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Socionics is a theory of information processing and personality type, distinguished by its information model of the psyche (called Model A) and a model of interpersonal relations. It incorporates Carl Jung's work on Psychological Types with Antoni Kępiński's theory of information metabolism. Socionics is a modification of Jung's personality type theory that uses eight psychic functions, in contrast to Jung's model, which used only four. These functions process information at varying levels of competency and interact with the corresponding function in other individuals, giving rise to predictable reactions and impressions—a theory of intertype relations.
Socionics was developed in the 1970s and '80s, primarily by the Lithuanian researcher Aušra Augustinavičiūtė, an economist, sociologist, and dean of the Vilnius Pedagogical University's department of family science. The name socionics is derived from the word "society", since Augustinavičiūtė believed that each personality type has a distinct purpose in society, which can be described and explained by socionics.
The central idea of socionics is that information is intuitively divisible into eight different categories, called information aspects or information elements, which a person's psyche processes using eight psychological functions. Each sociotype has a different correspondence between functions and information elements, which results in different ways of perceiving, processing, and producing information. This in turn results in distinct thinking patterns, values, and responses to arguments, all of which are encompassed within socionic type. Socionics' theory of intertype relations is based on the interaction of these functions between types. 
- 1 Historical development
- 2 Jung's psychological types
- 3 Information elements
- 4 The 16 types
- 5 Model A
- 6 Intertype relations
- 7 Groups of types
- 8 Other models
- 9 Methods of type identification
- 10 Weaknesses and criticism of Socionics
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
The basic structure of socionics was established in the 1960s and 1970s by Aushra Augusta (formerly Augustinavichiute), the founder of Socionics, along with a group of enthusiasts that met in Vilnius, Lithuania. What resulted from their discussions and Augusta's personal investigations was an information model of the psyche and of interpersonal interaction based on Jung's typology but with 8 psychic functions rather than four. Augusta's first works on socionics were published between 1978 and 1980, and after that an awareness of the new field of socionics slowly began to spread to other cities around the Soviet Union. 
There are several socionics organizations across the former Soviet Union today. While some include the word "institute" in their titles, they are not officially accredited academic institutions. 
The International Institute of Socionics - International Institute of Socionics (IIS) - was established in 1991 in Kiev, Ukraine and for years has held the most prominent annual socionics conference. The institute pursues the continued development of socionics theory, renders commercial consulting services, and since 1994 has released a bi-monthly journal (six issues a year). Topics in the journal usually range anywhere from studies and applications of the primary principles of socionics to speculative extensions of the theory. The director and founder of the institute is Dr. Alexander Bukalov. In 2006 the institute established an academic board to issue bachelors, masters, and PhD degrees in socionics to socionists who had demonstrated competency in socionics and published significant work in the field. However, these degrees are not recognized as official outside of the socionics community. 
The Scientific Research Socionics Institute  is located in Moscow, Russia and is led by Tatyana Prokofieva. The institute primarily studies socionics, personality and relationships within a socionics context, and develops methods of individual and business consulting. Furthermore, the institute provides socionics instruction allowing participants to receive a "bachelors" or "masters" degree in socionics according to the criteria of the International Institute of Socionics.
According to information published in the journal Socionics, Mentology and Personality Psychology, in 1995 Russia's Academy of Natural Sciences (RANS) recognized socionics as a discovery, and its creator - Aušra Augustinavičiūtė - was awarded a diploma and a Peter Kapitza medal. 
Socionics in the former Soviet Union today
In the Russian-speaking world (primarily Russia and Ukraine, but also the Baltic States, Central Asia, and Russian communities abroad) socionics has grown significantly in popularity, and is now a topic of discussion among large numbers of amateurs, as well as a group of a few hundred professionals. Clubs for socializing, theoretical discussion, exchange of experience, and other activity exist in many large cities across the former USSR. A couple of journals exist, as well as a number of organizations which periodically hold conferences in Kiev, Moscow, St. Petersburg, and other cities. 
Currently, Socionics is a topic of discussion and a way of thinking for a large number of people in post-Soviet states, especially in Russia, Ukraine and the Baltics. In mid-2009, Socionics populated more than 2 million pages in RuNet [a Russian search engine] (for comparison, at the same time, Christianity - 12 million pages of Marxism - 2 million pages).[dead link]
. Russian language socionics literature is abundant in these countries, and talk shows have featured socionics on their YouTube.com, news, and radio stations.
Socionists have devised humanitarian, political, and information technologies that have been applied to various fields of human activity. Socionic techniques have been applied at more than 120 enterprises from Russia, Ukraine and the Baltics by members of the International Institute of Socionics. At the same time, socionics is relatively unknown outside the former Soviet Union and exists as a small online movement. 
In the west
In the western hemisphere, the socionics community is mainly limited to the internet due to its novelty and lack of official academic status. It was first introduced in English in the mid-1990s when Ukrainian emigrant Sergei Ganin created Socionics.com. Dmitri Lytov, creator of the multi-language socionics resource Socioniko.net, presented a more classical model of socionics, and participated in online discussions in English. In 2006, Rick DeLong published hand translations of excerpts of several works by Augusta at Socionics.us which clarified her beliefs about the subject. Socionics is little known among psychologists outside of the former USSR, and no significant research on socionics has been published in English-language peer reviewed scientific journals. Access to Russian-language articles, journals, and particularly books is difficult unless their texts can be found online.
Jung's psychological types
- Main article: Psychological Types
- iNtuitive — perception by way of the theorerical, conceptual, possible, or perception of theorerical, conceptual, possible events
- Thinking (in socionics, logic) — interpretation of information based on correctness, strengthes, and weaknesses
- Feeling (in socionics, ethics) — interpretation of information based on its ethical aspects
- Sensation — all perceptions by means of the sense organs
By Jung's rules 16 psychological types exist. But in his book ‘‘Psychological Types’’ he described in detail only 8 types, distinguished by the eight possible dominant functions.
In socionics, Jung's functions are always introverted or extroverted, and are referred to as functions of information metabolism. These functions are said to process information aspects. To understand what an information aspect is, it is necessary to understand information metabolism as Augustinavičiūtė understood it.
Augustinavičiūtė states that the perception of the world through the human mind uses eight elements of information metabolism (mental functions), each of which reflects one particular aspect of objective reality. In her works she describes aspects of the world based on physical quantities such as potential and kinetic energy, space, time, and their properties.
Oftentimes other socionists have equated the information elements with their definition according to fundamental physical concepts as well (Matter-Time-Energy-Space) (E. Filatova), V. Ermak. T. Dukhovskoi. Matter compared to Thinking, Energy to Feeling, Space to Sensing, Time to Intuition. Given the division of aspects of the absolute between Extroverted ("black") and Introverted ("white"), being four times two, their number is eight.
The 8 socionics symbols () were introduced by Augusta while working with Jung's typology  and remain the dominant method of denoting the functions and the corresponding information aspects that they process. Other notation systems also enjoy some use, such as Victor Gulenko's 8 Latin letters (P, E, F, I, L, R, S, and T, correspondingly). Among western enthusiasts, Myers-Briggs notation (Ni, Ti, Fi, Se, Ne, Te, Fe, and Se, correspondingly) is popular.
|Element||Abstracted definition||English Acronym||Symbol||Description|
|Introverted intuition||internal dynamics of fields||Ni||Ni is responsible for the estimation of the passage of time, the understanding of a course of processes in time, and forecasting. Ni understand how things change and evolve over time and throughout history. Ni is acutely aware of events that are occurring outside of the immediate perception of the moment, and sees events as part of a continuous flow. Ni perceives the inevitability of future events and notices ties to the past. Ni observes behavioral patterns and can assess a person's character.|
|Introverted logic (thinking)||internal statics of objects||Ti||Ti is responsible for understanding logic and structure, categorizations, ordering and priorities, logical analysis and distinctions, logical explanations, and the derivation of true statements from "self-evident" rules (axioms). Ti interprets information according to how it fits into a system. Ti is particularly aware of syntactic correctness and how concepts relate to each other in meaning and structure.|
|Introverted ethics (feeling)||internal statics of objects||Fi||Fi is responsible for understanding the quality, nature, and proper maintenance of personal relations; makes moral judgments; and aspires to humanism and kindness. Fi has a strong understanding of the social hierarchy and how people feel about each other, their attitudes of like or dislike, enthrallment or disgust, repulsion or attraction, enmity or friendship.|
|Introverted sensing||internal dynamics of fields||Si||Si is responsible for perception of physical sensations; questions of comfort, coziness, and pleasure; and a sense of harmony and acclimation with one's environment (especially physical). Si understand how well a person or thing's behavior agrees with its nature as well as the differences between comfortable behaviors and positions and uncomfortable ones.|
|Extraverted intuition||external dynamics of fields||Ne||Ne is responsible for understanding the essence (permanent traits) of a thing, estimating opportunities and possibilities for people and things, and visualizing potential outcomes of events. It is responsible for the sense of interest or boredom. Ne will speculate as to why an event occurs, but sees the specific event as static and unalterable.|
|Extraverted logic (thinking)||external statics of objects||Te||Te is efficiency of an action, technical processes, the accomplishment of work, the efficient and prudent use of resources, factual accuracy, and the acquisition of relevant and useful information. Te understands the difference between effective and ineffective behavior when performing a procedure or accomplishing a task, and aspires to increase the frequency of productive outcomes within a system.|
|Extraverted ethics (feeling)||external statics of objects||Fe||Fe is responsible for the perception of an emotional state in an individual and the bodily and linguistic expression of emotions. Fe is able to influence others' emotional condition and to communicate its own, "infecting" others. Fe is used especially in generating and recognizing excitement and enthusiasm.|
|Extraverted sensing||external dynamics of fields||Se||Se is responsible for the perception, control, defense, and acquisition of space, territory, and control. It observes outward appearances, estimates whether forces are in alignment or conflict, and uses strength of will and power-based methods to achieve purposes. Se understands territory and physical aggression. It is also the function of contact and apprehension of qualia.|
The 16 types
Socionics divides people into 16 different types, called sociotypes. They are most commonly referred to by their two strongest functions, which in socionics are called the leading function (Jung's dominant) and the creative function (Jung's auxiliary). The creative function is opposite to the leading function in extraversion and rationality. For example, if the dominant function is introverted logic (a rational and introverted function), the secondary function must be irrational and extraverted, which means it must be either extraverted sensing or extraverted intuition.
Aušra Augustinavičiūtė usually used names like sensory-logical introvert (SLI) to refer to the types. In SLI the leading function is introverted sensing and the creative function is extraverted logic. She also introduced the practice of referring to types by the name of a famous person of the type (although types of these persons are not universally agreed upon, especially about "Napoleon"). For example, she called the SLI Gabin and the SEI Dumas. Also sometimes names such as Craftsman or Mediator are used to express the social role of the type—a convention introduced by socionist Viktor Gulenko in 1995. MBTI abbreviations are used frequently in English, given the formal similarities present in the two typologies. Some prefer to distinguish socionic type names from Myers-Briggs' names by writing the last letter (J or P) in lower case (for example, ENTp, ESFj) -- a practice introduced by Sergei Ganin.  This is because the relationship between socionics and Myers-Briggs/Keirseyan types is controversial and most socionists deny any strict relationship between the two, so the difference in terminology helps to differentiate the two.
In dividing the socion according to the four Jungian dichotomies, from this is formed 16 socionic types. The following tables provide a list of types with the names most commonly used in socionics:
|First two functions||Formal names||Formal full names||MBTI names||Quadra names||Social roles||Type aliases|
|ILi||Intuitive logical introvert||INTJ||INTp||Analyst / Mastermind||Balzac|
|IEi||Intuitive ethical introvert||INFJ||INFp||Humanist / Empath||Yesenin|
|ILe||Intuitive logical extravert||ENTP||ENTp||Seeker / Inventor||Don Quixote|
|IEe||Intuitive ethical extravert||ENFP||ENFp||Psychologist / Reporter||Huxley|
|LIi||Logical intuitive introvert||INTP||INTj||Critic / Observer||Robespierre (or Descartes)|
|LSi||Logical sensory introvert||ISTP||ISTj||Craftsman / Artisan||Maxim Gorky|
|LIe||Logical intuitive extravert||ENTJ||ENTj||Enterpriser / Pioneer||Jack London|
|LSe||Logical sensory extravert||ESTJ||ESTj||Administrator / Director||Stirlitz (or Sherlock Holmes)|
|ESi||Ethical sensory introvert||ISFP||ISFj||Lyricist / Romantic||Dreiser|
|EIi||Ethical intuitive introvert||INFP||INFj||Mediator / Peacemaker||Dostoyevsky|
|ESe||Ethical sensory extravert||ESFJ||ESFj||Bonvivant / Enthusiast||Hugo|
|EIe||Ethical intuitive extravert||ENFJ||ENFj||Mentor / Actor||Hamlet|
|SEi||Sensory ethical introvert||ISFJ||ISFp||Guardian / Conservator||Dumas|
|SLi||Sensory logical introvert||ISTJ||ISTp||Inspector / Pragmatist||Gabin|
|SEe||Sensory ethical extravert||ESFP||ESFp||Politician / Ambassador||Caesar|
|SLe||Sensory logical extravert||ESTP||ESTp||Legionnaire / Conqueror||Napoleon|
Among socionists, the prevailing theory is that sociotypes are inborn and genetically determined, although the content of different functions and dimensions may vary. Some socionists believe that sociotypes may temporarily change while in altered states of consciousness or under great stress. 
|Relation||Base 16||Base 10||Base 2||Type|
Since Socionics is mathematically Base-16 (astrology and the western zodiac are comparatively mathematical Base-12s) and also a psychology of personality in the same way as the typology of Carl Jung and Myers-Briggs, it shares a similar degree of mathematical consistency, while enduring the same serious shortcomings in the experimental justification of these theories.
Taking this, Socionics also differs from other typologies in that it also includes a complementary Base-16 relationship set, with the intent of penning to paper the key social dynamic traits between grouped combinations of socionic types. Therefore, socionics could be considered to be within the realm of the science of social dynamics, intended to describe social behavior according to mathematical applications of Base-16, group theory, set logic and reduction of the Gulenko-Jungian notation for socionics types to hexadecimal and Base-2 bitwise operation. While this mathematical approach is strictly theoretical and has been criticized for lack of empirical testing in this socionics article systems theory has been the tool of socionics theorist, such as Gregory Reinin to derive theorical dichotomies within socionics theory. In 1985 Aušra Augustinavičiūtė acknowledged the mathematical theories of Reinin and wrote a book titled "The Theory of Reinin's Traits" to describe the mathematical processes of socionics theory. Mathematical methods have been a standard part of socionics theory since this time.
The methodology of deriving socionic relationships from two socionic types is similar to the enumeration of 16 possible boolean Webster.cs.ucr.edu, Algebraic functions from two binary output and input variable types, with truth tables and during construction of logic gates in electronics.
Aušra Augustinavičiūtė developed a model of personality called Model A, which includes eight functional positions. Every human has every function, and can perceive and process any available information aspect by them; however, depending on where the metabolizing function for an aspect is located in a type's functional ordering, the actual quality of the produced information and the means of its use may vary. The following diagram is an example of the positions of the functions in Model A (numbers of functions are in Viktor Gulenko's notation). The numbering of the functions is semi-arbitrary, and is intended to represent on the one hand the smooth flow of information from function 1 to 4 (the mental track), and the mirroring of that flow by the other four. (the so-called "vital" track) For example, the ILi type has the following version of Model A:
Nature of functional positions
- Function 1 - leading, program, primary, base, or dominant function. This is the strongest conscious function, and the most utilized function of the psyche. A person's outlook and role in life is largely determined by the nature of this function. One is generally very confident in the use of this function, and may defend it when challenged.
- Function 2 - creative or secondary function, is second in influence only to the dominant function. It assists the dominant function in achieving its essence. One is generally less confident with the use of this function than with his dominant function. As a result, the creative function is sometimes less instrumental when a person is challenged or threatened, or when dealing with new and complex tasks and data.
- Function 3 - role function, is a weak but conscious function. One generally tries to be at least adequate in areas where use of the role function is necessary. However, generally one has very little control or confidence over the role function, and criticism is painfully acknowledged with respect to it. Tactful assistance is required from one's suggestive function to overcome the problems associated with the role function.
- Function 4 - the vulnerable function, or place of least resistance, is a weak and conscious function, in addition to being the weakest function of the psyche. One painfully perceives his complete inability to use this function, and reacts negatively to its imposition upon him. Tactful assistance is required from one's mobilizing function to overcome the problems associated with this function.
- Function 5 - suggestive function, is a weak and unconscious function which is largely lacked. One requires assistance from somebody confident in this function in order to overcome the difficulties it presents. When left to ones own devices, the suggestive function goes unnoticed.
- Function 6 - mobilizing function. This is a weak and unconscious function which one often understands poorly. Nonetheless, this function has a strong influence over one's actions. Individuals requires assistance from someone who uses it confidently in order to understand it. Often an individual is only aware that they are totally unaware of how to use this function.
- Function 7 - observant or ignoring function, the function of personal knowledge. This is a strong but unconscious function. One generally has a good grasp of this function, but attempts to limit its use considerably. Individuals will disregard this function when an argument calls for restraint or when it will be difficult to indulge in its essence.
- Function 8 - demonstrative function. This function is so deeply rooted into the psyche that one is usually not consciously aware of its existence or utilization.'
Note that Model A provides the justification for the type names. The socionic name is leading-creative-extra/introversion. For example the ILE is intuitive leading with a logical creative function and is extroverted. The ESI has leading ethics with secondary sensing and is introverted.
Blocks of the psyche
According to Augustinavičiūtė, the functions are paired in four blocks: the ego block, the super-ego block, the id block, and the super-id block. The ego block contains the leading (1) and creative (2) functions, the super-ego block contains the role (3) and vulnerable (4) functions, the super-id block contains the suggestive (5) and activation (6) functions, while the id block contains the observant (7) and demonstrative (8) functions.
The functions within the ego and super-ego blocks are said to be conscious (or "mental") functions, while those within the id and super-id blocks are said to be unconscious (or "vital"). The functions residing within the ego and id blocks are strong functions which are used naturally and well, while the functions of the super-ego and super-id blocks are weak functions and are used with stress and difficulty.
The 16 types in Model A
Socionics postulates that the way information is communicated between different types results in different interaction styles, called intertype relations. Each intertype relation has its bad and good qualities, though duality is generally considered to be the most psychologically comfortable as a long-term relationship. In total there are 16 relationship roles for each type (14 when not counting the split roles in the supervision and benefit relationship).
Du - Duality; Ac - Activation; Sd - Semi-duality; Mg - Mirage; Mr - Mirror; ID - Identity; Cp - Cooperation; Cg - Congenerity; Qs - Quasi-Identity; Ex - Extinguishment; Se - Super-ego; Cf - Conflict; Rq - Requester; rQ - Request recipient; Sv - Supervisor; sV - Supervisee
Remark: all relations beside Request and Supervision are symmetric. Request and Supervision relations are asymmetric and have 2 roles: Request - Requester and Request recipient, Supervision - Supervisor and Supervisee. Each cell in the table shows who the type in the left column is to the type in the top row.
Duality is a fundamental concept in Socionics. Dual relations are characterized by mutual benefit and support, and are generally viewed as optimal for friendship, intimacy, and marriage (though sociotype is not the only factor influencing this). The eight dual pairs are as follows:
In dual relations, the leading function of one partner is the suggestive function of the other, and the creative function of one partner is the mobilizing function of the other. Thus, the ego functions (the strongest and most socialized) of each correspond to the super-id functions of the other (the area where the person needs and expects assistance). Likewise, the super-ego block of one corresponds to the id of the other. In this relation, just 1 of 4 Jungian dichotomies is shared – rationality/irrationality. Duality interaction is generally rewarding and satisfying for both parties, providing inspiration and support. Duality is a central theme of the philosophy of socionics study: Augusta often stated her position that a person who is estranged from contact with a dual partner must cope by unnaturally distorting their personality, a phenomenon called "type masking". Relationships with conflictor types are cited as particularly troublesome: it is not uncommon for a person in a close relationship with their conflictor to develop an acute neurotic condition. 
Activation relations occur between two members of the same quadra which share either introversion or extraversion. This relation can resemble duality since the super-id functions are both present in the ego functions of the other partner. However, this relations are somewhat less fulfilling than dual relations. Each partner's dominant function is the others activation function. Activation relations are better suited to friendly correspondence.
Activation relationships are often romantic if both partners find each other attractive. These relationships are often very easy to start, as both partners share either extraversion or introversion. Introvert activation relationships appear reserved, while extravert activation relationships appear hectic.
Relations of semi-duality are similar to relations of duality. Semi-duality occurs between partners who share each other's dual-seeking (5th) functions but lack each other's activation functions. As a result, both partners often perceive elements of duality from the relationship but feel the other partner is misplacing the correct emphasis; as semi-duals will be able to help their partners with their dual seeking functions but both have the least confidence in the same area of the psyche (thinking, feeling, sensing, or intuition).
Relationships of semi-duality can become very close for moderate periods of time until correspondence is broken indefinitely. These relationship are often begin, or rekindle because of mutual interests or friends held in common.
Mirage relations occur between partners whose creative functions are the other partners' activation functions, but whose dual seeking functions are part of the id block of the other partner.
Relationships of mirage often become quite close and are easy to begin because both individuals are able to communicate effectively with one another because partners share a preference for thinking, feeling, sensing, or intuiting.
Mirror relations occur between types whose dominant and creative functions are interchanged, yet place different emphases on them. Mirror relations are characterized by similar actions and motivations between partners, and mutual understanding. Interactions usually result in a drawn out dialogue, as each partner seems to keep opening up avenues of thought which the other needs to now clarify verbally.
An important source of dissension between mirror types is the opposing between IJ’s and EJ’s, or between EP’s and IP’s. EJ’s find the methodical, slow, and careful IJ behaviours to be a severe hindrance in getting things done, while IJ’s find the restless and proactive actions of EJ’s paranoid and stifling. Similarly, EP’s find IP’s to be somewhat too turbulent, too passive, and too lacked of energy, while IP’s see EP’s as wildly unpredictable and impetuous.
Relations of Identity describe relations between two individuals of the same type. Often, both partners will perceive similar situations and problems, and will take similar actions. Partners usually understand the motivations behind the other's actions. A relationship between identity partners is characterized by mutual understanding, self-development, and learning. Each is interested in the other's ideas, and sees their value.
Cooperation relations occur between partners who have the same demonstrative function but differed dominant functions. As a result, partners may often perform similar activities or have similar fields of interest, but often do not understand each other's internal motivations. Partners will often approach their related fields with vastly different agendas and will generate conflict when working as a team. These relations become formal and business like as to avoid open debate and conflict.
Congenerity relations occur between types who share the same dominant function but possess different demonstrative functions. Partners often see each other as interesting people and are often able to see each other's motivations, but tailor their actions towards areas where the other partner is unskilled or uninterested, as the creative function for one partner is the place of least resistance of the other.
Congenerity relationships are often similar to mirror relationships where ideas are communicated through drawn out dialog. These relationships are easy to begin because both partners share a similar type of intelligence, and are able to communicate it easily to one another.
Relations of Quasi-Identity are characterized by mutual misunderstanding. The partners’ dominant and demonstrative functions are interchanged, but will often have similar interests and become involved in similar activities, but they rarely understand each other's motivations or ideas.
Interestingly, Quasi-Identity partners often identify themselves as being very different from the partner. Outside observers often have trouble seeing the differences that the individual sees between himself and the partner.
Extinguishment relations occur between types confident in the same area of the psyche but who place different emphases on each function. This relations often consist of similar lifestyles but differed thought processes. Partners will have similar interests and areas of expertise, and have little trouble communicating with one another.
Still, misunderstanding and conflict are arosen when partners come to vastly different conclusions about specific ideas or events.
Super-ego relations occur between types whose ego functions are the other partners' super-ego functions. Super-ego relations are generally characterized by differing values, discomfort, and mutual misunderstanding.
Partners in a super-ego relationship are often fascinated or terrified by their partners lack of similarity to themselves. Super-ego partners are constantly aware of their total opposition in values to the partner. Outside observers are often similarly aware.
Relatives of Conflictees are, unsurprisingly, characterized by constantly escalating conflict.
Conflictees are the types with the most dissimilar values, and they rarely understand anything regarding each other's motivations or lifestyles. Conflictees may take for granted truths that their partners will dismiss as absurd. Sometimes they understand each other so little that the conflict is not well understood, but prevails under the surface, discomfiting both partners to no end.
Conflictees share their quadra but are of opposite temperaments, a fact which both partners often find irritating. Conflictees usually are rather interesting for each other, but also rather tiresome.
Relations of request are asymmetrical relations; one type requests another. The request recipient's dual seeking function is the requester's creative function, and as a result the request recipient often takes an interest in the requester. However, the requester's dual seeking function is the request recipient's place of least resistance, and the requester finds the request recipient a highly uninteresting person. Relations of request frequently end with the departure of the requester.
Relations of supervision are asymmetrical; one type supervises another. Relations of supervision are characterized by the supervisor's attempt to introduce his base function into the supervisee's life. The supervisor often perceives the supervisee as an interesting person and understands the supervisee's lifestyle, since the supervisor's creative function is the supervisee's base function. Nonetheless, the supervisee is often on the defensive since the supervisor's base function is the supervisee's point of least resistance (the function most vulnerable to criticism). The supervisee often perceives the supervisor to be the evil incarnate, while the bewildered supervisor wonders why the supervisee reacts so poorly to his objective and benevolent assistance.
Groups of types
Clubs are groups that reflect spheres of activity. There are 4 clubs, each with 4 types:
- Domineers (NT): ILi, LIi, ILe, LIe.
- Influencers (NF): IEi, EIi, IEe, EIe.
- Socials (SF): ESi, SEi, ESe, SEe.
- Conscientiousness (ST): LSi, SLi, LSe, SLe.
A quadra is a group of four types in which only identity, dual, activity, and mirror relations occur. Quadras are distinguished by offering the greatest degree of psychological comfort among all groups containing four types. The feeling of comfort and harmony produced by the quadra is due to the fact that all types in the quadra seek to give expression to the shared set of information elements in their ego and super-id blocks and to de-emphasize the information elements in their super-ego and id blocks. 
|Formal names||ILi ILe
|MBTI names||INtJ ENtP
|Quadra names||INTp ENTp
(Without introversion or extraversion)
There is Viktor Gulenkos’ hypothesis of four Temperaments in socionics.
Introverted Irrational Temperament (IJ; Pi; Ip). Namely the ILi, IEi, SLi, SEi, are characterized by patient and thorough behavior. (close to phlegmatic temperament)
Extraverted Rational Temperament (EJ; Je; Ej). Namely the LIe, LSe, EIe, ESe, are characterized by energetic and proactive behavior. (close to choleric temperament)
Extraverted Irrational Temperament (EP; Pe; Ep). Namely the ILe, IEe, SLe, SEe, are characterized by impulsive and unpredictable behavior. (close to sanguine temperament)
Introverted Rational Temperament (IP; Ji; Ij). Namely the LIi, LSi, EIi, ESi, are characterized by lack of motivation, inertia, and unstable moods and energy levels. (close to melancholic temperament)
Beside Gulenko's, there are several other theories of correlation between temperaments and socionic types, although almost all socionic authors support Eysenck's belief that temperaments do correlate with the introvert-to-extrovert factor.
In addition to Model A, two other models are in wide use by socionists. Model B, created by Aleksandr Boukalov, is designed to reconcile the socionics standpoint with the so-called "Model J" (Jung's outlook) and uses sixteen functional components instead of eight. The model uses the same eight functions as Model A, but further differentiates them by attributing positive and negative polarities to each. Model B also refines Model A's strong/weak concept by attributing vectors of dimensionality to each function. This allows it to describe with precision why some functions are relied on more than others.
The four dimensions are
- globality (also thought of as "time")
- cultural normatives
Experience is the lowest dimension; globality is the highest. The importance of the dimension system lies in its clarification of the differences between strong and weak functions. Although any type may learn information specific to any function with adequate study, only the strong functions have the vectors of situation which are required to create new knowledge. The types are thus reliant on each other in their search for understanding. 
Methods of type identification
Socionists often use several methods when determining a personality type.
- Analysis of behavior, interview (including special questionnaires), biography
- Analysis of nonverbal behavior (mimic, gestures, plastique, etc.)
Nonverbal behavior (also called image method) is a particularly popular method popularized by Aušra Augustinavičiūtė, but rarely used as basic method, more as auxiliary. It is based on analysis of impressions from nonverbal behavior and associating them with features of types. Often the image method is used to create an initial hypothesis about a person's type, which is tested against more reliable methods.
Weaknesses and criticism of Socionics
Currently, socionics has no academic backing and exists outside of official academia, though it is gaining increasing recognition as a significant psychological theory in university curricula across Russia and Ukraine.  Its hypotheses have emerged from subjective observation, analysis, and interpretation of human behavior, and through comparisons between socionics and other fields or philosophies. While numerous studies have been performed by socionists, they have not empirically tested the basic hypotheses of socionics theory.
Socionics has been called either protoscience or pseudoscience.  While mention of socionics sometimes elicits a negative reaction from members of the academic establishment in Russia and Ukraine who view it as a pseudoscience, it is nonetheless increasingly being mentioned as a significant psychological theory in university courses on psychology.  Textbooks for high school aged children have even been published (L. Stolyarenko) where socionics has been mentioned among other typologies. Socionics has been brought up at conferences on psychology, where its practical applications were discussed. For instance, in 2005 socionics was discussed at the British and East European Psychology Meeting in Krakow (2005), which was attended by British, American and Eastern European psychologists. Psychologist Rosemary Nodder from the University of Hertfordshire represented Socionics for the event.
Science is knowledge based on empiricial facts (see: empiricism) and clarified through experimental testing of hypotheses. Socionics has been lacked empirical field testing or pilot studies since its invention. Development of Socionics has thus been far occurred through mostly individual study of subjective observations, resulting in the acceptance or rejection of new hypotheses. Predictions put forth by socionists are generally too vague to be properly tested, and Socionic analysis is often given ‘‘after the fact.’’ The problems of Socionics as a science or pseudoscience, its methodology and prospects for development are brought up frequently at Socionics conferences.
- Analytical Psychology
- Interpersonal compatibility
- Carl Jung
- Jung Type Indicator
- Jungian Type Index
- Keirsey Temperament Sorter
- Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
- Philosophical realism
- Аугустинавичюте А. (1996). Социон, или Основы соционики. Соционика, ментология и психология личности, 4-5. (In Russian. Title can be translated as Augustinavichiute A. (1996). The Socion, or Socionics Basics. Socionics, Mentology, and Personality Psychology, 4-5).
- Socionics: Personality Types and Relationships. URL accessed on 2008-05-09.
- Седых Р. (1994). Информационный психоанализ. Соционика как метапсихология, НПП Менатеп-Траст. (In Russian. Title can be translated as: Sedikh R. Informational psychoanalysis. Socionics as a metapsychology) Text is available online Bookap.info
- Introduction to Socionics.
- Jung, C.G., Psychological Types (The Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Vol.6), 1976 (1921), ISBN 0-691-01813-8 The chapter X, General description of types contains descriptions of basic psychological functions and 8 major psychological types.
- Аугустинавичюте А. (1995). Комментарий к типологии Юнга и введение в информационный метаболизм. Юнга и введение в информационный метаболизм. ((Russian) . Title can be translated as Augustinavichiute A. (1995) A Commentary on Jung's Typology and an Introduction to the Information Metabolism. Socionics, Mentology, and Personality Psychology, 2.
- Аугустинавичюте А. Дуальная природа человека (1978). ((Russian) . Title can be translated as: Augustinavichiute A. The Dual Nature of Man (1978)).
- Socionics.us, "Dual nature of man"
- Socionics.kiev.ua, "Methodology"
- Socionics.us, intro
- Filatova E. Bookap.info, Искусство понимать себя и окружающих. ((Russian) , The Art of Understanding Oneself and Others.)
- The names here refer to standard usage as per the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
- Wikisocion.org, "Portrait of a Modern Socionist
- Аугустинавичюте Аушра Bookz.ru, Теория функций. Функционика (Russian) The title can be translated as Function theory. Functionics.
- Гуленко В. (2003). Менеджмент слаженной команды. Соционика для руководителей, Астрель. ((Russian) . Title can be translated as: Gulenko V. Management of well co-ordinated team. Socionics for managers.) Text is available online
- Boukalov, A.V. (2004). 16-component model of TIM and Socionics. Socionics, Mentology, and Personality Psychology, 3.
- Boukalov, A.V. (1995). On the dimensions of the functions of information metabolism. Socionics, Mentology, and Personality Psychology, 2.
- Socioniko.net, Multilingual Socionic Site
- Socionics.us, contains notes on Augustinaviciute's books
- Socionika.com, contains numerous articles from many authors
- Socionics.ibc.com.ua, International Institute of Socionics by Alexander Boukalov
- Socionics.qsh.eu, 40-question test
- Socioniko.net, short test by Dmitri Lytov and Marianna Lytova
- socionics.us, by Rick DeLong
- Socionics.com, by Sergei Ganin
Keirsey Temperament Sorter:
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