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Shiva Samhita (also Siva Samhita) is a Sanskrit text on yoga, written by an unknown author. The text is addressed by the Hindu god Shiva to his consort Parvati ("Shiva Samhita" means "Shiva's Compendium"). It is one of three major surviving classical treatises on hatha yoga, the other two being Gheranda Samhita and Hatha Yoga Pradipika. The Shiva Samhita is considered the most comprehensive and the most democratic treatise on hatha yoga.
Date[edit | edit source]
Many believe that Shiva Samhita was written in 17th or 18th century, but in a 2007 translation, James Mallinson dates the text before 1500 CE, as it has been cited by many works believed to have been composed in 17th century. Based on the clues given in the text, Mallinson also believes that the Shiva Samhita was composed in or around Varanasi.
Content[edit | edit source]
Shiva Samhita talks about the complex physiology, names 84 different asanas (only four of which are described in detail), describes five specific types of prana, and provides techniques to regulate them. It also deals with abstract yogic philosophy, mudras, tantric practices, and meditation. It emphasizes that even a common householder can practice yoga and benefit from it. There is a distinct Buddhist influence that runs throughout the text.
The first chapter mentions various methods of liberation and philosophical standpoints. The second chapter describes the nadis, the internal fire, and the working of the jiva. The third chapter describes the winds in the body, the importance of the guru, the four stages of the Yoga, the five elemental visualizations and four asanas in detail. The fourth chapter deals with the eleven mudras that can result in yogic attainments. The fifth chapter is the longest and most diverse -- it describes obstacles to the liberation, the four types of aspirants, the technique of shadow gazing, the internal sound, the esoteric centers and energies in the body (such as the kundalini), the seven lotuses, the "king of kings of yogas", and a global mantra.
Translations[edit | edit source]
Many English translations of Shiva Samhita have been made. The earliest known English translation is by Shri Chandra Vasu (1884, Lahore) in the series known as "The Sacred Books of the Hindus" The translation by Rai Bahadur and Srisa Chandra Vasu in 1914, also in the series known as "The Sacred Books of the Hindus", was the first translation to find a global audience. However, it omits certain sections (such as vajroli mudra) and is considered inaccurate by some. In 2007, James Mallinson made a new translation to address these issues. The new translation is based on the only available critical edition of the text — the one publIshed in 1999 by the Kaivalya Dham Yoga Research Institute.
[edit | edit source]
- Critical edition with English translation (2007) by James Mallinson (Free PDF)
- An English translation (PDF), based on the 1914 edition translated by Rai Bahadur/Srisa Chandra Vasu and another unidentified edition (registration required for download)
- An English translation (1887) by Srischandra Basu (PDF)
References[edit | edit source]
- Shiva Samhita. URL accessed on 2007-02-13.
- Hatha Yoga. Yoga Magic. URL accessed on 2007-02-13.
- Linda Sparrowe. The History of Yoga. Yoga Journal. URL accessed on 2007-02-13.
- Kurt Keutzer. Kundalini Bibliography. URL accessed on 2007-02-13.
- Hindu Timeline #4. URL accessed on 2007-02-13.
- Hinduism Dictionary: Siva Samhita. Himalayan Academy. URL accessed on 2007-02-13.
- The Shiva Samhita, translated by James Mallinson. Yoga Vidya. URL accessed on 2007-02-13.
- Shiva Samhita. Satyananda Yoga Center, Kathmandu. URL accessed on 2007-02-13.
|Yogas:||Agni Yoga - Anahata Yoga - Anusara Yoga - Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga - Bikram Yoga - Hatha yoga - Integral yoga - Iyengar Yoga - Kriya yoga - Kundalini yoga - Natya Yoga - Sahaj Marg - Sahaja Yoga - Satyananda Yoga - Sivananda Yoga - Six yogas of Naropa (Tummo) - Surat Shabd Yoga - Viniyoga - Yoga in Daily Life - Yoga Nidra|
|Texts:||Bhagavad Gita - Yoga Sutras - Hatha Yoga Pradipika - Gheranda Samhita - Shiva Samhita|
|Hinduism paths:||Bhakti yoga - Karma Yoga - Jnana Yoga - Raja Yoga|
|Raja Yoga limbs:||Yama - Niyama - Asana - Pranayama - Pratyahara - Dharana - Dhyana - Samadhi|
|Lists:||Yoga schools and their gurus - Hatha yoga postures|
|Related topics:||Ayurveda - Chakra - Mantra - Tantra - Vedanta - Yoga (alternative medicine) - Yoga as exercise|
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