Semi-Phonetic Non-Homonymic Spelling
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Foreword:
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A semi-phonetic spelling system serves to eliminate the worst non-phonetic spellings,
while retaining some other non-phonetic spellings, so that the spelling does not become unrecognizable
and difficult to read.
A semi-phonetic spelling system therefore consists of both retention rules and correction rules.
Retention rules are rules that retain a type of non-phonetic spelling, so as to not make the spelling too unfamiliar.
Correction rules are rules that correct a type of non-phonetic spelling into a completely or comparatively phonetic spelling.

Some words are non-phonetic in a unique way, and therefore would require their own unique rule.
Those words, and the corrected versions thereof, should be listed separately from the correction rules,
though they may also be mentioned in the correction rules.

In some cases, phoneticly corrected words must be further altered, or else an already-correct word must be altered,
so as to prevent the creation of homonyms.

In many cases of homonym sets, if not the majority of such cases,
the homonym sets can and should be eliminated by doubling the last consonant of one of the words,
usually the less-commonly-used word.

The following are the retention rules, correction rules, and corrections to the
uniquely non-phonetic words, in a semi-phonetic spelling system:
 

retention rules:
 

name of rule description of rule example(s) of applications of the rule
the I-word retention rule The single-letter word 'I' continues to be spelled in the same way. I
the a-word retention rule The single-letter word 'a' continues to be spelled in the same way. a
the two-sound T-H retention rule The T-H digraph continues to be used to make two different consonant sounds. 'thick' / 'thought' versus 'that' / 'there'
the I-N-G retention rule The I-N-G suffix is retained, even though it is usually pronounced as 'een'. running, jumping, kicking
the E-R suffix retention rule The digraph E-R continues to be used as the suffix for nouns that perform a verb, and for comparative adjectives, despite the fact that it makes the rr sound. runner, jumper, bigger, longer, faster
the non-suffix E-R retention rule The digraph E-R continues to be used for non-suffix purposes, to make the rr sound. verb, universe, herd, nerve, person, version, order, rubber, anger, hunger, finger
the N-invisible-G-K retention rule The N-K digraph continues to be used to make the ngk sound. bank, dank, prank, tank, thank, ink, blink, link, mink, pink, stink, think, wink, monk, monkey, dunk, drunk, punk, skunk
the invisible G retention rule Invisible g sounds after an N-G continue to exist. anger, hunger, stronger, longer, monger, finger
the invisible Y retention rule Invisible y sounds after vowels continue to exist. use, uniform, union, unique, universe, usual, cue, fury, fuse, fusion, human, humor, music, puny, pure, abuse, amuse, amulet, computer, popular, continue, ridiculous, particular, few, pew, spew, view
the two-sound U retention rule The single letter U contunues to be used to make two different vowel sounds. 'but' versus 'put'
the two-sound O-O retention rule The O-O digraph continues to be used to make two different vowel sounds. 'food' / 'cool' / 'drool' / 'fool' / 'pool' / 'school' / 'spool' / 'stool' / 'boot' / 'loot' / 'shoot' versus 'good' / 'hood' / 'wood' / 'book' / 'cook' / 'cookie' / 'crook' / 'crooked' / 'hook' / 'look' / 'rook' / 'shook' / 'took' / 'soot'
the C-K retention rule The C-K digraph continues to be used to make the k sound. jack, quack, stack, pack, tack
the variable ch retention rule The ch sound continues to be written as two different sequences of letters, which are C-H and T-C-H. It is retained only because of the similarity of the t sound to the ch sound. 'teach' / 'peach' / 'preach' / 'poach' / 'coach' versus 'itch' / 'bitch' / 'ditch' / 'dutch' / 'match' / 'snatch' / 'snitch' / 'witch' / 'kitchen'
the variable w retention rule The w sound continues to be written as two different letters, which are W and U. 'water' / 'wish' versus 'anguish' / 'distinguish' / 'extinguish' / 'iguana' / 'language' / 'languid'
the hard-C retention rule The letter C continues to be used to make the k sound. cat, cork, cap, camera
the soft-C retention rule The letter C continues to be used to make the s sound, so long as it does not have a silent E after it, or is at the end of a word, or is in front of a consonant. ceiling, cilia, celery, cerulean, cereal, center, celsius
the X retention rule The letter X continues to be used to make the k-s sound, and in some cases the k-z sound maximum, ax, execution, excite  versus  example
the X-C retention rule A redundant letter C after an X continues to be present. except, excite
the Q-U retention rule The digraph Q-U continues to be used to make the k-w sound. quality, quantity, quill, quack
the E-U retention rule The digraph E-U continues to be used to make the yoo sound. eugenics, eulogy, euphemism, euphoria, euthanasia
the U-A-L retention rule The trigraph U-A-L continues to be used to make the oo-ll sound. actual, factual, ritual, spiritual, usual, visual
the double consonant retention rule Double consonants continue to be used where they are present after a short vowel. little, cannot, running, sunny, foggy, add, puff, weakness
the limited A-as-short-u retention rule The letter A continues to be used to make the short-u sound when it is either the last letter of a word, or is a non-emphasized syllable that is between two other syllables. fundamental, legacy, dilemma, mesa
the E-as-short-i retention rule There are some cases in which an E is often or usually pronounced as a short-i rather than as a short-e, though those two vowels are similar, and intermediate vowels can be produced. In such cases, the letter E continues to be used. get, hated
the variable long-a retention rule The long-a sound continues to be written as different letters, including A, AI, AY, EY, EI, and EA. 'a' / 'mason' / 'paper' / 'patriot' / 'rapier' versus 'bait' / 'gait' / 'strait' versus 'may' / 'day' / 'stay' / 'slay' versus 'grey' / 'prey' / 'they' / 'whey' versus 'eight' / 'sleigh' / 'weight' / 'beige' / 'neighbor' versus 'great' / 'break' / 'steak'
the variable long-e retention rule The long-e sound continues to be written as different letters, including E, EE, EA, I, Y, IE, EI, and EY. 'be' / 'emotion' / 'erase' / 'report' versus 'bee' / 'beet' / 'deed' / 'meet' / 'see' / 'seek' / 'sheet' / 'tree' versus 'beach' / 'beat' / 'heat' / 'meat' / 'near' / 'neat' / 'peach' / 'preach' / 'reach' / 'sea' / 'speak' / 'teach' versus 'finger' / 'sling' / 'ring' / 'thing' versus 'sunny' / 'quality' versus 'belief' / 'achieve' / 'lien' / 'tier' / 'pier' / 'bier' versus 'ceiling' / 'conceive' / 'deceive' / 'receipt' / 'weird' versus 'key' / 'abbey' / 'journey' / 'money' / 'monkey' / 'turkey' / 'donkey'
the variable long-i retention rule The long-i sound continues to be written as different letters, including I, IE, EI, and Y. 'I' / 'diet' / 'quiet' / 'science' / 'semi' / 'silent' versus 'die' / 'lie' / 'pie' / 'tie' versus 'height' / 'sleight' / 'fahrenheit' / 'alzheimer's' versus 'my' / 'try' / 'comply'
the variable long-o retention rule The long-o sound continues to be written as different letters, including O, OA, OE, and OW. 'emotion' / 'motivate' / 'motor' / 'total' / 'won't' / 'don't' / 'most' / 'post' / 'ghost' / 'comb' / 'yolk' / 'folk' / 'rogue' versus 'oar' / 'oath' / 'road' / 'toad' / 'groan' / 'moan' / 'soap' / 'roast' / 'toast' / 'boat' / 'coat' / 'float' / 'goat' / 'moat' / 'throat' versus 'doe' / 'foe' / 'hoe' / 'toe' / 'woe' versus 'own' / 'grow' / 'mow' / 'show' / 'snow'
the variable long-u retention rule The long-u sound continues to be written as different letters, including U, UE, OO, and EW. 'duty' / 'tuna' / 'tumor' / 'luminous' versus 'cue' / 'clue' / 'flue' / 'glue' / 'sue' / 'gruesome' / 'tuesday' versus 'boot' / 'loot' / 'shoot' versus 'brew' / 'crew' / 'drew' / 'jew' / 'new' / 'screw' / 'stew' / 'yew'
the variable short-o retention rule The short-o sound continues to be written as different letters, including O, AW, and AU. 'not' / 'fog' / 'frog' / 'jog' / 'spot' versus 'awful' / 'lawful' / 'claw' / 'draw' / 'law' / 'jaw' / 'maw' / 'paw' / 'straw' versus 'autumn' / 'august' / 'automobile' / 'author' / 'caulk'
the variable a-oo retention rule The a-oo sound continues to be written as different letters, including OU and OW. 'our' / 'out' / 'trout' / 'gout' / 'stout' versus 'bow' / 'cow' / 'how' / 'now' / 'wow' / 'flower' / 'power' / 'tower'
the variable oh-ee retention rule The oh-ee sound continues to be written as different letters, invluding OI and OY. 'avoid' / 'void' / 'deltoid' / 'boil' versus 'boy' / 'joy' / 'toy' / 'royal'
the variable aer retention rule The aer sound (which uses a vowel that is intermediate between a short a and a short e) continues to be written as different letters, including E-R, E-R-R, A-R, A-I-R, and A-E-R. 'very' / 'error' / 'berry' / 'cherry' versus 'scary' / 'vary' / 'wary' / 'parrot' / 'ordinary' / 'comparison' versus 'air' / 'chair' / 'fair' / 'pair' / 'stair' / 'repair' versus 'aerospace'
the variable L-vowel retention rule The L-vowel (which is most accurately spelled as U-L or L-L), continues to be written as E-L or A-L. 'hazel' / 'navel' / 'level' / 'bevel' / 'shovel' / 'hovel' / 'novel' / 'marvel' versus 'general' / 'practical' / 'personal' / 'fundamental' / 'environmental' / 'imperial' / 'royal' / 'loyal'
the A-R retention rule The letter A continues to be used to make the short-o sound when it is before the letter R. are, bar, car, far, jar, par, scar, tar, bard, card, guard, hard, lard, retard, yard, arc, arch, bark, dark, lark, mark, market, park, stark, arm, alarm, charm, farm, harm, karma, barn, tarnish, varnish, art, cart, dart, part, tart, larch, march, parch, starch, barge, charge, large, margin


 

corrections to the uniquely non-phonetic words:
because (uniquely has an A-U that is pronounced as a short u) --> becuz
the (uniquely has an E that is pronounced as a short u) --> thuh
one (uniquely has an invisible W) --> wun (the homophone 'won' is changed to 'wunn')
does (uniquely has an O-E that is pronounced as a short u) --> duz
of (uniquely has an F that is pronounced as a v) --> uv
said (uniquely has an A-I that is pronounced as a short e) --> sed
been (uniquely has an E-E that is pronounced as a short e) --> ben
sieve (uniquely has an I-E that is pronounced as a short i) --> siv
fahrenheit (uniquely has an A-H-R that is pronounced as 'air') --> faerenheit
shoe (uniquely has an O-E that is pronounced as 'oo') --> shue
knowledge (uniquely has an O-W that is pronounced as a short o) --> nolej
beige (uniquely has a G-E that is pronounced as a zh sound) --> beizh
sergeant (uniquely has an E that is pronounced as a short o) --> sarjent
lieu and lieutenant (uniquely have an I-E-U that is pronounced as a long u) --> lue and luetenint
colonel (uniquely has an O-L-O that is pronounced as an rr sound) --> curnel
eye (uniquely has an E-Y-E that is pronounced as a long i) --> ie
women (uniquely has an O that is pronounced as a short i) --> wimen
vegetable (uniquely has a silent e syllable) --> vejtubul
etiquette (uniquely has a Q-U-E-T-T-E that is pronounced as 'kit') --> etikit
blood and flood (uniquely have an O-O that is pronounced as a short u) --> blud and flud
bury (uniquely has a U that is pronounced as the a-e intermediate vowel) --> baery
their (uniquely has an E-I that is pronounced as the a-e intermediate vowel) --> thair
view / preview / review (uniquely has an I that is pronounced as a y) --> vyew / prevyew / revyew
wednesday (uniquely has a D-N-E-S that is pronounced as 'ndz') --> wendzday
beauty (uniquely has an E-A-U that is pronounced as 'yoo') --> beuty
bludgeon and dungeon (uniquely have an E-O digraph that is pronounced as a short u) --> blujun and dunjun
liquor (uniquely has a Q-U digraph that is pronounced as a k sound) --> likur
aardvark (uniquely has an A-A digraph that is pronounced as a short-o sound before an R) --> ardvark
lawyer (uniquely has an A-W-Y that is pronounced as an oo-ee sound) --> loyer
people (uniquely has an E-O that is pronounced as a long e) --> peepul
guitar (uniquely has a U-I digraph that is pronounced as a short u) --> gutar
broad (uniquely has a silent letter A after a letter O) --> brod
busy / business (uniquely has a letter U that is pronounced as a short i, and a silent i syllable) --> bizy / bizniss
diamond (uniquely has a digraph I-A that is pronounced as a long i) --> diemund
martyr (uniquely has a digraph Y-R that is pronounced as 'rr') --> martur
sovereign (uniquely has a digraph E-I that contains a silent letter E) --> soverin
yacht (uniquely has a silent digraph C-H) --> yot
receipt (uniquely has a silent letter P) --> receit
february (uniquely has a silent R) --> febuary
aisle and island / islet, and debris (uniquely have a silent letter S) --> eiul and eiland / eilet, and debrie
iron / irony (uniquely have an R-O-N that is pronounced like 'rrn') --> iurn / iurny
heart (uniquely has an E-A that is pronounced as a short o) --> hart
touch (uniquely has an O-U that is pronounced as a short u) --> tuch
vacuum (uniquely has a C-U-U that is pronounced like 'kyoo') --> vacuem
one (uniquely has an invisible W at the beginning of the word) --> wunn
pizza (uniquely has a Z-Z that is pronounced as T-Z) --> pitza
tortoise (uniquely has a O-I-S-E that is pronounced as 'is' --> tortis
sew / sewn (uniquely has a E-W that is pronounced as a long o) --> soew / soewn
gross (uniquely has a O-S-S that is pronounced as 'ohs') --> gros
 
 

correction rules:

correction rules /
R rules:
 

name of rule description of rule example(s) of applications of the rule
the A-R-to-U-R rule Where a digraph A-R, or a trigraph E-A-R, is used to make the rr sound, except when A-R are the last two letters of a word, it will be replaced by U-R. forward-->forwurd; backward-->backwurd; blizzard-->blizzurd; lizard-->lizurd; wizard-->wizurd
the E-A-R-to-E-R rule Where a trigraph E-A-R is used to make the rr sound, it will be shortenned to E-R.

The spelling of the word 'herd' will be changed to 'herdd', to distinguish it from the corrected version of the word 'heard'.

early-->erly; Earth-->Erth; heard-->herd; search-->serch
the E-A-R-to-A-E-R rule Where a trigraph E-A-R is pronounced as 'ehr', it will be replaced by the trigraph A-E-R.

The word 'wear' will be further altered to 'waerr', to distinguish it from the corrected version of the word 'where'.

bear-->baer; pear-->paer; tear-->taer; wear-->waerr
the E-R-E-to-A-E-R rule Where a trigraph E-R-E is pronounced as 'ehr', it will be replaced by the trigraph A-E-R. there-->thaer; therefore-->thaerfore; where-->whaer
the I-R-to-U-R rule Where a digraph I-R is pronounced as 'rr', it will be changed to U-R. birch-->burch; bird-->burd; third-->thurd; birth-->burth; dirt-->durt; first-->furst; girl-->gurl; girt-->gurt; girth-->gurth; shirt-->shurt; virtue-->vurtue; firm-->furm; affirm-->affurm; confirm-->confurm
the O-R-and-A-R-to-E-R rule Where a digraph O-R or A-R is used to make the 'rr' sound at the end of a word, it will be replaced by E-R. Although E-R is likewise non-phonetic, it is the typical spelling for that sound. similar-->similer; familiar-->familier; color-->coler; humor-->humer; emperor-->emperer; motor-->moter; rotor-->roter; alligator-->alligater
the O-R-to-U-R rule Where a digraph O-R is pronounced as 'rr', it will be changed to U-R. work-->wurk; word-->wurd; worm-->wurm; worth-->wurth; worthy-->wurthy; worst-->wurst; savior-->saviur; behavior-->behaviur
the O-U-R-to-U-R rule Where a trigraph O-U-R is pronounced as 'rr', the silent letter O therein will be eliminated. journal-->jurnal; journey-->jurney; tournament-->turnament


 

correction rules /
letter transposition rules:
 

name of rule description of rule example(s) of applications of the rule
the end-E transposition rule Where there is an E on the end of a word to make the word's vowel long, the E will be moved to be grouped together with that vowel.

The word 'lien' will be changed to 'leen' to distinguish it from the word 'line'. The spelling of the words 'diet' and 'quiet' will be changed to 'deiet' and 'queiet' respectively, to distinguish them from the new I-E words and the pronounciation thereof.

use-->ues; age-->aeg; rule-->ruel; line-->lien; make-->maek; broke-->broek; gnome-->gnoem; create-->creaet; change-->chaeng; range-->raeng; ice-->iec; amuse-->amues; assume-->assuem; include-->inclued; flute-->fluet; rice-->riec; slice-->sliec; replace-->replaec; more-->moer; gore-->goer; pore-->poer; before-->befoer; therefore-->therefoer; male-->mael; female-->femael; five-->fiev; nine-->nien; bite-->biet; hare-->haer; share-->shaer; spare-->spaer; stare-->staer; module-->moduel; schedule-->scheduel
the L-E transposition rule Where a word ends with an L-E that is pronounced as an L-vowel, the letters will be reversed to E-L.

In the case of words that end in the suffix 'able', or which otherwise have the L-E after a short-u sound, the L-E will instead be changed to U-L, due to its comparative phonetic accuracy.

In cases in which the letter before the newly-transposed E would be a C that is pronounced as a K, the E shall instead be a U, so that a C-E digraph does not make it seem as if the C is pronounced as an S. 

angle-->angel; battle-->battel; candle-->candel; castle-->castel; little-->littel; maple-->mapel; marble-->marbel; middle-->middel; title-->titel; believable-->believabul; double-->doubul; trouble-->troubul; article-->articul
the R-E transposition rule Where an R-E digraph is pronounced as an R-vowel, it will be reversed to E-R. massacre-->massacer


 

correction rules /
consonant replacement rules:
 

name of rule description of rule example(s) of applications of the rule
the C-and-S-C-to-S-H rule Where a letter C or an S-C digraph is used to make the sh sound, it will be replaced by S-H. appreciate-->appreshiate; ocean-->oshean; physician-->physishian; social-->soshial; species-->speshies

conscience-->conshience; prescient-->preshient

the C-E-and-S-E-to-S-S rule In words that end with a C-E, a C, or an S-E that is pronounced as an s, it will be changed to an S-S, except in cases in which the C-E or S-E is after a short-i or short-u sound, in which case it will replaced by a single S. intelligence-->intelligenss; science-->scienss; since-->sinss; dance-->danss; pronounce-->pronounss; else-->elss; defence-->defenss; dense-->denss; fence-->fenss; sense-->senss; tense-->tenss; universe-->universs; juice-->juiss; sluice-->sluiss; chalice-->chalis; justice-->justis; malice-->malis; office-->offis; service-->servis; accomplice-->accomplis; palace-->palas; lettuce-->lettus
the C-C-to-K-C rule Where the digraph C-C is used to make the ks sound, it will be changed to K-C. accept-->akcept; accelerate-->akcelerate; accent-->akcent
the C-H-to-C rule Where the digraph C-H is used to make the k sound, the H therein will be eliminated. technique-->tecnique; mechanical-->mecanical; psychology-->psycology; chemical-->cemical; chlorine-->clorine; chlorophyll-->clorophyll; mach-->mac; school-->scool; christian-->cristian; schedule-->scedule
the C-H-to-S-H rule Where a digraph C-H is used to make an sh sound, it will be replaced by a digraph S-H. champagne-->shampagne; charade-->sharade; charlatan-->sharlatan; machete-->mashete; mustache-->mustashe; panache-->panashe
the D-to-J rule Where a letter D is pronounced as a j sound, it will be replaced by a J. module-->mojule; schedule-->schejule; individual-->indivijual; gradual-->grajual; graduate-->grajuate
the F-to-V rule Where an F is pronounced as a v sound, it will be replaced by a V. of-->ov; thereof-->thereov
the G-to-J rule Where a G, G-E, D-G, or D-G-E is pronounced as the j sound, it will be changed to a J. knowledge-->knowlej; edge-->ej; ledge-->lej; wedge-->wej; sledge-->slej; change-->chanje; angel-->anjel; age-->aje; intelligence-->intellijence; gel-->jel; suggestion-->sugjestion; midget-->mijet; orange-->oranj; sergeant-->serjeant; general-->jeneral; carriage-->carriaj; marriage-->marriaj
the G-H-to-F-F rule Where the digraph G-H is used to make the f sound, and is followed by a short-a sound, short-o sound, or short-u sound, it will be changed to F-F. laugh-->lauff; cough-->couff; tough-->touff; rough-->rouff; enough-->enouff
the P-H-to-F rule In words in which P-H is pronounced as the f sound it will be replaced by the letter F. telephone-->telefone; phony-->fony; physical-->fysical; graph-->graf; chlorophyll-->chlorofyll; philosophy-->filosofy
the S-to-S-H rule Where a letter S, or an S-S digraph, is pronounced as sh, it will be replaced by S-H. sure-->shure; issue-->ishue; commission-->commishion; pressure-->preshure; sugar-->shugar
the S-to-Z rule In words in which a letter S is pronounced as a z sound, the S will be changed to a Z. is-->iz; as-->az; was-->waz; has-->haz; does-->doez; his-->hiz; use-->uze; amuse-->amuze; cosmic-->cozmic; physics-->phyzics; music-->muzic; present-->prezent; positive-->pozitive; position-->pozition; choose-->chooze; versus-->versuz; because-->becauze; cause-->cauze; lesbian-->lezbian; tuesday-->tuezday; nausea-->nauzea; transportation-->tranzportation; transposition-->tranzpozition; visible-->vizible; the majority of plural nouns and present-tense verbs
the S-to-Z-H rule Where a letter S, or a digraph S-S, is pronounced as the zh sound, it will be replaced by a Z-H. Where that results in a letter A, that is pronounced as a long-a, followed by two consonants, a letter I will be added after the A, to indicate that it is a long-a sound. pleasure-->pleazhure; treasure-->treazhure; measure-->meazhure; visual-->vizhual; usual-->uzhual; euthanasia-->euthanaizhia; asia-->aizhia
the T-to-C-H rule Where a letter T is pronounced as a ch sound, it will be replaced by C-H. If that T is preceded by a hard C, then that C will be replaced by a K. If the T is preceded by a vowel rather than a consonant, then the T will instead by replaced by T-C-H. fortune-->forchune; torture-->torchure; picture-->pikchure; fixture-->fixchure; mixture-->mixchure; mortuary-->morchuary; ritual-->ritchual; virtue-->virchue; century-->cenchury; christian-->chrischian
the T-to-S-H rule Where a letter T is pronounced as a sh sound, it will be replaced by S-H. Where that results in a letter A, that is pronounced as a long-a, followed by two consonants, a letter I will be added after the A, to indicate that it is a long-a sound. patient-->paishient; quotient-->quoshient
the X-to-Z rule Where a letter X is used to make the z sound, it will be replaced by a Z. xylem-->zylem; xylophone-->zylophone


 

correction rules /
vowel replacement rules:
 

 name of rule description of rule example(s) of applications of the rule
 the limited A-to-A-I rule Where a letter A is pronounced as a long a before an N-K digraph or an N-G digraph, or before an S-H, C-H, or Z-H digraph, it will be replaced by the digraph A-I. bank-->baink; tank-->taink; spank-->spaink; angle-->aingle; angel-->aingel; anger-->ainger; bang-->baing; fang-->faing; gang-->gaing; hang-->haing; hanger-->hainger; sang-->saing
 the A-to-E rule Where a letter A is pronounced as the short-e sound, it will be replaced by an E. any-->eny; many-->meny; antenna-->entenna; accept-->eccept; accelerate-->eccelerate
 the A-to-I rule Where a letter A is pronounced as a short i, it will be replaced by an I. orange-->oringe; redundant-->redundint; lieutenant-->lieutenint; tenant-->tenint
 the A-to-O rule Where a letter A is pronounced as a short-o sound, except when before a silent L or an l sound, it will be replaced by a letter O. When appropriate, a consonant will be doubled, to indicate that it is a short o, as in the case of the words 'water' and 'plaza'.

The word 'wok' will be changed to 'wokk', to distinguish it from the corrected version of the word 'walk'.

quantity-->quontity; father-->fother; wand-->wond; wander-->wonder; water-->wotter; plaza-->plozza; wash-->wosh; mach-->moch; amulet-->omulet; quality-->quolity; almond-->olmond; almost-->olmost; already-->olready; always-->olways; false-->folse

all-->oll; ball->boll; call-->coll; fall-->foll; hall-->holl; mall-->moll; small-->smoll; stall-->stoll; tall->toll; wall-->woll; calm-->colm; palm-->polm; talk-->tolk; walk-->wolk; napalm-->napolm

 the A-to-O-A rule Where a letter A is pronounced as a long o, it will be replaced by an O-A digraph. swarm-->swoarm; war-->woar; ward-->woard; warm-->woarm; warn-->woarn; warp-->woarp; warrant-->woarrant; wart-->woart
 the limited A-to-U rule Where a letter A is pronounced as a short u, it will be replaced by a U, except when at the end of the word (such as in the word 'dilemma'), or where it is a de-emphasized syllable that is between two other syllables (such as in the words 'believable', 'legacy', 'negative', and 'syllable'). what-->whut; was-->wus; again-->ugain; assume-->ussume; amuse-->umuse; accomplice-->uccomplice; accomplish-->uccomplish; woman-->womun
 the very limited A-U-to-O rule Where a digraph A-U is used to make the short-o sound in a particularly basic word, it will be replaced by an O. cause-->cose
 the E-D-to-I-D rule In the digraph E-D that is used for past-tense verbs, in which the E therein is pronounced more like a short i, the E therein will be changed to an I. mated-->matid; baited-->baitid; waited-->waitid; hated-->hatid
 the E-to-U rule Where a letter E is used to make the short-u sound, it will be replaced by a U, or if it is at the end of a word, it will be replaced by U-H. the-->thuh
 the I-to-I-E-before-G rule Where a letter I is used to make a long-i sound before a silent letter G or a silent G-H digraph, it will be changed to I-E. sign-->siegn; design-->desiegn; resign-->resiegn; fight-->fieght; high-->hiegh; light-->lieght; night-->nieght; sight-->sieght; tight-->tieght
 the O-to-O-O-or-U rule Where the letter O is pronounced as the long-u sound, it will be replaced by O-O.

In the case of the word 'two', it will instead be replaced by U-E, to distinguish it from the word 'too'. In the case of the word 'to', it will instead be replaced by U, to distinguish it from the word 'too'. In other words that begin with T-O, which is followed by a single consonant, the O will likewise be changed to a U.

two-->twue; to-->tu; today-->tuday; together-->tugether; do-->doo; who-->whoo; lose-->loose; womb-->woomb; tomb-->toomb
 the O-to-U rule Where a letter O, or the digraph O-E, is pronounced as a short-u sound, or the u-sound in the words 'put' and 'bush', it will be replaced by a U.

The word 'won' will be further altered to 'wunn' so as to distinguish it from the corrected version of the word 'one'. The word 'sum' will be changed to 'summ', to distinguish it from the corrected version of the word 'some'. The word 'nun' will be changed to 'nunn', to distinguish it from the corrected version of the word 'none'.

woman-->wuman; won-->wunn; wonder-->wunder; come-->cume; some-->sume; somebody-->sumebudy; ton-->tun; one-->une; does-->dus; of-->uf; from--frum; front-->frunt; monk-->munk; honey-->huney; money-->muney; monday-->munday; monkey-->munkey; tongue-->tungue; command-->cummand; comparison-->cumparisun; comply-->cumply; component-->cumponent; contain-->cuntain; contaminate-->cuntaminate; control-->cuntrol; color-->culor; dozen-->duzen; phonetic-->phunetic; potential-->putential; nothing-->nuthing; occult-->uccult; other-->uther; another-->anuther; brother-->bruther; mother-->muther; smother-->smuther; discover-->discuver; idiot-->idiut; patriot-->patriut; period-->periud; method-->methud; atom-->atum; custom-->custum; kingdom-->kingdum; symptom-->symptum; wisdom-->wisdum; union-->uniun; onion-->uniun; common-->commun; demon-->demun; dragon-->dragun; mason-->masun; person-->persun; almond-->almund; diamond-->diamund; second-->secund; parrot-->parrut
the O-O-to-O rule Where the digraph O-O is used to make a long-o sound, it will be replaced by O. door-->dor; floor-->flor; poor-->por
 the O-U-to-O rule Where the digraph O-U is used to make a long-o sound, it will be replaced by O-A.

The word 'four' will instead be changed to 'foar', to distinguish it from the word 'for'. The word 'pour' will instead be changed to 'poar', to distinguish it from the corrected version of the word 'poor'. The word 'soul' will instead be changed to 'soal', to distinguish it from the word 'sol'.

court-->cort; course-->corse; four-->foar; gourd-->gord; gourmet-->gormet; mourn-->morn; soul-->sol; though-->thogh; your-->yor
 the O-U-to-O-O rule Where an O-U digraph is pronounced as a long-u sound, it will be replaced by an O-O digraph. ghoul-->ghool; group-->groop; soup-->soop; coupon-->coopon; wound-->woond; through-->throogh; tour-->toor; you-->yoo
 the U-I-to-U-E rule Where a U-I digraph is pronounced as a long-u sound, it will be replaced by a U-E digraph.

The word 'suet' will be changed to 'sooet', to distinguish it from the corrected version of the word 'suit'.

fruit-->fruet; juice-->juece; sluice-->sluece; suit-->suet; cruise-->cruese; bruise-->bruese
 the U-to-I-E-before-Y rule Where there is a U-Y that is pronounced as a long-i, then it will be replaced with I-E-Y. buy-->biey; guy-->giey
 the Y-to-I rule Where the letter Y is used to make the short-i sound, it will be changed to the letter I. mystery-->mistery; mystical-->mistical; mystique-->mistique; hypnotize-->hipnotize; physics-->phisics; system-->sistem; sympathy-->simpathy; symptom-->simptom; synthetic-->sinthetic; chlorophyll-->chlorophill; homonym-->homonim; amethyst-->amethist; syllable-->sillable


 

correction rules /
silent consonant removal rules:
 

name of rule description of rule example(s) of applications of the rule
the no-silent-B rule Where there is a silent letter B, it will be eliminated.

In the case of the word 'jamb', it will be changed to 'jamm', to distinguish it from the word 'jam'. The word 'climb' will be further altered to 'cliem', so that there is not an isolated letter I which suggests a short-i sound.

jamb-->jamm; climb-->cliem; limb-->lim; bomb-->bom; womb-->wom; tomb-->tom; comb-->com; dumb-->dum; numb-->num; thumb-->thum; debt-->det; doubt-->dout; redoubt-->redout
the no-silent-C-after-S rule Where there is a silent letter C after a letter S, it will be eliminated, except in cases in which doing so would create a homonym. science-->sience; crescent-->cresent; ascent-->asent; descent-->desent; adolescent-->adolesent
the no-silent-G rule Where there is a silent letter G, it will be eliminated.

In the case of the word 'reign', it will be further altered to 'reihn', to distinguish it from the word 'rein'.

gnash-->nash; gnaw-->naw; gnome-->nome

align-->alin; sign-->sin; design-->desin; resign-->resin; champagne-->champane; lasagna-->lasana; reign-->reihn; sovereign-->soverein; phlegm-->phlem

the no-silent-G-H-after-A-U rule Where there is a silent G-H digraph after an A-U digraph, it will be eliminated.

The spelling of the word 'taut' will be changed to 'tautt', to distinguish it from the corrected version of the word 'taught'.

aught-->aut; naught-->naut; caught-->caut; taught-->taut; daughter-->dauter
the no-silent-G-H-after-I rule Where there is a silent G-H digraph after a letter I, it will be eliminated. Where an I-G-H trigraph is used to create a long-i sound, the I will be replaced by an I-E digraph.

The word 'strait' will be changed to 'straitt', to distinguish it from the corrected version of the word 'straight'.

height-->heit; sleight-->sleit; eight-->eit; weight-->weit; sleigh-->slei; neighbor-->neibor; fight-->fiet; high-->hie; knight-->kniet; light-->liet; night-->niet; sight-->siet; tight-->tiet; straight-->strait
the no-silent-G-H-after-O-U rule Where there is a silent G-H digraph after an O-U digraph, it will be eliminated.

In the case of the corrected version of 'bought', the word 'bot' meaning 'robot' will be changed to 'bott' to eliminate the homonym. In the case of the word 'wrought', it will be instead changed to 'raut', to distinguish it from the word 'rot'.

ought-->out; bought-->bout; brought-->brout; thought-->thout; though-->thou; through-->throu; bough-->bou
the no-silent-H-after-G rule In words in which there is a silent letter H after a letter G, the H will be eliminated. ghastly-->gastly; ghetto-->getto; spaghetti-->spagetti; ghost-->gost; ghoul-->goul
the no-silent-H-after-W rule In words in which there is a silent letter H after a letter W, the H will be eliminated.

In the case of the word 'where', the spelling will be adjusted so that it does not become the word 'were'.

where-->waer; what-->wat; when-->wen; why-->wy; which-->wich; wheel-->weel; white-->wite; whistle-->wistle
the no-beginning-silent-H rule Where there is a silent letter H at the beginning of a word, it will be eliminated.

The consonant that follows a resulting standalone short vowel will be doubled if necessary. The word 'hour' will be further altered to 'owur', to distinguish it from the word 'our'.

hour-->owur; herb-->erb; honest-->onnest; honor-->onnor; homage-->ommage
the no-silent-Ks rule Where there is a silent K before an N, it will be eliminated.

In the case of the words 'knight' and 'knot', and extra T will be added to the end, to distinguish them from the words 'night' and 'not', respectively. In the cases of the words 'know' and 'knew', they will be changed to 'nno' and 'nnew' respectively, to distinguish them from the words 'now' and 'new' respectively.

know-->nno; knew-->nnew; knowledge-->nowledge; knight-->nightt; knot-->nott; knee->nee; kneel-->neel; knife-->nife; knob-->nob; knock-->nock; knuckle-->nuckle
the no-silent-L rule Where there is a silent letter L, it will be eliminated. could-->coud; would-->woud; should-->shoud; almond-->amond; calm-->cam; palm-->pam; talk-->tak; walk-->wak; napalm-->napam; caulk-->cauk; folk-->fok; yolk-->yok; calf-->caf; half-->haf; behalf-->behaf
the no-silent-N rule Where there is a silent letter N, it will be eliminated. autumn-->autum; column-->colum
the no-silent-P rule Where there is a silent P before an S or an N, it will be eliminated. psychology-->sychology; pneumonia-->neumonia
the no-silent-R rule Where there is a silent letter R, it will be eliminated. february-->febuary
the silent-T-to-S rule Where there is a silent T after an S, it will be changed to a second S. castle-->cassle; listen-->lissen; glisten-->glissen; bristle-->brissle; thistle-->thissle; whistle-->whissle; mistletoe-->missletoe
the silent-T-to-E rule French words that end in O-T, but are pronounced as a long-o, will be changed to end in O-E. merlot-->merloe; tarot-->taroe
the silent-T-to-Y rule French words that end in E-T, but are pronounced as a long-a, will be changed to end in E-Y. ballet-->balley; bidet-->bidey; buffet-->buffey; gourmet-->gourmey
the no-silent-W rule Where there is a silent letter W, it will be eliminated.

In the case of the word 'two', it will be changed to 'tue', to distinguish it from the word 'to'. The word 'rote' will be changed to 'roett', to distinguish it from the corrected version of the word 'wrote'. The noun 'hole' will be given two Ls, to distinguish it from the corrected version of the word 'whole'.

A second T will be added to the end of the corrected versions of the words 'wright' and 'rite', to distinguish them from the corrected versions of the words 'right' and 'write', respectively. The words 'write' and 'wright' will retain their Ws, to distinguish them from the words 'rite' and 'right'.

who-->ho; whole-->hole; whore-->hore; two-->tue; answer-->anser; sword-->sord; write-->rite; wrote-->rote; written-->ritten; wreck-->reck; wren-->ren; wrench-->rench; wrinkle-->rinkle; wrist-->rist; wrong-->rong; wrought-->rought; wry-->ry


 

correction rules /
silent vowel removal rules:
 

name of rule description of rule example(s) of applications of the rule
the no-silent-A-after-E rule Where the digraph E-A is pronounced as a short e, the silent A therein will be eliminated.

The spelling of the word 'bread' will be changed to 'bredd', to distinguish it from the past-tense word of the word 'breed'. The spelling of the word 'lead' will be changed to 'ledd', to distinguish it from the word 'led'. The spelling of the word 'red' will be changed to 'redd', to distinguish it from the corrected version of the word 'read'.

lead-->ledd; bread-->bredd; dead-->ded; death-->deth; dread-->dred; head-->hed; read-->red; ready-->redy; spread-->spred; thread-->thred; tread-->tred; threat-->thret; breath-->breth; breast-->brest; meant-->ment; realm-->relm; health-->helth; stealth-->stelth; wealth-->welth; dealt-->delt; jealous-->jelous; zealous-->zelous; zealot-->zelot; pleasure-->plesure; treasure-->tresure; measure-->mesure; leather-->lether; meadow-->medow; weapon-->wepon; heaven-->heven; instead-->insted; sergeant-->sergent; ocean-->ocen
the no-silent-A-before-or-after-I rule Where a digraph A-I or I-A is pronounced as a short i, the silent A therein will be eliminated. again-->agin; against-->aginst; bargain-->bargin; captain-->captin; chaplain-->chaplin; chieftain-->chieftin; christian-->christin; curtain-->curtin; mountain-->mountin; physician-->physicin; carriage-->carrige; marriage-->marrige
the no-silent-end-E rule Where there is a silent E on the ends of words, excluding cases in which it serves to create a long vowel, and excluding cases in which the E follows an s sound, that silent E will be eliminated.

In the case of the word 'rye', it will instead be changed to 'rie', to distinguish it from the corrected version of the word 'wry'.

are-->ar; choose-->choos; comrade-->comrad; leave-->leav; squeeze-->squeez; sleeve-->sleev; believe-->believ; achieve-->achiev; deceive-->deceiv; have-->hav; give-->giv; live-->liv; motive-->motiv; active-->activ; passive-->passiv; positive-->positiv; negative-->negativ; sensitive-->sensitiv; sieve-->siev; engine-->engin; imagine-->imagin; because-->becaus; cause-->caus; some-->som; none-->non; pleasure-->pleasur; treasure-->treasur; measure-->measur; torture-->tortur; picture-->pictur; fixture-->fixtur; mixture-->mixtur; europe-->europ; they're-->they'r; mustache-->mustach; panache-->panach
the no-silent-E-before-D rule Where there is a silent E before the letter D in a past-tense verb, that silent E will be eliminated. all past-tense verbs except for verbs that end in a k-sound or d-sound
the no-silent-I-before-E rule Where there is a silent letter I before a letter E, it will be eliminated. conscience-->conscence; prescient-->prescent; patient-->patent; ancient-->ancent; quotient-->quotent; friend-->frend
the no-silent-O-before-U rule Where the digraph O-U is pronounced as the u-sound in the word 'put', or as the short-u sound, the silent O therein will be eliminated. would-->wuld; could-->culd; should-->shuld; jealous-->jealus; zealous-->zealus; luminous-->luminus; voluminous-->voluminus; enormous-->enormus; ridiclulous-->ridiculus; enough-->enugh; rough-->rugh; tough-->tugh; country-->cuntry; cousin-->cusin; double-->duble; trouble-->truble; young-->yung
the no-silent-U-after-A rule Where there is a silent letter U after a letter A, it will be eliminated. laugh-->lagh
the no-silent-U-after-B-or-G rule Where there is a silent letter U after a letter B or a letter G, it will be eliminated.

The words 'guild' and 'guilt' will be further altered to 'gildd' and 'giltt' respectively, to distinguish them from the words 'gild' and 'gilt' respectively.

build-->bild; guarantee-->garantee; guard-->gard; guess-->gess; guest-->gest; guide-->gide; guild-->gildd; guile-->gile; guilt-->giltt; guise-->gise; disguise-->disgise
the no-silent-U-after-O rule Where an O-U digraph is used to make the short-o sound, the silent U therein will be eliminated. ought-->oght; bought-->boght; brought-->broght; thought-->thoght; cough-->cogh
the no-silent-U-E rule Where there is a silent U-E digraph, it will be eliminated. morgue-->morg; rogue-->rog; tongue-->tong; unique-->uniq; mystique-->mystiq; critique-->critiq; technique-->techniq; clique-->cliq


 

correction rules /
miscellaneous compound replacement rules:
 

 name of rule description of rule example(s) of applications of the rule
 the O-L-L-to-O-L rule Where a trigraph O-L-L is pronounced with a long-o sound, it will be replaced by a digraph O-L. poll-->pol; roll-->rol; toll-->tol; stroll-->strol
 the no-silent-A-L rule Where the pentagraph C-A-L-L-Y is pronounced as 'klee', it will be replaced by C-L-Y. That particular non-phonetic spelling is so absurd that many people have already made this correction. specifically-->specificly
 the I-R-E-and-I-L-E rule Where there is an I-R-E or I-L-E with the I being a long i, followed by an rr or ll sound, they will respectively be replaced by E-I-U-R and E-I-U-L. fire-->feiur; wire-->weiur; file-->feiul; pile-->peiul; tile-->teiul; docile-->doceiul; projectile-->projecteiul
 the O-V-E-to-O-O-V rule Where the trigraph O-V-E is pronounced as 'oov', it will be replaced by the trigraph O-O-V. move-->moov; prove-->proov; improve-->improov
 the O-V-E-to-U-V rule Where the trigraph O-V-E is pronounced as 'uv', it will be replaced by the digraph U-V. above-->abuv; dove-->duv; glove-->gluv; love-->luv; shove-->shuv


 

correction rules /
large suffix replacement rules:
 

 name of rule description of rule example(s) of applications of the rule
 the chul rule Where a tetragraph C-I-A-L or T-I-A-L is pronounced as 'chul' or 'chll', it will be replaced by C-H-U-L. This rule is comprised of three component rules, which are the C-to-C-H rule, the T-to-C-H rule, and the I-A-to-U rule. financial-->financhul; essential-->essenchul; potential-->potenchul; presidential-->presidenchul; quintessential-->quintessenchul; substantial-->substanchul
 the shul rule Where a tetragraph T-I-A-L is pronounced as 'shul' or 'shll', it will be replaced by S-H-U-L. This rule is comprised of two component rules, which are the T-to-S-H rule and the I-A-to-U rule. partial-->parshul; martial-->marshul; initial-->inishul
 the chun rule Where a tetragraph T-U-N-E or T-I-O-N is pronounced as 'chun', it will be replaced by C-H-U-N. This rule is comprised of two component rules, which are the T-to-C-H rule and the I-O-to-U rule. fortune-->forchun; intention-->intenchun; invention-->invenchun; mention-->menchun; question-->queschun; retention-->retenchun; suggestion-->suggeschun
 the jun rule Where a tetragraph G-I-O-N is pronounced as 'jun', it will be replaced by J-U-N. This rule is comprised of two component rules, which are the G-to-J rule and the I-O-to-U rule. legion-->lejun; region-->rejun; religion-->relijun
 the shun rule Where a T-I-A-N, T-I-O-N, S-I-O-N, or S-S-I-O-N is pronounced as 'shun', it will be replaced by S-H-U-N. This rule is comprised of four component rules, which are the S-to-S-H rule, the T-to-S-H rule, the I-A-to-U rule, and the I-O-to-U rule. martian-->marshun; creation-->creashun; elimination-->eliminashun; emotion-->emoshun; motion-->moshun; motivation-->motivashun; option-->opshun; pension-->penshun; tension-->tenshun; commission-->commishun; mission-->mishun; depression-->depreshun; obsession-->obseshun; omission-->omishun; passion-->pashun; possession-->posseshun; session-->seshun
 the zhun rule Where a S-I-O-N or S-S-I-O-N is pronounced as 'zhun', it will be replaced by Z-H-U-N. This rule is comprised of two component rules, which are the S-to-Z-H rule and the I-O-to-U rule. version-->verzhun; vision-->vizhun; fusion-->fuzhun; fission-->fizhun; lesion-->lezhun; confusion-->confuzhun
 the chur rule Where a tetragraph T-U-R-E is pronounced as 'chrr', it will be replaced by C-H-U-R. If the T is preceded by a hard C, then that C will be replaced by a K. This rule is comprised of two component rules, which are the T-to-C-H rule and the silent-end-E elimination rule. capture-->capchur; culture-->culchur; denture-->denchur; fixture-->fixchur; furniture-->furnichur; future-->fuchur; mixture-->mixchur; nature-->nachur; nurture-->nurchur; picture-->pikchur; puncture-->punkchur; scripture-->scripchur; torture-->torchur; venture-->venchur; vulture-->vulchur
 the shus rule Where a pentagraph C-I-O-U-S or C-E-O-U-S is pronounced as 'shus', it will be replaced by S-H-U-S. This rule is comprised of three component rules, which are the C-to-S-H rule, the I-O-U-to-U rule, and the E-O-U-to-U rule. delicious-->delishus; malicious-->malishus; suspicious-->suspishus; auspicious-->auspishus; salacious-->salashus; cretaceous-->cretashus
 the A-to-A-I after suffix replacement rule When, during a suffix replacement, a single beginning suffix consonant is replaced by two beginning suffix consonants, and the letter before those consonants is an A, then that A will be replaced by A-I. nature-->naichur
 the O-to-O-A after suffix replacement rule When, during a suffix replacement, a single beginning suffix consonant is replaced by two beginning suffix consonants, and the letter before those consonants is an O, then that O will be replaced by O-A. motion-->moashun; notion-->noashun


 

The section of this document that lists the spellings for the many homophones is located at:
semi-phonetic non-homonymic spelling/homophone tables
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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