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Sexual discrimination are the actions that are implemented which reflect the underlying attitudes of sexim.

Certain forms of sexual discrimination are illegal in many countries, but nearly all countries have laws that give special rights, privileges, or responsibilities to one sex or two sexes.[1]


Sexual discrimination against women[edit | edit source]

Education[edit | edit source]

Women in the past have been excluded from higher education.[2] When women were admitted to higher education, they were encouraged to major in subjects that were considered less intellectual; the study of English literature in English and U.S. colleges and universities was in fact instituted as a field of study considered suitable to women's "lesser intellects."[3]

Research studies have found that discrimination continues today: boys receive more attention and praise in the classroom in grade school,[4] and "this pattern of more active teacher attention directed at male students continues at the postsecondary level."[5] Over time, female students speak less and less in classroom settings.[6]

Professions[edit | edit source]

Women have been excluded from participation in many professions. When women have gained entry into a previously male profession, they have faced many additional obstacles; Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman to receive an M.D., and Myra Bradwell, the first female lawyer, are examples.

Discrimination continues today, according to studies done by Cornell University and others.[7][8]

A 2009 study of CEOs found that more men occupying the position were overweight or obese than men in the general population, while the reverse held true for female CEOs. The leader of the study stated that the results "suggest that while being obese limits the career opportunities of both women and men, being merely overweight harms only female executives -- and may actually benefit male executives."[9]

Gender Wage Gap[edit | edit source]

Main article: Income disparity

See also: Male–female income disparity in the United States

Woman have historically earned less than men; the reasons for the current wage gaps are also the subject of controversy.

In the 19th century and for much of the 20th, women were paid less than men for the same work. In the United States, this eventually led to the passing of the U.S. Equal Pay Act in 1963. At that time, women earned approximately 58 cents to a man's dollar.[10]

Today, women in the U.S. are estimated to earn roughly 70 to 80 percent of the income of men.[11][12]. However, unmarried women without children may earn 15 to 20 percent more than males in the same situation, depending upon geographical location in the U.S..[13][14]

Some argue that women's earning less than men is entirely attributable to women's own choices; one line of argument is that women fail to negotiate raises and then "whinge to their colleagues of their disappointment." [15] Feminist commentators respond that even when women do negotiate for raises, they are less likely to receive them and are perceived as unfeminine. [16] Other explanations for the gender wage gap is that women earn less because they are more likely to work part-time, to take a year or more off of work to have children, and because professions considered 'for females' may pay less.[17][18]

A report published by the White House in 1998 claimed that a gender pay gap remains even after taking into account such factors as relative experience, part-time vs. full-time work, differences between professions, and taking time off to have children.[19] Other research has found that even after accounting for parenthood status, education, job title, and other factors, there is still a significant income disparity in men's favor (Blau and Kahn 1997, Wood et al 1993). Research done at Cornell University and elsewhere indicates that mothers are 44 percent less likely to be hired than women with otherwise identical resumes, experience, and qualifications, and, if hired, are offered on average $USD 11,000 a year less than women without children. [20] Exactly the opposite is claimed for men: those without children earn, on average, $USD 7,500 less than men with children.[21]

Studies done of transsexual women show that after their sex-change they earn an average of 1.5% more, whereas transsexual men earn an average of 32% less after their transition from male to female.[22]



See also[edit | edit source]

  • Neuwirth, Jessica. "Unequal-A Global Perspective on Women Under the Law." Ms. Magazine. 2004. http://www.msmagazine.com/summer2004/globalwomenlaw.asp
  • Solomon, Barbara Miller. In the Company of Educated Women.
  • Eagleton, Terry. Literary Theory.
  • Halpern, Diane F. Sex differences in cognitive abilities. Laurence Erlbaum Associates, 2000. ISBN 080582792. Page 259.
  • Sadker, Myra, and David Sadker. "Confronting Sexism in the College Classroom." In Gender in the Classroom: Power and Pedagogy. Ed. Susan L. Gabriel and Isaiah Smithson. Page 177.
  • Sadker, Myra, and David Sadker. "Failing at Fairness: Hidden Lessons." In Mapping the social landscape: readings in sociology. Ed. Sandra J. Ferguson, Susan J. Ferguson. Taylor & Francies, 1999. ISBN 0767406168. Page 350.
  • Cross, Sam. "Women Excluded from Executive Positions." http://cornellsun.com/section/news/content/2008/03/31/report-women-excluded-exec-positions
  • Newman, Melanie. "At the top, women still can't get a break from stereotypes." http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=401046
  • Julie Moult. Women's careers more tied to weight than men -- study. news.com.au. URL accessed on 2009-04-10.
  • The White House. "Explaining Trends in the Gender Wage Gap." http://clinton4.nara.gov/WH/EOP/CEA/html/gendergap.html
  • Longley, Robert. "Gender Wage Gap Widening, Census Data Shows." http://usgovinfo.about.com/od/censusandstatistics/a/paygapgrows.htm
  • The White House. "Explaining Trends in the Gender Wage Gap." http://clinton4.nara.gov/WH/EOP/CEA/html/gendergap.html
  • http://www.forbes.com/ceonetwork/2006/05/12/women-wage-gap-cx_wf_0512earningmore.html
  • Roberts, Sam. "For Young Earners in the Big City, A Gap in Women's Favor." http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/03/nyregion/03women.html
  • "Whining Women To Blame for Gender Wage Gap." http://www.news.com.au/story/0,,24326170-2,00.html
  • "Whining Women To Blame for Gender Wage Gap." http://www.news.com.au/story/0,,24326170-2,00.html
  • Lips, Hilary. "Blaming Women's Choices for the Gender Pay Gap." http://www.womensmedia.com/new/Lips-Hilary-blaming-gender-pay-gap.shtml
  • Longley, Robert. "Why Women Still Make Less Than Men." http://usgovinfo.about.com/cs/censusstatistic/a/womenspay.htm
  • The White House. "Explaining Trends in the Gender Wage Gap." http://clinton4.nara.gov/WH/EOP/CEA/html/gendergap.html
  • MomsRising.org. The Motherhood Manifesto. http://www.momsrising.org/node/251
  • Lips, Hilary. "Blaming Women's Choices for the Gender Pay Gap." http://www.womensmedia.com/new/Lips-Hilary-blaming-gender-pay-gap.shtml
  • Cloud, John. "If Women Were More Like Men." http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1847194,00.html
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