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==Male strategies==
 
==Male strategies==
 
[[Image:Black widow ventral 1370.jpg|222px|right|thumb|The prevalence of sexual cannibalism gives several species of ''[[Latrodectus]]'' the colorful [[common name]] "[[black widow spider]]".]]
 
[[Image:Black widow ventral 1370.jpg|222px|right|thumb|The prevalence of sexual cannibalism gives several species of ''[[Latrodectus]]'' the colorful [[common name]] "[[black widow spider]]".]]
Males of sexually cannibalistic species use diverse strategies to decrease their chances of being cannibalized. Male scorpions sometimes [[sting]] females while depositing their [[spermatophore]]. Male black widows and [[crab spider]]s often restrain females in [[silk]] prior to [[copulation]]. Some spiders have specialized jaws that hold open the jaws of females during copulation. Others preferentially mate with females in [[ecdysis]] (that is, while the female is [[moulting]]) when cannibalism is physically impossible. Some spiders and mantids delay their courtship approach until a female catches another prey item.<ref name="esc"/><ref name="cru"/><ref>{{cite journal |quotes=no |url=http://www.americanarachnology.org/JoA_free/JoA_v25_n3/JoA_v25_p361.pdf |author=Petra Sierwald |year=1997 |title=Phylogenetic analysis of Pisaurine nursery web spiders, with revisions of ''Tetragonophthalma'' and ''Perenethis'' (Araneae, Lycosoidea, Pisauridae) |journal=[[The Journal of Arachnology]] |volume=25 |pages=361–407 |year=1997}}</ref> Some male spiders, particularly [[nursery web spider]]s, bring the female a diversionary meal.
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Males of sexually cannibalistic species use diverse strategies to decrease their chances of being cannibalized. Male scorpions sometimes [[sting]] females while depositing their [[spermatophore]]. Male black widows and [[crab spider]]s often restrain females in [[silk]] prior to [[copulation]]. Some spiders have specialized jaws that hold open the jaws of females during copulation. Others preferentially mate with females in [[ecdysis]] (that is, while the female is [[moulting]]) when cannibalism is physically impossible. Some spiders and mantids delay their courtship approach until a female catches another prey item.<ref name="esc"/><ref name="cru"/><ref>{{cite journal |quotes=no |url=http://www.americanarachnology.org/JoA_free/JoA_v25_n3/JoA_v25_p361.pdf |author=Petra Sierwald |year=1997 |title=Phylogenetic analysis of Pisaurine nursery web spiders, with revisions of ''Tetragonophthalma'' and ''Perenethis'' (Araneae, Lycosidae, Pisauridae) |journal=[[The Journal of Arachnology]] |volume=25 |pages=361–407 |year=1997}}</ref> Some male spiders, particularly [[nursery web spider]]s, bring the female a diversionary meal.
   
 
The males in some species are very small compared to the female. Female [[golden orb-web spider]]s are over 20 times as heavy as males.<ref>Elgar, M. A. & B. F. Fagey (1996) Sexual cannibalism, competition and size dimorphism in the orb-weaving spider ''Nephila plumipes'' Latreille (Araneae: Araneoidea). ''Behavioral Ecology''. '''7''':195-198.</ref> It is suggested this is the result of small spiders being more agile and able to play 'hide and seek' in Darwin's ''[[The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex]]''.<ref>[[Darwin, Charles]] (1871). The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. John Murray: London.</ref>
 
The males in some species are very small compared to the female. Female [[golden orb-web spider]]s are over 20 times as heavy as males.<ref>Elgar, M. A. & B. F. Fagey (1996) Sexual cannibalism, competition and size dimorphism in the orb-weaving spider ''Nephila plumipes'' Latreille (Araneae: Araneoidea). ''Behavioral Ecology''. '''7''':195-198.</ref> It is suggested this is the result of small spiders being more agile and able to play 'hide and seek' in Darwin's ''[[The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex]]''.<ref>[[Darwin, Charles]] (1871). The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. John Murray: London.</ref>

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