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Animals · Animal ethology · Comparative psychology · Animal models · Outline · Index


In order to mate animals need a system of sex recognition in order to identify partners of the opposite sex.

Sex recognition in humans[edit | edit source]

In humans the appearance of the secondary sex characteristic underpin the visual differences between the sexes as they approach reproductive capacity.

Developmental aspects[edit | edit source]

CHildren learn to recognise sexual differences as part of socialization.

Sex recognition in animals[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]


References & Bibliography[edit | edit source]

Key texts[edit | edit source]

Books[edit | edit source]

  • Hay, D. C. (2001). Repetition priming of face gender judgments: An instance based explanation. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Papers[edit | edit source]

  • Google Scholar
  • Al-Qutob, R., Mawajdeh, S., Allosh, R., Mehayer, H., & Majali, S. (2004). The effect of prenatal knowledge of fetal sex on birth weight: A study from Jordan: Health Care for Women International Vol 25(3) Mar 2004, 281-291.
  • Bauer, P. J., Liebl, M., & Stennes, L. (1998). PRETTY is to DRESS as BRAVE is to SUITCOAT: Gender-based property-to-property inferences by 4-1/2-year-old children: Merrill-Palmer Quarterly Vol 44(3) Jul 1998, 355-377.
  • Baum, B. (2004). Feminist Politics of Recognition: Signs Vol 29(4) Sum 2004, 1073-1102.
  • Bediou, B., Krolak-Salmon, P., Saoud, M., Henaff, M.-A., Burt, M., Dalery, J., et al. (2005). Facial Expression and Sex Recognition in Schizophrenia and Depression: The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry / La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie Vol 50(9) Aug 2005, 525-533.
  • Campbell, R., Wallace, S., & Benson, P. J. (1996). Real men don't look down: Direction of gaze affects sex decisions on faces: Visual Cognition Vol 3(4) Dec 1996, 393-412.
  • Cassidy, K. W., Kelly, M. H., & Sharoni, L. a. J. (1999). Inferring gender from name phonology: Journal of Experimental Psychology: General Vol 128(3) Sep 1999, 362-381.
  • Cushing, B. S., & Reese, E. (1998). Hawk-like aggression in the Hawaiian red lobster, Enoplometopus occidentalis: Behaviour Vol 135(7) Oct 1998, 863-877.
  • Davis, J. W., & Gao, H. (2004). An expressive three-mode principal components model for gender recognition: Journal of Vision Vol 4(5) May 2004, 362-377.
  • Duchateau, M. J., Velthuis, H. H. W., & Boomsma, J. J. (2004). Sex ratio variation in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris: Behavioral Ecology Vol 15(1) Jan 2004, 71-82.
  • Eddington, D. (2002). Spanish gender assignment in an analogical framework: Journal of Quantitative Linguistics Vol 9(1) Apr 2002, 49-75.
  • Ganel, T., & Goshen-Gottstein, Y. (2002). Perceptual integrality of sex and identity of faces: Further evidence for the single-route hypothesis: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance Vol 28(4) Aug 2002, 854-867.
  • Ginzel, M. D., & Hanks, L. M. (2003). Contact Pheromones as Mate Recognition Cues of Four Species of Longhorned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 16(2) Mar 2003, 181-187.
  • Goshen-Gottstein, Y., & Ganel, T. (2000). Repetition priming for familiar and unfamiliar faces in a sex-judgment task: Evidence for a common route for the processing of sex and identity: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 26(5) Sep 2000, 1198-1214.
  • Hay, D. C. (1999). Repetition priming of face gender judgments: An instance based explanation: Current Psychology Vol 18(1) Spr 1999, 140-149.
  • Hill, H., & Johnston, A. (2001). Categorizing sex and identity from the biological motion of faces: Current Biology Vol 11(11) Jun 2001, 880-885.
  • Hirashima, S. (1999). Recognition of the gender of point-light walkers moving in different directions: Japanese Journal of Psychology Vol 70(2) Jun 1999, 149-153.
  • Hoikkala, A., Crossley, S., & Castillo-Melendez, C. (2000). Copulatory courtship in Drosophila birchii and D. serrata, species recognition and sexual selection: Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 13(3) May 2000, 361-373.
  • Hunt, S., Cuthill, I. C., Bennett, A. T. D., & Griffiths, R. (1999). Preferences for ultraviolet partners in the blue tit: Animal Behaviour Vol 58(4) Oct 1999, 809-815.
  • Kalinova, B., Hoskovec, M., Liblikas, I., Unelius, C. R., & Hansson, B. S. (2001). Detection of sex pheromone components in Manduca sexta (L.): Chemical Senses Vol 26(9) Nov 2001, 1175-1186.
  • Kazial, K. A., & Masters, W. M. (2004). Female big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, recognize sex from a caller's echolocation signals: Animal Behaviour Vol 67(5) May 2004, 855-863.
  • Knight, M. E., & Turner, G. F. (1999). Reproductive isolation among closely related lake Malawi cichlids: Can males recognize conspecific females by visual cues? : Animal Behaviour Vol 58(4) Oct 1999, 761-768.
  • Koba, R., & Izumi, A. (2006). Sex categorization of conspecific pictures in Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata): Animal Cognition Vol 9(3) Jul 2006, 183-191.
  • Le Gal, P. M., & Bruce, V. (2002). Evaluating the independence of sex and expression in judgments of faces: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 64(2) Feb 2002, 230-243.
  • Levens, N., & Akins, C. K. (1999). Species-specific female cues control conditioned sexual approach of male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica): Psychological Record Vol 49(4) Fal 1999, 579-588.
  • Lewin, C., & Herlitz, A. (2002). Sex differences in face recognition--women's faces make the difference: Brain and Cognition Vol 50(1) Oct 2002, 121-128.
  • Liao, L.-M., & Boyle, M. (2004). Surgical feminizing: The right approach? : The Psychologist Vol 17(8) Aug 2004, 459-462.
  • Lopes, O., Marques, P. C., & Araujo, J. (2005). The Role of Antennae in Mate Recognition in Phoracantha semipunctata (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 18(2) Mar 2005, 243-257.
  • Lopez, P., & Martin, J. (2001). Pheromonal recognition of females takes precedence over the chromatic cue in male Iberian wall lizards Podarcis hispanica: Ethology Vol 107(10) Oct 2001, 901-912.
  • Marco, A., Kiesecker, J. M., Chivers, D. P., & Blaustein, A. R. (1998). Sex recognition and mate choice by male western toads, Bufo boreas: Animal Behaviour Vol 55(6) Jun 1998, 1631-1635.
  • McNeill, A., Burton, A. M., & Ellis, A. W. (2003). When sex isn't special: Priming onto a sex decision: Visual Cognition Vol 10(6) Aug 2003, 641-650.
  • Miller, M. N., & Fincke, O. M. (1999). Cues for mate recognition and the effect of prior experience on mate recognition in Enallagma damselflies: Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 12(6) Nov 1999, 801-814.
  • Muehter, V. R., Greene, E., & Ratcliffe, L. (1997). Delayed plumage maturation in lazuli buntings: Tests of the female mimicry and status signalling hypotheses: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 41(4) Oct 1997, 281-290.
  • Nakata, K. (1998). Absence of sex-differential brood raising by workers in Diacamma sp. from Japan: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 43(4-5) Oct 1998, 223-227.
  • O'Connor, B. J. V., & Walsh-Bowers, R. (1998). A preliminary examination of the effects of gender-biased language on children's imagery: Alberta Journal of Educational Research Vol 44(1) Spr 1998, 103-105.
  • Oetting, S., & Bischof, H.-J. (1996). Sexual imprinting in female zebra finches: Changes in preferences as an effect of adult experience: Behaviour Vol 133(5-6) May 1996, 387-397.
  • O'Toole, A. J., Defenbacher, K. A., Valentin, D., McKee, K., Huff, D., & Abdi, H. (1998). The perception of face gender: The role of stimulus structure in recognition and classification: Memory & Cognition Vol 26(1) Jan 1998, 146-160.
  • O'Toole, A. J., Deffenbacher, K. A., Valentin, D., McKee, K., Huff, D., & Abdi, H. (1998). The perception of face gender: The role of stimulus structure in recognition and classification: Memory & Cognition Vol 26(1) Jan 1998, 146-160.
  • O'Toole, A. J., Peterson, J., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1996). An 'other-race effect' for categorizing faces by sex: Perception Vol 25(6) 1996, 669-676.
  • Page, R. B., & Jaeger, R. G. (2004). Multimodal signals, imperfect information, and identification of sex in red-backed salamanders ( Plethodon cinereus): Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 56(2) Jun 2004, 132-139.
  • Plath, M., & Tobler, M. (2007). Sex recognition in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic molly females (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae, Teleostei): Influence of visual and non-visual cues: Acta Ethologica Vol 10(2) Nov 2007, 81-88.
  • Plath, M., Wiedemann, K., Parzefall, J., & Schlupp, I. (2003). Sex recognition in surface and cave dwelling male Atlantic mollies Poecillia mexicana (Poecilliidae, Teleostei): Behaviour Vol 140(6) Jun 2003, 765-781.
  • Pollick, F. E., Kay, J. W., Heim, K., & Stringer, R. (2005). Gender Recognition From Point-Light Walkers: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance Vol 31(6) Dec 2005, 1247-1265.
  • Poulin-Dubois, D., Serbin, L. A., & Derbyshire, A. (1998). Toddlers' intermodal and verbal knowledge about gender: Merrill-Palmer Quarterly Vol 44(3) Jul 1998, 338-354.
  • Quinn, P. C., Palmer, V., & Slater, A. M. (1999). Identification of gender in domestic-cat faces with and without training: Perceptual learning of a natural categorization task: Perception Vol 28(6) 1999, 749-763.
  • Rasmussen, M. L. (2006). Play School melancholia, and the politics of recognition: British Journal of Sociology of Education Vol 27(4) Sep 2006, 473-487.
  • Riters, L. V., & Balthazart, J. (1998). Behavioral evidence for individual recognition in Japanese quail: Behaviour Vol 135(5) Jul 1998, 551-578.
  • Sadovsky, A. L. (2002). Three- to six-year old children's comprehension of gender scripts and generic scripts. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Saino, N., Galeotti, P., Sacchi, R., Boncoraglio, G., Martinelli, R., & Moller, A. P. (2003). Sex differences in begging vocalizations of nestling barn swallows, Hirundo rustica: Animal Behaviour Vol 66(6) Dec 2003, 1003-1010.
  • Shine, R., Langkilde, T., & Mason, R. T. (2003). Confusion within 'mating balls' of garter snakes: Does misdirected courtship impose selection on male tactics? : Animal Behaviour Vol 66(6) Dec 2003, 1011-1017.
  • Shine, R., & Mason, R. T. (2001). Courting male garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) use multiple cues to identify potential mates: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 49(6) 2001, 465-473.
  • Stone, J. (2001). Face recognition: When a nod is better than a wink: Current Biology Vol 11(16) Aug 2001, R663-R664.
  • Stroessner, S. J. (1996). Social categorization by race or sex: Effects of perceived non-normalcy on response times: Social Cognition Vol 14(3) Fal 1996, 247-276.
  • Szekely, T., Cuthill, I. C., Yezerinac, S., Griffiths, R., & Kis, J. (2004). Brood sex ratio in the Kentish plover: Behavioral Ecology Vol 15(1) Jan 2004, 58-62.
  • Taraban, R., & Kempe, V. (1999). Gender processing in native and nonnative Russian speakers: Applied Psycholinguistics Vol 20(1) Mar 1999, 119-148.
  • Wild, H. A., Barrett, S. E., Spence, M. J., O'Toole, A. J., Cheng, Y. D., & Brooke, J. (2000). Recognition and sex categorization of adults' and children's faces: Examining performance in the absence of sex-stereotyped cues: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Vol 77(4) Dec 2000, 269-291.
  • Wolfinger, N. H., & Rabow, J. (1997). The different voices of gender: Social recognition: Current Research in Social Psychology Vol 2(6) Oct 1997, No Pagination Specified.
  • Yamaguchi, A. (1998). Can a sexually dimorphic learned birdsong be used for male-female recognition? : Behaviour Vol 135(7) Oct 1998, 833-844.
  • Yoshida, H., & Toshima, T. (2007). Spatial frequency characteristics in recognizing the age and sex of faces: Japanese Journal of Psychology Vol 78(1) Apr 2007, 33-41.
  • Zhang, J.-X., Liu, Y.-J., Zhang, J.-H., & Sun, L. (2008). Dual role of preputial gland secretion and its major components in sex recognition of mice: Physiology & Behavior Vol 95(3) Oct 2008, 388-394.
  • Zhang, J.-X., Ni, J., Ren, X.-J., Sun, L., Zhang, Z.-B., & Wang, Z.-W. (2003). Possible Coding for Recognition of Sexes, Individuals and Species in Anal Gland Volatiles of Mustela eversmanni and M. sibirica: Chemical Senses Vol 28(5) Jun 2003, 381-388.


Dissertations[edit | edit source]

  • Kenyon, B. L. (1995). The relationship between understanding that gender is unchangeable and the development of sex-typed preferences in preschool-aged children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Nakamura, T. (1996). Discrimination by pigeons of photographs containing pigeons and other bird species. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Percer, J. A. M. M. (2002). Exploring the causes of children's gender segregation: Behavioral compatibility versus gender categorization. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Sokal, L. J. (2001). Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: Gender schematicity in the family context. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Differences in children's implicit gender knowledge and explicit gender beliefs as a function of age and gender schematicity. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.

External links[edit | edit source]

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