychology Vol 168(1) Mar 2007, 37-42.
  • Moline, M. L., Monk, T. H., Wagner, D. R., Pollak, C. P., & et al. (1986). Human growth hormone release is decreased during sleep in temporal isolation (free-running): Chronobiologia Vol 13(1) Jan-Mar 1986, 13-19.
  • Monk, T. H., Moline, M. L., & Graeber, R. C. (1988). Inducing jet lag in the laboratory: Patterns of adjustment to an acute shift in routine: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 59(8) Aug 1988, 703-710.
  • Myers, S. (1990). Seclusion: A last resort measure: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care Vol 26(3) 1990, 24-28.
  • Myers, S. (1991). "Seclusion: A last resort measure": Correction: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care Vol 27(2) 1991, 15.
  • Nil, R., Woodson, P. P., & Battig, K. (1987). Effects of smoking deprivation on smoking behavior and heart rate response in high and low CO absorbing smokers: Psychopharmacology Vol 92(4) Aug 1987, 465-469.
  • Norlander, T., Bergman, H., & Archer, T. (1998). Effects of flotation rest on creative problem solving and originality: Journal of Environmental Psychology Vol 18(4) Dec 1998, 399-408.
  • Norlander, T., Kjellgren, A., & Archer, T. (2000). The experience of flotation-rest as a function of setting and previous experience of altered state of consciousness: Imagination, Cognition and Personality Vol 20(2) 2000-2001, 161-178.
  • Norlander, T., Kjellgren, A., & Archer, T. (2002). Effects of flotation-versus chamber-Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique (REST) on creativity and realism under stress and non-stress conditions: Imagination, Cognition and Personality Vol 22(4) 2002-2003, 343-359.
  • Novikova, L. A. (1988). Neurophysiological mechanisms of vision and hearing disorders in children: Defektologiya No 1 1988, 8-15.
  • Odom, R. D. (1964). Effects of auditory and visual stimulus deprivation and satiation on children's performance in an operant task: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 1(1) 1964, 16-25.
  • Odom, R. D. (1965). Chilren's performance as a function of the degree of visual stimulus deprivation and satiation: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 69(6) Jun 1965, 618-623.
  • Okada, F., Kinoshita, S., & Ichikawa, K. (1996). A case of panic disorder induced by complete isolation experiment: European Psychiatry Vol 11(5) 1996, 268-269.
  • Parent, L. H. (1978). Effects of a low-stimulus environment on behavior: American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 32(1) Jan 1978, 19-25.
  • Pasternak, T., & Merigan, W. H. (1984). Effects of stimulus speed on direction discriminations: Vision Research Vol 24(10) 1984, 1349-1355.
  • Persinger, M. A. (1999). Increased emergence of alpha activity over the left but not the right temporal lobe within a dark acoustic chamber: Differential response of the left but not the right hemisphere to transcerebral magnetic fields: International Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 34(2) Nov 1999, 163-169.
  • Peterson, V., Simonsen, H. B., & Lawson, L. G. (1995). The effect of environmental stimulation on the development of behavior in pigs: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 45(3-4) Nov 1995, 215-224.
  • Pinel, J. P., Symons, L. A., Christensen, B. K., & Tees, R. C. (1989). Development of defensive burying in Rattus norvegicus: Experience and defensive responses: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 103(4) Dec 1989, 359-365.
  • Ponton, C. W., Don, M., Eggermont, J. J., Waring, M. D., Kwong, B., & Masuda, A. (1996). Auditory system plasticity in children after long periods of complete deafness: Neuroreport: An International Journal for the Rapid Communication of Research in Neuroscience Vol 8(1) Dec 1996, 61-65.
  • Post, R. M., & Altshuler, L. L. (1988). Impact of visual cues on extreme pressure of manic speech: Preliminary observations and report of two cases: Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, & Behavioral Neurology Vol 1(3) Fal 1988, 229-232.
  • Quay, H. C. (1965). Psychopathic personality as pathological stimulation-seeking: American Journal of Psychiatry 122(2) 1965, 180-183.
  • Rajecki, D. W., Grams, J. R., Stursa, S., & Nerenz, D. R. (1978). Mediating factors in chick social pecking: II. Effects of exposure to movement: Aggressive Behavior Vol 4(4) 1978, 331-343.
  • Reed, G. F., & Kenna, J. C. (1964). Sex differences in body imagery and orientation under sensory deprivation of brief duration: Perceptual and Motor Skills 18(1) 1964, 117-118.
  • Renner, K. E. (1966). Temporal integration: The effect of early experience: Journal of Experimental Research in Personality 1(3) 1966, 201-210.
  • Reymond, E., & Rogers, L. J. (1981). Deprivation of the visual and tactile aspects of food important to learning performance of an appetitive task by chicks: Behavioral & Neural Biology Vol 31(4) Apr 1981, 425-434.
  • Reynolds, G. S. (1964). Temporally spaced responding by pigeons: Development and effects of deprivation and extinction: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 7(6) 1964, 415-421.
  • Reynolds, R. I. (1989). Auditory and visual distance estimation after active or passive visual deprivation: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 27(3) May 1989, 237-238.
  • Richards, T. L., Kozak, L., Johnson, L. C., & Standish, L. J. (2005). Replicable functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence of correlated brain signals between physically and sensory isolated subjects: The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine Vol 11(6) Dec 2005, 955-963.
  • Rieser, J. J., & Rider, E. A. (1991). Young children's spatial orientation with respect to multiple targets when walking without vision: Developmental Psychology Vol 27(1) Jan 1991, 97-107.
  • Rinderer, T. E., & Baxter, J. R. (1979). Honey bee hoarding behaviour: Effects of previous stimulation by empty comb: Animal Behaviour Vol 27(2) May 1979, 426-428.
  • Rodd-Hendricks, Z. A., Bell, R. L., Kuc, K. A., Murphy, J. M., McBride, W. J., Lumeng, L., et al. (2001). Effects of concurrent access to multiple ethanol concentrations and repeated deprivations on alcohol intake of alcohol-preferring rats: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Vol 25(8) Aug 2001, 1140-1150.
  • Rodd-Hendricks, Z. A., McKinzie, D. L., Murphy, J. M., McBride, W. J., Lumeng, L., & Li, T.-K. (2000). The expression of an alcohol deprivation effect in the high-alcohol-drinking replicate rat lines is dependent on repeated deprivations: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Vol 24(6) Jun 2000, 747-753.
  • Rodd-Henricks, Z. A., McKinzie, D. L., Shaikh, S. R., Murphy, J. M., McBride, W. J., Lumeng, L., et al. (2000). Alcohol deprivation effect is prolonged in the alcohol preferring (P) rat after repeated deprivations: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Vol 24(1) Jan 2000, 8-16.
  • Rommetveit, R. (1965). Stages in concept formation: II. Effects of an extra intention to verbalize the concept and of stimulus predifferentiation: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 6(1) 1965, 59-64.
  • Ruben, R. J. (1984). An inquiry into the minimal amount of auditory deprivation which results in a cognitive effect in man: Acta Oto-Laryngologica Suppl 414 1984, 157-164.
  • Sachs, B. D. (1997). Erection evoked in male rats by airborne scent from estrous females: Physiology & Behavior Vol 62(4) Oct 1997, 921-924.
  • Sackett, G. P. (1965). Effects of rearing conditions upon the behavior of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): Child Development 36(4) 1965, 855-868.
  • Sakata, S., Shinohara, J., Hori, T., & Sugimoto, S. (1995). Enhancement of randomness by flotation rest (restricted environmental stimulation technique): Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 80(3, Pt 1) Jun 1995, 999-1010.
  • Samson, H. H., & Chappell, A. (2001). Effects of alcohol deprivation on alcohol consumption using a sipper-tube procedure: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Vol 25(5) May 2001, 680-686.
  • Schulz, P., & Kaspar, C.-H. (1994). Neuroendocrine and psychological effects of restricted environmental stimulation technique in a flotation tank: Biological Psychology Vol 37(2) Mar 1994, 161-175.
  • Schumann, D. W. (2004). Media factors that contribute to a restriction of exposure to diversity. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Sharma, A., Gilley, P. M., Dorman, M. F., & Baldwin, R. (2007). Deprivation-induced cortical reorganization in children with cochlear implants: International Journal of Audiology Vol 46(9) Sep 2007, 494-499.
  • Simone, S. S., & Long, M. A. (1985). The behavioral treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum: the Behavior Therapist Vol 8(7) Jul-Aug 1985, 128-129.
  • Sipprelle, C. N., Long, T. E., & Lucik, T. W. (1963). Qualitative changes in verbal response as a function of stimulus deprivation: Journal of Clinical Psychology 19(3) 1963, 287-289.
  • Spear, P. D., Tong, L., McCall, M. A., & Pasternak, T. (1985). Developmentally induced loss of direction-selective neurons in the cat's lateral suprasylvian visual cortex: Developmental Brain Research Vol 20(2) Jun 1985, 281-285.
  • Storey, P. L., Wright, R. A., & Williams, B. J. (1996). Need as a moderator of the difficulty-cardiovascular response relation: The case of fluid deprivation: Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 10(3) 1996, 228-238.
  • Suedfeld, P. (1983). The Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique in the modification of addictive behaviors: Through the centuries to frontiers for the Eighties: Bulletin of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors Vol 2(4) Fal 1983, 231-237.
  • Suedfeld, P. (1990). Restricted environmental stimulation and smoking cessation: A 15-year progress report: International Journal of the Addictions Vol 25(8) 1990, 861-888.
  • Suedfeld, P., & Baker-Brown, G. (1986). Restricted environmental stimulation therapy and aversion conditioning in smoking cessation: Active and placebo effects: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 24(4) 1986, 421-428.
  • Suedfeld, P., & Baker-Brown, G. (1987). Restricted environmental stimulation therapy of smoking: A parametric study: Addictive Behaviors Vol 12(3) 1987, 263-267.
  • Suedfeld, P., Ballard, E. J., Baker-Brown, G., & Borrie, R. A. (1985). Flow of consciousness in restricted environmental stimulation: Imagination, Cognition and Personality Vol 5(3) 1985-1986, 219-230.
  • Suedfeld, P., & Borrie, R. A. (1999). Health and therapeutic applications of chamber and flotation restricted environmental stimulation therapy (REST): Psychology & Health Vol 14(3) May 1999, 545-566.
  • Suedfeld, P., & Bruno, T. (1990). Flotation REST and imagery in the improvement of athletic performance: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology Vol 12(1) Mar 1990, 82-85.
  • Suedfeld, P., & Coren, S. (1989). Perceptual isolation, sensory deprivation, and rest: Moving introductory psychology texts out of the 1950s: Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne Vol 30(1) Jan 1989, 17-29.
  • Suedfeld, P., & Eich, E. (1995). Autobiographical memory and affect under conditions of reduced environmental stimulation: Journal of Environmental Psychology Vol 15(4) Dec 1995, 321-326.
  • Suedfeld, P., & Kristeller, J. L. (1982). Stimulus reduction as a technique in health psychology: Health Psychology Vol 1(4) Fal 1982, 337-357.
  • Suedfeld, P., Metcalfe, J., & Bluck, S. (1987). Enhancement of scientific creativity by flotation REST (restricted environmental stimulation technique): Journal of Environmental Psychology Vol 7(3) Sep 1987, 219-231.
  • Suedfeld, P., Ramirez, C. E., Remick, R. A., & Fleming, J. A. (1987). Memory effects of restricted environmental stimulation therapy (REST) and possible applications to ECT: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 11(2-3) 1987, 179-184.
  • Suedfeld, P., Ramirez, C. E., Remick, R. A., & Fleming, J. A. (1989). Reduction of post-ECT memory complaints through brief, partial restricted environmental stimulation (REST): Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 13(5) 1989, 693-700.
  • Suedfeld, P., & Schwartz, G. (1983). Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy (REST) as a treatment for autistic children: Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics Vol 4(3) Sep 1983, 196-201.
  • Tapert, S. F., Brown, G. G., Baratta, M. V., & Brown, S. A. (2004). fMRI BOLD response to alcohol stimuli in alcohol dependent young women: Addictive Behaviors Vol 29(1) Jan 2004, 33-50.
  • Thaw, A. K., Frankmann, S., & Hill, D. L. (2000). Behavioral taste responses of developmentally NaCl-restricted rats to various concentrations of NaCl: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 114(2) Apr 2000, 437-441.
  • Togashi, T., & Ito, Y. (1994). Aggressive behavior of an autistic child: Report of a case study with treatment by sensory unification integration: Japanese Journal of Special Education Vol 31(5) Mar 1994, 77-82.
  • Tomie, A., Mohamed, W. M., & Pohorecky, L. A. (2005). Effects of Age on Pavlovian Autoshaping of Ethanol Drinking in Non-Deprived Rats: International Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 18(2) 2005, 167-177.
  • Treichler, F. R., & Homick, J. L. (1966). Pretraining influence on relationship between extent of deprivation and probability learning performance: Psychological Reports 18(3) 1966, 689-690.
  • Treichler, F. R., & Marsella, A. J. (1965). Extent of deprivation and probability learning performance: Psychological Reports 16(3, Pt 1) 1965, 915-916.
  • Turner, J. W., Fine, T., Ewy, G., Sershon, P., & et al. (1989). The presence or absence of light during flotation restricted environmental stimulation: Effects on plasma cortisol, blood pressure, and mood: Biofeedback & Self Regulation Vol 14(4) Dec 1989, 291-300.
  • Turner, J. W., & Fine, T. H. (1983). Effects of relaxation associated with brief restricted environmental stimulation therapy (REST) on plasma cortisol, ACTH, and LH: Biofeedback & Self Regulation Vol 8(1) Mar 1983, 115-126.
  • Turyabahika-Thyen, K., & Wolffgramm, J. (2006). Loss of Flexibility in Alcohol-Taking Rats: Promoting Factors: European Addiction Research Vol 12(4) 2006, 210-221.
  • Tusa, R. J., Mustari, M. J., Burrows, A. F., & Fuchs, A. F. (2001). Gaze-stabilizing deficits and latent nystagmus in monkeys with brief, early-onset visual deprivation: Eye movement recordings: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 86(2) Aug 2001, 651-661.
  • Van Liere, D. W., & Wiepkema, P. R. (1992). Effects of long-term deprivation of sand on dustbathing behaviour in laying hens: Animal Behaviour Vol 43(4) Apr 1992, 549-558.
  • Vaughter, R. M., Tyer, Z. E., & Halcomb, C. G. (1966). Discrimination performance in deprived and non-deprived rats as a function of pre-discrimination information: Psychonomic Science Vol 5(5) 1966, 199-200.
  • Walker, W. R., Freeman, R. F., & Christensen, D. K. (1994). Restricting environmental stimulation (REST) to enhance cognitive behavioral treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder with schizotypal personality disorder: Behavior Therapy Vol 25(4) Fal 1994, 709-719.
  • Wallbaum, A. B., Rzewnicki, R., Steele, H., & Suedfeld, P. (1991). Progressive muscle relaxation and restricted environmental stimulation therapy for chronic tension headache: A pilot study: International Journal of Psychosomatics Vol 38(1-4), Spec Issue 1991, 33-39.
  • Walters, C., Parsons, O. A., & Shurley, J. T. (1964). Male-female differences in underwater sensory isolation: British Journal of Psychiatry 110(465) 1964, 290-295.
  • Weatherly, J. N., Nurnberger, J. T., & Hanson, B. C. (2005). Investigating the procedural variables that determine whether rats will display negative anticipatory contrast or positive induction: Behavioural Processes Vol 70(1) Aug 2005, 10-18.
  • Weems, L. B., Jr., & Walker, E. L. (1964). Speed and basal resistance level (BRL) in a segmented straight alley as a function of alteration of the stimulus, gentling, and isolation: Psychological Record 14(4) 1964, 515-519.
  • Weil-Halpern, F. (1982). Family circle: Effect of hospital environment upon infant: Revue de Medecine Psychosomatique et de Psychologie Medicale Vol 24(4) 1982, 413-418.
  • Wenzel, B. M. (1970). A Word in Search of a Meaning: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 15 (1), Jan, 1970.
  • Wolf, G. (1982). Refined salt appetite methodology for rats demonstrated by assessing sex differences: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 96(6) Dec 1982, 1016-1021.
  • Wu, M.-L., & Chiao, C.-C. (2007). Light deprivation delays morphological differentiation of bipolar cells in the rabbit retina: Brain Research Vol 1170 Sep 2007, 13-19.
  • Yashiro, K., Corlew, R., & Philpot, B. D. (2005). Visual Deprivation Modifies Both Presynaptic Glutamate Release and the Composition of Perisynaptic/Extrasynaptic NMDA Receptors in Adult Visual Cortex: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 25(50) Dec 2005, 11684-11692.
  • Zalewska, M. M. (1991). Deprivation of auditory sensations and its meaning in psychological development: Journal of the American Deafness and Rehabilitation Association Vol 24(3-4) Jan-Apr 1991, 86-87.
  • Zernicki, B. (1997). Reversal of visual discrimination and visual acute extinction in cats with poor or limited early visual experience: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis Vol 57(4) 1997, 323-328.
  • Zubek, J. P. (1964). Effects of prolonged sensory and perceptual deprivation: British Medical Bulletin 20(1) 1964, 38-42.

Additional material[]




  • Ballard, E. J. (1990). The use of flotation REST in the treatment of persistent psychophysiological insomnia: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Christensen, D. K. (1995). Effects of dry flotation REST, natural environment video presentation, and hypnotizability on recovery from induced stress. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Collins, C. E. (1998). Anatomical, behavioral and hormonal correlates of song deprivation in the zebra finch. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering
  • Dyer, R. A. (1992). The effects of Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy on the production of specific food aversions in obese females: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Geist, C. R. (1976). Environmental isolation, incentive by temperature stress, and protein-calorie malnutrition as determinants of the performance of rats in the modified Hebb-Williams closed-field maze: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Harrison, J. R. (1990). Effects of restricted environmental stimulation (REST) on the behavior of children with autism: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kaplan, G. M. (1986). Enhancing hypnotizability: Differential effects of flotation restricted environmental stimulation technique and progressive muscle relaxation: Dissertation Abstracts International
  • Kaye, M. E. (1988). The effects of brief flotation REST on physiological, cognitive, and mood measures: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kelly, T. H. (1984). The effects of methadone on the behavioral mechanisms of conditioned reinforcement and deprivation in the pigeon: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • McAleney, P. J. (1991). The effects of restricted environment stimulation and visual imagery on athletic performance: Intercollegiate tennis: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ruzyla-Smith, P. A. (1993). Effects of hypnosis and restricted environmental stimulation therapy on the immune response: B- and T- cells, helper and suppressor cells: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Walker, S. E. (1985). A comparative analysis of aerobic exercise, restricted environmental stimulation (floatation), and stress management training on physiological and psychological measures of stress: Dissertation Abstracts International.

External links[]