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A school shooting is an incident in which gun violence occurs at an educational institution.
- 1 Definition
- 2 Profiling
- 3 History of School Shootings in the United States
- 4 Notable school shootings
- 5 Impact
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The term school shooting is most commonly used to describe acts committed by either a student or intruders from outside the school campus. They are to be distinguished from crowd-containment shootings by law-enforcement personnel, such as the shootings at South Carolina State, Kent State and Jackson State universities in the United States, or the October 6, 1976 Massacre in Thailand. They are also differentiated from other kinds of school violence, such as the mass killings of the Bath School disaster (which involved a homemade bomb rather than shooting), the Cologne school massacre (which involved a flamethrower); or terror attacks involving multiple kinds of weapons, such as the Ma'alot massacre or the Beslan school hostage crisis.
One of the most prominent school shootings was that at Columbine High School, near Littleton, Colorado. On Tuesday, April 20, 1999, students Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold murdered thirteen people (twelve students and one teacher) on the school campus before they committed suicide, for a total of fifteen deaths. 24 others were wounded. The shooting was initially planned as a bombing, followed by the shooting of survivors.
In the United States, one-on-one public-school violence, such as beatings and stabbings or gang related violence, is more common in some densely-populated areas. Inner-city or urban schools were much more likely than other schools to report serious violent crimes, with 17 percent of city principals reporting at least one serious crime compared to 11 percent of urban schools, 10 percent of rural schools, and five percent of suburban schools in the 1997 school year. However, school shootings in other countries may take on more national or religious overtones, such as the Mercaz HaRav massacre.
School shooting is a topic of intense interest in the United States. Though companies like MOSAIC Threat Assessment Systems sell products and services designed to identify potential threats, a thorough study of all United States school shootings by the U.S. Secret Service warned against the belief that a certain "type" of student would be a perpetrator. Any profile would fit too many students to be useful and may not apply to a potential perpetrator. Some lived with both parents in "an ideal, All-American family." Some were children of divorce, or lived in foster homes. A few were loners, but most had close friends. Some experts such as Alan Lipman have warned against the dearth of empirical validity of profiling methods.
While it may be simplistic to assume a straightforward "profile", the study did find certain similarities among the perpetrators. "The researchers found that killers do not 'snap'. They plan. They acquire weapons. These children take a long, considered, public path toward violence." Princeton's Katherine Newman has found that, far from being "loners", the perpetrators are "joiners" whose attempts at social integration fail, and that they let their thinking and even their plans be known, sometimes frequently over long periods of time.
Many of the shooters told Secret Service investigators that alienation or persecution drove them to violence. According to the United States Secret Service, instead of looking for traits, the Secret Service urges adults to ask about behavior:
|“||1. What has this child said?
2. Do they have grievances?
3. What do their friends know?
4. Do they have access to weapons?
5. Are they depressed or despondent?
One "trait" that has not yet attracted as much attention is the gender difference: nearly all school shootings are perpetrated by young males, and in some instances the violence has clearly been gender-specific. Bob Herbert addressed this in an October 2006 New York Times editorial. Only two female school shooting incidents have been documented.
Another reported similarity is that most of the perpetrators had been taking antidepressant drugs, which have a documented history of producing violence and aggression as a side effect.
School shootings receive extensive media coverage and are infrequent. They have sometimes resulted in nationwide changes of schools' policies concerning discipline and security. Some experts have described fears about school shootings as a type of moral panic.
Such incidents may also lead to nationwide discussion on gun laws.
History of School Shootings in the United States
The earliest known United States shooting to happen on school property was the Pontiac's Rebellion school massacre on July 26, 1764, where four Lenape American Indians entered the schoolhouse near present-day Greencastle, Pennsylvania, shot and killed schoolmaster Enoch Brown, and killed nine or ten children (reports vary). Only three children survived.
- November 2, 1853: Louisville, Kentucky A student, Matthew Ward, bought a self-cocking pistol in the morning, went to school and killed Schoolmaster Mr. Butler for excessively punishing his brother the day before. Even though he shot the Schoolmaster point blank in front of his classmates, he was acquitted.
- An April 30, 1866 editorial in the New York Times argued against students carrying pistols, citing "pistols being dropped on the floor at balls or being exploded in very inconvenient ways. A boy of 12 has his pantaloons made with a pistol pocket; and this at a boarding-school filled with boys, who, we suppose, do or wish to do the same thing. We would advise parents to look into it, and learn whether shooting is to be a part of the scholastic course which may be practiced on their boys; or else we advise them to see that their own boys are properly armed with the most approved and deadly-pistol, and that there may be an equal chance at least of their shooting as of being shot."
- June 8, 1867: New York City At Public School No. 18, a 13 year old lad brought a pistol loaded and capped, without the knowledge of his parents or school-teachers, and shot and injured a classmate.
- December 22, 1868: Chattanooga, Tennessee A boy who refused to be whipped and left school, returned with his brother and a friend, the next day to seek revenge on his teacher. Not finding the teacher at the school, they continued to his house, where a gun battle rang out, leaving three dead. Only the brother survived.
- March 9, 1873: Salisbury, Maryland After school as Miss Shockley was walking with four small children, she was approached by a Mr. Hall and shot. The Schoolmaster ran out, but she was dead instantly. Hall threw himself under a train that night.
- May 24, 1879: Lancaster, New York As the carriage loaded with female students was pulling out of the school's stables, Frank Shugart, a telegraph operator, shot and severely injured Mr. Carr, Superintendent of the stables.
- March 6, 1884: Boston, Massachusetts As news of Jesse James reached the east coast, young kids started to act in the same manner. An article from the New York Times reads, "Another "Jesse James" Gang - "Word was brought to the Fifth Police Station to-night that a number of boys were using the Concord-street School-house for some unknown purpose, and a posse of officers was sent to investigate. The gang scattered at the approach of the police, and in their flight one drew a revolver and fired at Officer Rowan, without effect, however. William Nangle, age 14, and Sidney Duncan, age 12, were captured, but the other five or six escaped, among them the one who who did the shooting. The boys refused to disclose the object of their meeting, but it is thought that another "Jesse James" organization has been broken up."
- March 15, 1884: Gainsville, Georgia In the middle of the day, a group of very drunk Jackson County farmers left the Jug Tavern drinking and shooting their revolvers as they headed down the street driving people into their homes. As they approached the female academy, the girls fled the schoolyard into the school where the gang followed swearing and shooting, firing several rounds into the front door. No one was hurt.
- July 4, 1886: Charleston, South Carolina During Sunday school, Emma Connelly shot and killed John Steedley for "circulating slanderous reports" about her, even though her brother publicly whipped him a few days earlier.
- April 12, 1887: Watertown, New York Edwin Bush, a student at the Potsdam Normal School committed suicide by shooting himself in the head.
- June 12, 1887: Cleveland, Tennessee Will Guess went to the school and fatally shot Miss Irene Fann, his little sister's teacher, for whipping her the day before.
- June 13, 1889: New Brunswick, New Jersey Charles Crawford upset over an argument with a school Trustee, went up to the window and fired a pistol into a crowded school room. The bullet lodged in the wall just above the teacher's head.
The first known mass shooting in the U.S. where students were shot, was on April 9, 1891, when 70 year old, James Foster fired a shotgun at a group of students in the playground of St. Mary's Parochial School, Newburgh, New York, causing minor injuries to several of the students. The majority of attacks during this time period by students on other students or teacher, usually involved stabbing with knives, or hitting with stones.
There are very seldom reports of mass or multiple school shootings during the first three decades of the 20th Century, with the three most violent attacks on schools involving either arson or explosions.
- February 26, 1902: Camargo, Illinois teacher Fletcher R. Barnett shot and killed another teacher, Eva C. Wiseman, in front of her class at a school near Camargo, Illinois. After shooting at a pupil who came to help Miss Wiseman and wounding himself in a failed suicide attempt he waited in the classroom until a group of farmers came to lynch him. He then ran out of the school building, grabbed a shotgun from one of the farmers and shot himself, before running away and leaping into a well where he finally drowned. The incident was likely sparked by Wiseman's refusal to marry Barnett.
- February 24, 1903: Inman, South Carolina Edward Foster, a 17-year-old student at Inman High school, was shot and fatally wounded by his teacher Reuben Pitts after he had jerked a rod from Pitts' hands to resist punishment. According to the teacher, Foster struck the pistol Pitts had drawn to defend himself, thus causing its discharge. Pitts was later acquitted of murder.
- October 10, 1906: Cleveland, Ohio Harry Smith shot and killed 22-year-old teacher Mary Shepard at South Euclid School after she had rejected him. Smith escaped and committed suicide in a barn near his home two hours later.
- March 23, 1907: Carmi, Illinois George Nicholson shot and killed John Kurd at a schoolhouse outside of Carmi, Illinois during a school rehearsal. The motive for the shooting was Kurd making a disparaging remark about Nicholson's daughter during her recital.
- March 11, 1908: Boston, Massachusetts Elizabeth Bailey Hardee was shot to death by Sarah Chamberlain Weed at the Laurens School, a finishing school in Boston. Weed then turned the gun on herself and committed suicide.
- April 15, 1908: Asheville, North Carolina Dr. C. O. Swinney shot and fatally wounded his 16-year-old daughter Nellie in a reception room at Normal and Collegiate Institute. He then committed suicide by shooting himself in the head.
- February 12, 1909: San Francisco, California 10-year-old Dorothy Malakanoff was shot and killed by 49-year-old Demetri Tereaschinko as she arrived at her school in San Francisco. Tereaschinko then shot himself in a failed suicide attempt. Tereaschinko was reportedly upset that Malakanoff refused to elope with him.
- January 10, 1912: Warrenville, Illinois Sylvester E. Adams shot and killed teacher Edith Smith after she rejected his advances. Adams then shot and killed himself. The incident took place in a schoolhouse about a mile outside of Warrenville after the students had been dismissed for the day.
- March 27, 1919: Lodi Township, Michigan 19-year-old teacher Irma Casler was shot and killed in her classroom at Rentschler school in Lodi Township, Michigan by Robert Warner, apparently because she had rejected his advances.
- April 2, 1921: Syracuse, New York Professor Holmes Beckwith shot and killed dean J. Herman Wharton in his office at Syracuse University before committing suicide.
- May 18, 1927: Bath, Michigan School treasurer Andrew Kehoe, after killing his wife and destroying his house and farm, blew up the Bath Consolidated School by detonating dynamite in the basement of the school, killing 38 people, mostly children. He then pulled up to the school in his Ford car, then set off a truck bomb, killing himself and four others. Only one shot was fired in order to detonate dynamite in the car. This was deadliest act of mass murder at a school in the United States.
- February 15, 1933: Downey, California Dr. Vernon Blythe shot and killed his wife Eleanor, as well as his 8-year old son Robert at Gallatin grammar school and committed suicide after firing three more shots at his other son Vernon. His wife, who had been a teacher at the school, had filed for divorce the week before.
- September 14, 1934: Gill, Massachusetts. Headmaster Elliott Speer was murdered by a shotgun blast through the window of his study at Northfield Mount Hermon School. The crime was never solved.
- December 12, 1935: New York City, New York, Victor Koussow, a Russian laboratory worker at the School of Dental and Oral Surgery, shot Prof. Arthur Taylor Rowe, Prof. Paul B. Wiberg, and wounded Dr. William H. Crawford at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital, before committing suicide.
- April 27, 1936: Lincoln, Nebraska, Prof. John Weller shot and wounded Prof. Harry Kurz in a corridor of the University of Nebraska, apparently because of his impending dismissal at the end of the semester. After shooting Kurz Weller tried to escape, but was surrounded by police on the campus, whereupon he killed himself with a shot in the chest.
- June 4, 1936: Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, Wesley Crow shot and killed his Lehigh University English instructor, C. Wesley Phy. Crow went to Phy's office and demanded that Mr. Phy change his grade to a passing mark. Crow committed suicide after shooting Phy.
- September 24, 1937: Toledo, Ohio 12-year-old Robert Snyder shot and wounded his principal, June Mapes, in her office at Arlington public school when she declined his request to call a classmate. He then fled the school grounds and shot and wounded himself.
- May 6, 1940: South Pasadena, California. After being removed as principal of South Pasadena Junior High School, Verlin Spencer shot six school officials, killing five, before attempting to commit suicide by shooting himself in the stomach.
- May 23, 1940: New York City, New York Infuriated by a grievance, Matthew Gillespie, 62-year-old janitor at the junior school of the Dwight School for Girls, shot and critically wounded Mrs. Marshall Coxe, secretary of the junior school.
- July 4, 1940: Valhalla, New York Angered by the refusal of his daughter, Melba, 15 years old, to leave a boarding school and return to his home, Joseph Moshell, 47, visited the school and shot and killed the girl.
- September 12, 1940: Uniontown, Pennsylvania, 29-year-old teacher Carolyn Dellamea is shot to death inside her third grade classroom by 35-year-old William Kuhns. Kuhns then shot himself in the chest in a failed suicide attempt. Kuhns had reportedly been courting Dellamea for over a year but the relationship was ended when Dellamea discovered that Kuhns was already married.
- October 2, 1942: New York City, New York “Erwin Goodman, 36-year-old mathematics teacher of William J. Gaynor Junior High School, was shot and killed in the school corridor by a youth...
- February 23, 1943: Port Chester, NY Harry Wyman, 13-year-old, shot himself dead at the Harvey School, a boys’ preparatory school.
- June 26, 1946: Brooklyn, New York A 15-year-old schoolboy who balked at turning over his pocket money to a gang of seven youths was shot in the chest at 11:30 A.M. yesterday in the basement of the Public School 147 annex of the Brooklyn High School for Automotive Trades.
- November 24, 1946: New York City A 13-year-old student at St. Benedict’s Parochial School, shot and fatally wounded himself while sitting in an audience watching a school play.
- December 24, 1948: New York City A 14-year-old boy was wounded fatally by an accidental shot from the .22-caliber rifle of a fellow-student … the youth was shot in the head when he chanced into range where Robert Ross, 17, of Brooklyn, was shooting at a target near a lake on the school property.
- March 11, 1949: New York City A 16-year-old student at Stuyvesant High School was accidentally shot in the arm by a fellow student who was ‘showing off’ with a pistol in a classroom.
- November 13, 1949: Columbus, Ohio, Ohio State University freshman James Heer grabbed a .45 caliber handgun from the room of a Delta Tau Delta fraternity brother and shot and killed his fraternity brother Jack McKeown, 21, an Ohio State senior.
- July 22, 1950: New York City, New York A 16-year-old boy was shot in the wrist and abdomen at the Public School 141 dance… during an argument with a former classmate.
- November 27, 1951: New York City, New York David Brooks, a 15-year-old student, was fatally shot as fellow-pupils looked on in a grade school.
- April 9, 1952: New York City, New York A 15-year-old boarding-school student shot a dean rather than relinquish pin-up pictures of girls in bathing suits.
- July 14, 1952: New York City, New York Bayard Peakes walked in to the offices of the American Physical Society at Columbia University and shot and killed secretary Eileen Fahey with a .22 caliber pistol. Peakes was reportedly upset that the APS had rejected a pamphlet he had written.
- September 3, 1952: in Lawrenceville, Illinois After 25-year-old Georgine Lyon ended her engagement with Charles Petrach, Petrach shot and killed Lyon in a classroom at Lawrenceville High School where she worked as a librarian.
- November 20, 1952: New York City, New York “Rear Admiral E. E. Herrmann, 56 years old, superintendent of the Naval Post-Graduate School, was found dead in his office with a bullet in his head. A service revolver was found by his side.
- October 2, 1953: Chicago, Illinois 14-year-old Patrick Colletta was shot to death by 14-year-old Bernice Turner in a classroom of Kelly High School in Chicago. It was reported that after Turner refused to date Colletta he handed her the gun and dared her to pull the trigger, telling her that the gun was “only a toy.” A coroner’s jury later ruled that the shooting was an accident.
- October 8, 1953: New York City, New York Larry Licitra, 17-year-old student at the Machine and Metal Trades High School, was shot and slightly wounded in the right shoulder in the lobby of the school while inspecting a handmade pistol owned by one of several students.
- May 15, 1954: Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Putnam Davis Jr. was shot and killed during a fraternity house carnival at the Phi Delta Theta house at the University of North Carolina. William Joyner and Allen Long were shot and wounded during the exchange of gunfire in their fraternity bedroom. The incident took place after an all-night beer party. Mr. Long reported to the police that, while the three were drinking beer at 7 a.m., Davis pulled out a gun and started shooting with a gun he had obtained from the car of a former roommate.
- January 11, 1955: Swarthmore, Pennsylvania After some of his dorm mates urinated on his mattress Bob Bechtel, a 20-year-old student at Swarthmore College, returned to his dorm with a shotgun and used it to shoot and kill fellow student Holmes Strozier.
- May 4, 1956: in Prince George's County, Maryland, 15-year-old student Billy Prevatte fatally shot one teacher and injured two others at Maryland Park Junior High School in Prince George's County after he had been reprimanded from the school.
- October 20, 1956: New York City, New York A junior high school student was wounded in the forearm yesterday by another student armed with a home-made weapon at Booker T. Washington Junior High School.
- October 2, 1957: New York City, New York “A 16-year old student was shot in the leg yesterday by a 15-year old classmate at a city high school.”
- March 4, 1958: New York City, New York “A 17-year-old student shot a boy in the Manual Training High School.”
- May 1, 1958: Massapequa, New York A 15-year-old high school freshman was shot and killed by a classmate in a washroom of the Massapequa High School.
- September 24, 1959: New York City, New York Twenty-seven men and boys and an arsenal were seized in the Bronx as the police headed off a gang war resulting from the fatal shooting of a teenager Monday at Morris High School.
- February 2, 1960: Hartford City, Indiana Principal Leonard Redden shot and killed two teachers with a shotgun at William Reed Elementary School in Hartford City, Indiana, before fleeing into a remote forest, where he committed suicide.
- June 7, 1960: Blaine, Minnesota Lester Betts, a 40-year-old mail-carrier, walked into the office of 33-year-old principal Carson Hammond and shot him to death with a 12-gauge shotgun.
- October 17, 1961: Denver, Colorado Tennyson Beard, 14, got into an argument with William Hachmeister, 15, at Morey Junior High School. During the argument Beard pulled out a .38 caliber revolver and shot at Hachmeister, wounding him. A stray bullet also struck Deborah Faith Humphrey, 14, who died from her gunshot wound.
- August 1, 1966: University of Texas Massacre Charles Whitman climbs atop the observation deck at the University of Texas-Austin, killing 16 people and wounding 31 during a 96-minute shooting rampage.
- November 12, 1966: Mesa, Arizona Bob Smith, 18, took seven people hostage at Rose-Mar College of Beauty, a school for training beauticians. Smith ordered the hostages to lie down on the floor in a circle. He then proceeded to shoot them in the head with a 22-caliber pistol. Four women and a three-year-old girl died, one woman and a baby were injured but survived. Police arrested Smith after the massacre. Smith had reportedly admired Richard Speck and Charles Whitman.
- January 30, 1968: Miami, Florida 16-year-old Blanche Ward shot and killed fellow student Linda Lipscomb, 16, with a .22-caliber pistol at Miami Jackson High School. According to Ward, she was threatened with a razor by Lipscomb during an argument over a fountain pen, and in the ensuing struggle the gun went off.
- February 8, 1968: Orangeburg, South Carolina In the days leading up to February 8, 1968, about 200 mostly student protesters gathered on the campus of South Carolina State University, located in the city of Orangeburg, to protest the segregation of the All Star Bowling Lane. The bowling alley was owned by the late Harry K. Floyd. That night, students started a bonfire. As police attempted to put out the fire, an officer was injured by a thrown piece of banister. The police said they believed they were under attack by small weapons fire. The officers fired into the crowd, killing three young men: Samuel Hammond, Delano Middleton, and Henry Smith, and wounding twenty-seven others.
- May 22, 1968: Miami, Florida Ernest Lee Grissom, a 15-year-old student at Drew Junior High School, shot and seriously wounded a teacher and a 13-year-old student after he had been reprimanded for causing a disturbance.
- January 17, 1969: Los Angeles, California Two student members of the Black Panther Party, Alprentice Carter and John Huggins, were fatally shot during a student meeting inside Campbell Hall at the University of California, Los Angeles. The motive of the shooting regarded who would own the school's African American Studies Center. The shooter, Claude Hubert, was never to be found but three other men were arrested in connection with the shooting.
- November 19, 1969: Tomah, Wisconsin Principal Martin Mogensen is shot to death in his office by a 14-year-old boy armed with a 20 gauge shotgun.
The two most notable U.S. school shootings in the early 1970s were the Jackson State killings in May 1970, where police opened fire on the campus of Jackson State University and the Kent State shootings also in May 1970 where the National Guard opened fire on the campus of Kent State University.
The mid to late 1970s is considered the second most violent period in U.S. school history with a series of school shootings, most notably were;
- December 30, 1974: Olean, New York, Anthony Barbaro, a 17-year-old Regents scholar armed with a rifle and shotgun, kills three adults and wounds 11 others at his high school, which was closed for the Christmas holiday. Barbaro was reportedly a loner who kept a diary describing several "battle plans" for his attack on the school.
- June 12, 1976: California State University, Fullerton massacre, where the school's custodian opened fire with a semi-automatic rifle in the library on the California State University, Fullerton campus killing 7, and wounding 2.
- February 22, 1978: Lansing, Michigan After being taunted for his beliefs, a 15-year-old self-proclaimed Nazi, kills one student and wounds a second with a Luger pistol.
- January 29, 1979: Grover Cleveland Elementary School Shootings, California, where 16-year-old Brenda Ann Spencer opened fire with a rifle, a gift from her father, killing 2 and wounding 9.
The early 1980s continued much as the 1970s had been, many single shootings;
- April 7, 1982: Littleton, Colorado Deer Creek Jr. High School, The gunman, 14-year-old Jason Rocha, was a student at Deer Creek. Rocha shot and killed 13 year-old Scott Darwin Michael.
The early 1980s saw only a few multi-victim school shootings including;
- January 20, 1983: St. Louis County, Missouri the Parkway South Middle School, eighth grader brought a blue duffel bag containing two pistols, and a murder/suicide note that outlined his intention to kill the next person heard speaking ill of his older brother Ken. He entered a study hall classroom and opened fire, hitting two fellow students. The first victim, was fatally shot in the stomach, and the second victim received a non-fatal gunshot wound to the abdomen. Then he said, "no one will ever call my brother a pussy again" then committed suicide.
According to the Center to Prevent Handgun Violence, in the United States, from September 1986 to September 1990 (four year period):
- At least 71 people (65 students and 6 school employees) had been killed with guns at school.
- 201 were severely wounded by gun fire.
- 242 individuals were held hostage at gunpoint.
According to a 1987 survey conducted by the American School Health Association," 3% of the boys reported having carried a handgun to school at least once during the school year; 1% reported carrying a handgun on a daily basis."
The late 1980s began to see a major increase in school shootings including;
- September 4, 1985: Richmond, Virginia At the end of the second day of school from the East End Middle School a 12yr old boy shot a girl with his mother's gun.
- October 18, 1985: Detroit, Michigan During halftime of the homecoming football game between Northwestern High School and Murray-Wright High School. A boy who was in a fight earlier that day, pulled out a shotgun and opened fire injuring six students.
- November 26, 1985: Spanaway, Washington A 14yr old girl shot two boys dead then kills herself with a .22-caliber rifle at the Spanaway Junior High School.
- December 9, 1985: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania At the Archbishop Ryan High School for Boys, a 22 year old Mental health patient took 6 students hostage with what ended up being a starter pistol. No one was hurt in the ordeal.
- December 10, 1985: Portland, Connecticut At the Portland Junior High School, the Principal was having a heated discussion with a 13-year-old male eighth-grader when he locked the boy inside an office. The student then pulled out a 9mm assault rifle and opened fire. The bullet shattered the glass door and struck the left forearm of the secretary and the glass injured the Principal. The boy fled for the 2nd floor, were he encountered the janitor, and he shot him in the head. The boy then took a seventh-grader hostage. The boy's father and another family member came to the school and talked to him over the intercom system. After 45 minutes, he tossed the gun out a school window and was taken into custody.
- May 16, 1986: The Cokeville Elementary School hostage crisis In a ransom scheme, David and Doris Young, both in their forties, took 150 students and teachers hostage on this spring day. Their demand for $300 million dollars came to an abrupt end when Doris accidentally set off a bomb, killing herself and injuring 78 students and teachers. David wounded John Miller, a teacher who was trying to flee, then killed himself.
- March 2, 1987: Missouri an honours student Nathan Ferris, 12, killed a classmate and then himself.
- May 20, 1988: Winnetka, Illinois 30yr old Laurie Dann shot and killed one boy, and wounded five other kids, in an elementary school, then took a family hostage and shot a man before killing herself.
- September 26, 1988: Greenwood, South Carolina In the cafeteria of the Oakland Elementary School 19 year-old James William Wilson Jr., shot and killed Shequilla Bradley, 8 and wounded eight other children with a 9-round .22 caliber pistol. He went into the girls restroom to reload where he was attacked by Kat Finkbeiner, a Physical Education teacher. James shot her in the hand and mouth. He then entered 3rd grade classroom and wounded six more students.
- December 16, 1988: Virginia Beach, Virginia Nicholas Elliott, 15, opened fire with a SWD Cobray M-11 semiautomatic pistol on his teachers at the Atlantic Shores Christian School. His first shots struck teacher Karen Farley in the arm; when she went down he killed her at point blank range. Nicholas then injured Sam Marino. He turned the Cobray toward his classmates, but the gun jammed and he was quickly subdued by M. Hutchinson Matteson, a teacher, before he could fire another round.
- January 17, 1989: Cleveland School massacre of Stockton, California where 5 school children were killed and 30 wounded by a single gunman firing over 100 rounds into a schoolyard from an AK-47, in which the perpetrator later took his life.
From the late 1980s to the early 1990s the United States saw a sharp increase in guns and gun violence in the schools. According to a survey conducted by The Harvard School of Public Health "15% said that they had carried a handgun on their person in the past 30 days, and 4% said that they had taken a handgun to school in the past year." a sharp increase from just five years earlier. By 1993, the United States saw some of the most violent time is school shooting incidences.
- May 1, 1992: Olivehurst, California Eric Houston, 20, killed four people and wounded 10 in an armed siege at his former high school. Prosecutors said the attack was in retribution for a failing grade.
According to the National School Safety Center, since the 1992-1993 U.S. school year there has been a significant decline in school-associated violent deaths (deaths on private or public school property for kindergarten through grade 12 and resulting from schools functions or activities):
- 1992–1993 (44 Homicides and 55 Deaths resulting from school shootings in the U.S.)
- 1993–1994 (42 Homicides and 51 Deaths resulting from school shootings in the U.S.)
- 1994–1995 (17 Homicides and 20 Deaths resulting from school shootings in the U.S.)
- 1995–1996 (29 Homicides and 35 Deaths resulting from school shootings in the U.S.)
- 1996–1997 (23 Homicides and 25 Deaths resulting from school shootings in the U.S.)
- 1997–1998 (35 Homicides and 40 Deaths resulting from school shootings in the U.S.)
- 1998–1999 (25 Homicides from school shootings in the U.S.)
- 1999–2000 (25 Homicides from school shootings in the U.S.)
According to the U.S. Department of Education, in the 1998-1999 School Year, 3,523 Students (57% High School, 33% Junior High, 10% Elementary) were expelled for bringing a firearm to school.
The late 1990s started to see a major reduction in gun related school violence, but was still plagued with multiple victim shootings including;
- January 12, 1995: Seattle Washington A student left school during the day and returned with his grandfather's 9mm. He wounded two students. The incident is portrayed in the documentary Cease Fire.
- October 12, 1995: Blackville, South Carolina A suspended student shot two math teachers with a .32 caliber revolver.
- November 15, 1995: Lynnville, Tennessee A 17-year-old boy shot and killed a student and teacher with a .22 rifle.
- February 2, 1996: Moses Lake, Washington Two students and one teacher killed, one other wounded when 14-year-old Barry Loukaitis opened fire on his algebra class.
- February 19, 1997: Bethel, Alaska Principal and one student killed, two others wounded by Evan Ramsey, 16.
- October 1, 1997: Pearl, Mississippi Two students killed and seven wounded by Luke Woodham, 16, who was also accused of killing his mother. He and his friends were said to be outcasts who worshiped Satan.
- November 27, 1997: West Palm Beach, Florida Conniston Middle School
14-year-old John Kamel was fatally shot in the chest at 8:40 a.m. outside school on a sidewalk by 14-year-old Tronneal Mangum, after an argument over an Adidas watch that Mangum had taken from Kamel.
- December 1, 1997: West Paducah, Kentucky Three students killed, five wounded by Michael Carneal, 14, as they participated in a prayer circle at Heath High School.
- December 15, 1997: Stamps, Arkansas Two students wounded. Colt Todd, 14, was hiding in the woods when he shot the students as they stood in the parking lot
- March 24, 1998: Jonesboro, Arkansas Four students and one teacher killed, ten others wounded outside as Westside Middle School emptied during a false fire alarm. Mitchell Johnson, 13, and Andrew Golden, 11, shot at their classmates and teachers from the woods
- April 24, 1998: Edinboro, Pennsylvania One teacher, John Gillette, killed, two students wounded at a dance at James W. Parker Middle School. Andrew Wurst, 14, was charged.
- May 21, 1998: Springfield, Oregon Two students killed, 22 others wounded in the cafeteria at Thurston High School by 15-year-old Kip Kinkel. Kinkel had been arrested and released a day earlier for bringing a gun to school. His parents were later found dead at home, shot to death by their son
- June 15, 1998: Richmond, Virginia One teacher and one guidance counselor wounded by a 14-year-old boy in the school hallway
- April 20, 1999: Littleton, Colorado 14 students (including shooters) and one teacher killed, 27 others wounded at Columbine High School. Eric Harris, 18, and Dylan Klebold, 17, had plotted for a year to kill at least 500 and blow up their school. At the end of their hour-long rampage, they turned their guns on themselves.
- May 20, 1999: Conyers, Georgia Six students injured at Heritage High School by Thomas Solomon, 15, who was reportedly depressed after breaking up with his girlfriend
- May 26, 2000: Lake Worth, Florida Lake Worth Middle School Barry Grunow was fatally shot by his student, 13-year-old Nathaniel Brazill, who had returned to school after being sent home at 1 p.m. by the assistant principal for throwing water balloons. Brazill returned to school on his bike with a 5 inch Raven, and four bullets stolen from his grandfather the week before. Brazill was an honor student. Grunow was a popular teacher and Brazill's favorite.
- 2000–2001 (19 Deaths resulting from school shootings in the U.S.)
- 2001–2002 (4 Deaths resulting from school shootings in the U.S.)
- 2002–2003 (14 Deaths resulting from school shootings in the U.S.)
- 2003–2004 (29 Deaths resulting from school shootings in the U.S.)
- 2004–2005 (20 Deaths resulting from school shootings in the U.S.)
- 2005–2006 (5 Deaths resulting from school shootings in the U.S.)
- 2006–2007 (38 Deaths resulting from school shootings in the U.S.)
- 2007–2008 (3 Deaths resulting from school shootings in the U.S.)
- 2008–2009 (10 Deaths resulting from school shootings in the U.S.)
2010s - Present
- February 27, 2012: Chardon, Ohio Chardon High School, T.J. Lane, 17, took a .22-caliber pistol and a knife to Chardon High and firing 10 shots at a group of students sitting at a cafeteria table resulting in the death of 3 and wounding 2.
- 2009–2010 (5 Deaths resulting from school shootings in the U.S.)
- 2010-2011 (12 Deaths resulting from school shootings in the U.S.)
- 2011-2012 (11 Deaths resulting from school shootings in the U.S.)
Notable school shootings
- Main article: List of school-related attacks
|This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards.|
Please improve this article if you can. (December 2009)
|Name||Location||Date||Year||Number of Victims|
|University of Texas Massacre||Austin, Texas||August 1||1966||16|
|Olean High School shooting||Olean, New York||December 30||1974||3|
|St. James Grammar School||Penns Grove, New Jersey||February 24||1975||1 killed 2 wounded|
|Princeton Day School||Princeton, New Jersey||April 3||1975||1 wounded|
|California State University, Fullerton massacre||Fullerton, California||July 12||1976||7|
|Cleveland Elementary School shooting||San Diego, California||January 29||1979||2|
|Deer Creek Middle School shooting||Littleton, Colorado||April 7||1982||1|
|Parkway South Middle School shooting||Manchester, Missouri||January 20||1983||2|
|Goddard Middle School shooting||Goddard, Kansas||January 21||1985||1|
|Portland Junior High School shooting||Portland, Connecticut||December 10||1985||1|
|Pine Forest Senior High School||Fayetteville, North Carolina||May 6||1986||0|
|Pinellas Park High School||Largo, Florida||February 11||1988||1|
|Hubbard Woods School shooting||Winnetka, Illinois||May 20||1988||1|
|Atlantic Shores Christian School shooting||Chesapeake, Virginia||December 16||1988||1|
|Cleveland School massacre||Stockton, California||January 17||1989||6|
|University of Iowa shooting||Iowa City, Iowa||November 1||1991||6|
|Lindhurst High School shooting||Olivehurst, California||May 1||1992||4|
|Palo Duro High School shooting||Amarillo, Texas||September 11||1992||0|
|Berkner High School shooting||Richardson, Texas||November 6||1992||1|
|Edward Tilden High School shooting||Chicago, Illinois||November 20||1992||1|
|Simon's Rock College of Bard shooting||Great Barrington, Massachusetts||December 14||1992||2|
|East Carter High School shooting||Grayson, Kentucky||January 18||1993||2|
|Fairfax High School shooting||Los Angeles, California||January 21||1993||1|
|Amityville High School shooting||Amityville, New York||February 1||1993||1|
|Reseda High School shooting||Reseda, California||February 22||1993||1|
|Wauwatosa West High School shooting||Wauwatosa, Wisconsin||December 1||1993||1|
|Central Middle School shooting||Sheridan, Wyoming||September 17||1993||1|
|Margaret Leary Elementary School shooting||Butte, Montana||April 12||1994||1|
|Grimsley High School shooting||Greensboro, North Carolina||October 12||1994||1|
|Wickliffe Middle School shooting||Wickliffe, Ohio||November 7||1994||1|
|Blackville-Hilda High School shooting||Blackville, South Carolina||October 12||1995||2|
|Richland High School shooting||Lynnville, Tennessee||November 15||1995||2|
|Frontier Middle School shooting||Moses Lake, Washington||February 2||1996||3|
|Hamilton High School shooting||Scottdale, Georgia||February 2||1996||1|
|San Diego State University shooting||San Diego, California||August 15||1996||3|
|Hetzel Union Building shooting||State College, Pennsylvania||September 17||1996||1|
|Bethel Regional High School shooting||Bethel, Alaska||February 19||1997||2|
|Pearl High School shooting||Pearl, Mississippi||October 1||1997||2|
|Heath High School shooting||Paducah, Kentucky||December 1||1997||3|
|Westside Middle School shooting||Jonesboro, Arkansas||March 24||1998||5|
|Parker Middle School dance shooting||Edinboro, Pennsylvania||April 24||1998||1|
|Thurston High School shooting||Springfield, Oregon||May 21||1998||2|
|Columbine High School massacre||Littleton, Colorado||April 20||1999||15|
|Heritage High School shooting||Conyers, Georgia||May 20||1999||0|
|Fort Gibson Middle School shooting||Fort Gibson, Oklahoma||December 6||1999||0|
|Buell Elementary School shooting||Mount Morris Township, Michigan||February 29||2000||1|
|Lake Worth Middle School shooting||Lake Worth, Florida||May 26||2000||1|
|University of Arkansas shooting||Fayetteville, Arkansas||August 28||2000||2|
|Santana High School shooting||Santee, California||March 5||2001||2|
|Granite Hills High School shooting||El Cajon, California||March 22||2001||0|
|Martin Luther King, Jr. High School shooting||Manhattan, New York||January 15||2002||0|
|Appalachian School of Law shooting||Grundy, Virginia||January 16||2002||3|
|John McDonogh High School shooting||New Orleans, Louisiana||April 14||2003||1|
|University of Arizona Nursing School shooting||Tucson, Arizona||October, 28||2002||4|
|Red Lion Area Junior High School shootings||Red Lion, Pennsylvania||April 24||2003||2|
|Case Western Reserve University shooting||Cleveland, Ohio||May 9||2003||1|
|Rocori High School shooting||Cold Spring, Minnesota||September 24||2003||2|
|Columbia High School shooting||East Greenbush, New York||February 9||2004||0|
|Fairleigh Dickinson University shooting||Florham Park, New Jersey||April 4||2004||2|
|Randallstown High School shooting||Randallstown, Maryland||May 7||2004||0|
|Red Lake Senior High School massacre||Red Lake, Minnesota||March 21||2005||8|
|Campbell County High School shooting||Jacksboro, Tennessee||November 8||2005||1|
|Pine Middle School shooting||Reno, Nevada||March 14||2006||0|
|Essex Elementary School shooting||Essex, Vermont||August 24||2006||2|
|Orange High School shooting||Hillsborough, North Carolina||August 30||2006||1|
|Platte Canyon High School shooting||Bailey, Colorado||September 27||2006||2|
|Weston High School shooting||Cazenovia, Wisconsin||September 29||2006||2|
|Amish school shooting||Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania||October 2||2006||6|
|Henry Foss High School shooting||Tacoma, Washington||January 3||2007||1|
|Herbert Henry Dow High School||Midland, Michigan||March 8||2007||1|
|University of North Carolina at Greensboro||Greensboro, North Carolina||March 24||2007||0|
|University of Washington shooting||Seattle, Washington||April 2||2007||2|
|Virginia Tech massacre||Blacksburg, Virginia||April 16||2007||32|
|Delaware State University shooting||Dover, Delaware||September 21||2007||1|
|SuccessTech Academy shooting||Cleveland, Ohio||October 10||2007||1|
|Louisiana Technical College shooting||Baton Rouge, Louisiana||February 8||2008||3|
|Mitchell High School shooting||Memphis, Tennessee||February 11||2008||0|
|E.O. Green School shooting||Oxnard, California||February 12||2008||1|
|Northern Illinois University massacre||DeKalb, Illinois||February 14||2008||6|
|Davidson High School Shooting||Mobile, Alabama||March 9||2008||1|
|Central High School shooting||Knoxville, Tennessee||August 21||2008||1|
|Henry Ford High School shooting||Detroit, Michigan||October 16||2008||1|
|2008 University of Central Arkansas shootings||Conway, Arkansas||October 27||2008||2|
|Dillard High School shooting||Fort Lauderdale, Florida||November 12||2008||1|
|Henry Ford Community College shooting||Dearborn, Michigan||April 10||2009||2|
|Hampton University||Hampton, Virginia||April 26||2009||0|
|Covina High School shooting||Covina, California||April 30||2009||0|
|Wesleyan University||Middletown, Connecticut||May 1||2009||1|
|Canandaigua Academy shooting||Canandaigua, New York||May 5||2009||1|
|Harvard University||Cambridge, Massachusetts||May 18||2009||1|
|Larose-Cut Off Middle School shooting||Larose, Louisiana||May 18||2009||1|
|Skyline College shooting||San Bruno, California||September 2||2009||0|
|Atlanta University Center||Atlanta, Georgia||September 3||2009||1|
|Deer Valley High School shooting||Antioch, California||September 16||2009||0|
|Northern Virginia Community College||Woodbridge, Virginia||December 8||2009||0|
|Discovery Middle School||Madison, Alabama||February 5||2010||1|
|University of Alabama in Huntsville||Huntsville, Alabama||February 12||2010||3|
|Deer Creek Middle School||Littleton, Colorado||February 23||2010||0|
|Birney Elementary School||Tacoma, Washington||February 26||2010||1|
|Ohio State University||Columbus, Ohio||March 9||2010||2|
|Belleville Township HS East||Belleville, Illinois||August 17||2010||1|
|University of Texas at Austin||Austin, Texas||September 28||2010||1|
|Alisal High School||Salinas, California||October 1||2010||1|
|Mid-Atlantic Christian University||Elizabeth City, North Carolina||October 3||2010||1|
|Kelly Elementary School||Carlsbad, California||October 8||2010||2 (wounded)|
|Marinette High School||Marinette, Wisconsin||November 29||2010||1|
|Millard South High School shooting||Omaha, Nebraska, United States||January 5||2011||2|
|Martinsville West Middle School||Martinsville, Indiana||March 25||2011||0|
|Worthing High School||Houston, Texas||March 30||2011||1|
|Ross Elementary School||Houston, Texas||April 19||2011||0|
|San Jose State University||San Jose, California||May 10||2011||3|
|Pearl City Middle School||Pearl City, Hawaii||May 23||2011||1|
|Cape Fear High School shooting||Fayetteville, North Carolina||October 24||2011||0|
|2011 Virginia Tech shooting||Blacksburg, Virginia||December 8||2011||2 |
|Walpole Elementary School||Walpole, New Hampshire||February 10||2012||1 (injury) |
|Chardon High School shooting||Chardon, Ohio||February 27||2012||3|
|Oikos University shooting||Oakland, California||April 2||2012||7|
|Altona schoolhouse shooting||Altona, Manitoba||October 10||1902||2|
|Centennial Secondary School shooting||Brampton, Ontario||May 28||1975||2|||
|St Pius X High School School||Ottawa, Ontario||October 27||1975||1|||
|Sturgeon Creek High School||Winnipeg, Manitoba||October||1978||1|||
|École Polytechnique Massacre||Montreal, Quebec||December 6||1989||14|||
|Concordia University massacre||Montreal, Quebec||August 24||1992||4|||
|W. R. Myers High School shooting||Taber, Alberta||April 28||1999||1|||
|Dawson College shooting||Montreal, Quebec||September 13||2006||1|||
|C. W. Jefferys Collegiate Institute shooting||Toronto, Ontario||May 23||2007||1|||
|Bendale Business and Technical Institute shooting||Toronto, Ontario||September 16||2008||0|||
|Central Technical School shooting||Toronto, Ontario||September 30||2010||0|||
|Bremen school shooting||Bremen, Germany||June 20||1913||5|
|Kungälv school Shooting||Kungälv, Sweden||March 4||1961||1|||
|Cologne school massacre||Cologne, Germany||June 11||1964||10|
|Eppstein school shooting||Eppstein, Germany||June 3||1983||6|
|Raumanmeri school shooting||Rauma, Finland||January 24||1989||2|||
|Aarhus University Shooting||Aarhus, Denmark||April 5||1994||3|||
|Dunblane massacre||Dunblane, United Kingdom||March 13||1996||18|||
|ROC de Leijgraaf||Veghel, Netherlands||December 7||1999||0 killed, 5 wounded|| |
|Erfurt massacre||Erfurt, Germany||April 26||2002||17|||
|Coburg shooting||Coburg, Germany||July 3||2003||1|||
|Terra College||The Hague, Netherlands||January||2004||1|||
|Beslan school hostage crisis||Beslan, Russia||September 1||2004||385|||
|Grund- und Hauptschule von Rötz shooting||Rötz (Oberpfalz), Germany||March 7||2005||0|||
|Geschwister Scholl School attack||Emsdetten, Germany||November 20||2006||1|||
|Jokela school shooting||Tuusula, Finland||November 7||2007||9|||
|Kauhajoki school shooting||Kauhajoki, Finland||September 23||2008||11|||
|Winnenden school shooting||Winnenden, Germany||March 11||2009||16|||
|OAED Vocational College shooting||Athens, Greece||April 10||2009||1|
|Kanebogen elementary school shooting||Harstad, Norway||April 28||2009||0|||
|University of Pécs shooting||Pécs, Hungary||November 26||2009||1|||
|2012 Midi-Pyrénées shootings||Toulouse, France||March 19||2012||4|
|2012 Brindisi school bombing||Brindisi, Italy||May 19||2012||1|
South America, Asia and Australia
|Ma'alot massacre||Ma'alot, Israel||May 15, 1974||25|
|Sanaa massacre||Sana'a, Yemen||March 30, 1997||6|||
|University of the Philippines shooting||Quezon City, Philippines||February 19, 1999||1|||
|La Trobe University shooting||Melbourne, Australia||August 3, 1999||1|
|Monash University shooting||Melbourne, Australia||October 21, 2002||2|||
|Pak Phanang school shooting||Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand||June 6, 2003||2|||
|Islas Malvinas School shooting||Carmen de Patagones, Argentina||September 28, 2004||4|||
|Beirut Arab University shooting||Beirut, Lebanon||January 25, 2007||4|||
|Euro International school shooting||Gurgaon, India||December 12, 2007||1|||
|Mercaz HaRav shooting||Jerusalem, Israel||March 6, 2008||9|||
|Azerbaijan State Oil Academy shooting||Baku, Azerbaijan||April 30, 2009||13|||
|Realengo massacre||Rio de Janeiro, Brazil||April 7, 2011||13|||
|Modbury High School||Adelaide, Australia||May 11, 2012||0|||
School shootings have had a political impact, spurring some to press for more stringent gun control laws. The National Rifle Association is opposed to such laws, and some groups have called for fewer gun control laws, citing cases of armed students ending shootings and halting further loss of life, and claiming that the prohibitions against carrying a gun in schools do not deter the gunmen. One such example is the Mercaz HaRav Massacre, where the attacker was not stopped by police but rather a student, Yitzhak Dadon, who stopped the attacker by shooting him with his personal firearm which he lawfully carried concealed. At a Virginia law school, there is a disputed claim that two students retrieved pistols from their cars and stopped the attacker without firing a shot. Also, at a Mississippi high school, the Vice Principal retrieved a firearm from his vehicle and then eventually stopped the attacker as he was driving away from the school. In other cases, such as shootings at Columbine and Red Lake High Schools, the presence of an armed police officer did nothing to prevent or shorten the shootings.
A ban on the ownership of handguns was introduced in the United Kingdom (with the exception of Northern Ireland) following the Dunblane massacre.
For years, some areas in the US have allowed "armed classrooms" to deter (or truncate) future attacks, presumably by changing helpless victims into armed defenders. In 2008, Harrold Independent School District in Texas became the first public school district in the U.S. to allow teachers with state-issued firearm-carry permits to carry their arms in the classroom; special additional training and ricochet-resistant ammunition were required for participating teachers. Students at the University of Utah have been allowed to carry concealed pistols (so long as they possess the appropriate state license) since a State Supreme Court decision in 2006. In addition to Utah, Wisconsin and Mississippi each have legislation that allow students, faculty and employees with the proper permit, to carry concealed weapons on their public university's campuses. Colorado and Oregon state courts have ruled in favor of Campus Carry laws by denying University's proposals to ban guns on campus. Ruling that the UC Board of Regents and the Oregon University System did not have the authority to ban weapons on campus.  A selective ban was then re-instated, wherein Oregon state universities enacted a ban on guns in school building and sporting events or by anyone contracted with the university in question. 
Michigan State University as of June 2009, allows students to carry firearms on campus,the university still prohibits knives and other non-firearm weapons however.
A commentary in the conservative National Review Online argues that the armed school approach for preventing school attacks, while new in the US, has been used successfully for many years in Israel and Thailand. Teachers and school officials in Israel are allowed and encouraged to carry firearms if they have former military experience in the IDF, which almost all do. However, statistics on what percentage of teachers are actually armed are unavailable.
- List of school-related attacks
- Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
- Chencholai bombing, Sri Lanka
- Federal Bureau of Investigation
- Incendiary device
- Mass murder
- Nagerkovil school bombing, Sri Lanka
- School bullying
- School violence
- Social rejection
- Suicide bombing
- Youth subculture
- National Center for Education Statistics' Violence and Discipline Problems in U.S. Public Schools, 1996-97. Nces.ed.gov. URL accessed on 2012-05-04.
- includeonly>"'Profiling' School Shooters", Frontline, March 17, 2007. Retrieved on March 17, 2007.
- The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative. (PDF)
- PBS article on murder profiles. Pbs.org. URL accessed on 2012-05-04.
- see Fein, R.A., Vossekuil, B., Pollack, W., Borum, R., Reddy, M.,& Modzeleski, W. Threat assessment in schools: A guide to managing threatening situations and creating safe school climates. U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Secret Service, May, 2002 for the research and the recommendations therefrom
- Bill Dedman, Deadly Lessons: School Shooters Tell Why, description of Secret Service study. (October 15, 2000) Chicago Sun-Times. Accessed April 8, 2006
- includeonly>Herbert, Bob. "Why Aren't We Shocked?", The New York Times, October 16, 2006. [dead link]
- includeonly>"Police: Female student kills 2 others, self at Louisiana college - CNN.com", February 8, 2008. [dead link]
- includeonly>"Parole Denied to Female School Shooter", San Diego 6, 13. AUG 2009. Retrieved on 16. OCT 2010.
- Index to SSRI Stories. Ssristories.com. URL accessed on 2012-03-14.
- Revealing the Link: SSRIs and School Shootings. 3REPORT. URL accessed on 2012-03-14.
- School Shootings Linked to Psychotropic Drugs Such as Ritalin, Luvox and Prozac. Antidepressantsfacts.com. URL accessed on 2012-03-14.
- Antidepressants and Violence: Problems at the Interface of Medicine and Law. PLoS Medicine. URL accessed on 2012-03-14.
- CNN (March 25, 1998). School shootings have high profile but occur infrequently.
- Killingbeck, Donna. The Role of Television News in the Construction of School Violence as a 'Moral Panic." Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture, 8(3) (2001) 186-202
- Government Vows to Take Action Following Kauhajoki Shootings. YLE. URL accessed on September 23, 2008.
- David, Dixon (2005). Never Come to Peace Again: Pontiac's Uprising and the Fate of the British Empire in North America, University of Oklahoma Press.
- Published: April 29, 1854, The New York Times
- Article 2 -- No Title, April 30, 1866, http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20C16FB3D551A7493C2AA178FD85F428684F9, retrieved on 2011-11-16
- Published: The New York Times, June 9, 1867
- Published: The New York Times, December 26, 1868
- Published: March 10, 1873,The New York Times
- Published: May 26, 1879,The New York Times
- Published: The New York Times,March 7, 1884
- Published: The New York Times, March 16, 1884
- Published: The New York Times, July 5, 1886
- Published: The New York Times, April 13, 1887
- Published: The New York Times, June 13, 1887
- Published: The New York Times, June 14, 1889
- New York Times, April 10, 1891, pg. 2.
- Timeline of School Shootings - US News and World Report. Usnews.com. URL accessed on 2012-03-14.
- includeonly>"Deer Creek also site of a shooting in 1982", Denver Post.
- Center to Prevent Handgun Violence,Caught in the Crossfire: A Report on Gun Violence in Our Nation’s Schools, 1225 Eye Street, NW, Suite 1100,Washington, DC 20005(202/289-7319)
- American School Health Association,Association for the Advancement of Health Education,Society for Public Health Education,National Adolescent Student Health Survey, 1987
- Richmond Times-Dispatch - Schoolgirl Shot in Face on Bus Here; Richmond Times-Dispatch - Police Hold Schoolboy in Shooting
- Houston Chronicle - 6 Shot, Injured at Homecoming; Houston Chronicle - Fight Occurred At School Before Shootings
- The Seattle Times - 2 Slain as Junior-High Romance Turns Sour; The Seattle Times - 3 Die as Teen Romance Sours - Shooting at School in Spanaway Leaves Girl, 2 Boys Dead; The Seattle Times - Spanaway Tragedy - Coping with Horror, Helplessness, Loss
- Houston Chronicle - Janitor Shot to Death by 13-Year-Old Student
- includeonly>"School massacres in the US", AFP, April 17, 2007.
- Jay Mathews, Matt Lait, "Rifleman slays five at school", Washington Post, Jan, 18, 1989, pg. A1.
- The Harvard School of Public Health The Joyce Foundation, Chicago, Illinois A Survey of Experiences, Perceptions, and Apprehensions about Guns Among Young People in America, The Joyce Foundation LH Research, 312/782-2464 212/332-2950
- Source: National School Safety Center report (includes school-associated violent deaths on private or public school property for kindergarten through grade 12). http://www.schoolsafety.us/media-resources/school-associated-violent-deaths
- National School Safety Center, School Safety Statistics, December 2006 p.15
- Time Line of Worldwide School Shootings — Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0777958.html#ixzz1dKy7XIqF
- Time Line of Worldwide School Shootings — Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0777958.html#ixzz1dKykCKT6
- Time Line of Worldwide School Shootings — Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0777958.html#ixzz1dKzIqLoz
- Time Line of Worldwide School Shootings — Infoplease.com,http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0777958.html#ixzz1dL0AnIAt
- Time Line of Worldwide School Shootings — Infoplease.com,http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0777958.html#ixzz1dL2Dzdbn
- Time Line of Worldwide School Shootings — Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0777958.html#ixzz1dL2mTDxq
- Time Line of Worldwide School Shootings — Infoplease.com,http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0777958.html#ixzz1dL3D6QYr
- Time Line of Worldwide School Shootings — Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0777958.html#ixzz1dL4Ube9n
- Essex Shooting Rampage - WCAX.COM Local Vermont News, Weather and Sports. Wcax.com. URL accessed on 2012-03-14.
- The victim, Stephen Cobb, was shot by Brian Patrick Martin when an argument about a potential drug deal that went bad. http://www.uncg.edu/ure/news/stories/2007/March/UNCGUNCGInvestigatingShootingatResidenceHall.032507.htm
- includeonly>THOMAS WATKINS. "SoCal Students plan shooting", San Francisco Chronicle, 2009-05-01. Retrieved on 2009-05-01. [dead link]
- Justin Cosby, 21, was shot sometime before 5 p.m. Monday in J-Entry of Kirkland House. The Harvard University Police responded at approximately 4:48 p.m., and Cosby was taken to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, where he died http://www.thecrimson.com/article/2009/5/20/justin-cosby-21-dies-after-shooting/
- Sophomore Jasmine Lynn was shot around 12:30 a.m. Thursday September 3, 2009 on James P. Brawley Drive in the Atlanta University Center, according to the Fulton County Medical Examiner’s office. http://www.ajc.com/news/atlanta/students-question-campus-safety-130043.html
- includeonly>Template error: argument title is required. [dead link]
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- includeonly>"The Vice-Principal died and the Principal was seriously wounded. The gunman also died by his own hands", Cnn.com, 2011-01-06. Retrieved on 2012-05-04.
- includeonly>"1 shot at Indiana middle school", CNN, March 26, 2011.
- Police ID teen killed in Worthing school shooting - Houston Chronicle. Chron.com. URL accessed on 2012-03-14.
- includeonly>"3 kindergartners wounded when gun discharges at Houston school", CNN, 2011-04-19. Retrieved on 2012-03-14.
- includeonly>"Three die in San Jose State campus shooting, including suspect", CBS News.
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- includeonly>"Two Dead in Shooting on Virginia Tech Campus", The New York Times, December 8, 2011.
- includeonly>By Dan Adams, Globe Correspondent. "Walpole, N.H. reeling in wake of school shooting - Metro Desk - Local news updates from The Boston Globe", Boston.com, 2012-03-04. Retrieved on 2012-03-14.
- The Brampton Centennial Secondary School massacre was a school shooting, which occurred at Brampton Centennial Secondary School in Brampton, Ontario. 16-year-old gunman Michael Slobodian shot and killed a fellow student, a teacher and injured 13 other students before turning the gun on himself and committing suicide in a school hallway. It was the first school shooting in Canada. Slobodian is the first recorded high-school killer in the country
- The St. Pius X High School shooting was a school shooting that occurred on October 27, 1975, at St. Pius X High School in Ottawa, Ontario. Robert Poulin, an 18-year-old St. Pius student, opened fire on his classmates with a shotgun killing one and wounding five before turning the gun on himself and committing suicide. Poulin had raped and stabbed his 17-year-old friend Kim Rabot to death prior to the incident. A book entitled Rape of a Normal Mind was written about the incident.
- "Shooting Violence in Canada" A shooting at a vocational High School in Winnipeg when a A 17-year-old student shoots a 16-year-old to death at Sturgeon Creek Regional Secondary School in Winnipeg, allegedly for ridiculing the rock group Kiss. He is found not guilty of first-degree murder by reason of insanity.
- The École Polytechnique Massacre, also known as the Montreal Massacre, occurred on December 6, 1989, at the École Polytechnique in Montreal, Quebec. Twenty-five-year-old Marc Lépine, armed with a legally obtained semi-automatic rifle and a hunting knife, shot twenty-eight people, killing fourteen (all of them women) and injuring the other fourteen before killing himself.
- The Concordia University massacre was a school shooting on August 24, 1992, that resulted in the deaths of four people at Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec. The shooter was Dr. Valery Fabrikant, a former Associate Professor of mechanical engineering at Concordia and a colleague of the slain men.
- The W. R. Myers High School shooting occurred on April 28, 1999, at W. R. Myers High School in Taber, Alberta, when a 14-year-old walked into his school and randomly shot at three students, killing Jason Lang and injuring another. One dead, one wounded in Alberta school shooting, cbc.ca, November 10, 1999. This shooting took place only eight days after the Columbine High School Massacre, and is widely believed to have been a copycat crime.
- The Dawson College shooting occurred on September 13, 2006, at Dawson College, a CEGEP in Westmount near downtown Montreal, Quebec. The perpetrator, Kimveer Gill, began shooting outside the de Maisonneuve Boulevard entrance to the school, and moved towards the atrium by the cafeteria on the main floor. includeonly>"The Montreal Killer Was a Death-Obsessed Goth", Toronto Daily News, September 14, 2006. Retrieved on September 15, 2006. includeonly>"Two gunmen open fire at Dawson College", The Gazette, September 13, 2006. Retrieved on September 13, 2006. One victim died at the scene, while another 19 were injured, eight of whom were listed in critical condition with six requiring surgery. includeonly>"Press Release", Service de police de la ville de Montréal, September 13, 2006. includeonly>"UPDATE 7-Gunman kills one, wounds 19 at Montreal college", Reuters, September 13, 2006. Retrieved on September 14, 2006. includeonly>"Woman, gunman dead in Montreal school rampage", CBC News, September 13, 2006. Retrieved on September 13, 2006. The shooter later committed suicide by shooting himself in the head, after being shot in the arm by police. includeonly>"Montreal gunman killed himself: autopsy", CBC, September 14, 2006. Retrieved on September 15, 2006.
- Two 17-year-old Canadian citizens, whom the media can not identify under the provisions of Canada's Youth Criminal Justice Act, were arrested on May 27, 2007, and charged with the first-degree murder of a 15-year-old student at the C. W. Jefferys Collegiate Institute. Prior to one of the arrests, police had taken the unusual step of obtaining a judicial order to publish one suspect's name and photograph as he was considered armed and dangerous. Media reported his identity and photo, then had to take the stories off their websites after he was arrested hours later.
- A 16-year-old boy was shot in the chest in the school's parking lot following an altercation involving several people. No name has yet been released. On September 17, 2008, Toronto Police announced it had made 2 arrests of these shooting suspects; 18-year-old Mark Deicsics, has been charged with robbery while armed with a firearm and fail to comply with recognizance and the victim of the shooting and 16-year-old teen, has been charged with robbery while armed with a firearm. His name cannot be released under the limitation's in Canada's Youth Criminal Justice Act.
- At around 1:00 PM EST there was a confrontation between 4 students, at least one gunshot was fired from a semi-automatic pistol. The school was placed under lockdown until 4:45 pm EST. Two suspects were apprehended by the Toronto Police Service but were not charged, one fled and was sought as a suspect until 7:30 pm EST when he was taken into custody. It was discovered he was a victim. One teen currently remains to be apprehended, and no one was seriously hurt or killed.
- A 17-year-old fires 15 bullets into a crowd at a school dance at Kungälvs Läroverk (a/k/a Thorildskolan), killing one student and wounding six others.
- Two students were fatally shot by a 14-year-old student at the Raumanmeri secondary school. The shooter had claimed to be a victim of bullying.
- University student shoots and kills three and wounds two others before taking his own life.
- The Dunblane massacre was a multiple murder-suicide which occurred at Dunblane Primary School in the Scottish town of Dunblane on March 13, 1996. Sixteen children and one adult were killed, in addition to the attacker, who committed suicide. It remains the deadliest attack on children in United Kingdom history.
- includeonly>"Student shoots four at Dutch school", BBC News, December 7, 1999.
- includeonly>"School shooting suspect's family arrested", BBC News, December 9, 1999.
- The Erfurt massacre was a school shooting that occurred on April 26, 2002, at the Johann Gutenberg Gymnasium in Erfurt, Germany. Sixteen people were killed before the perpetrator committed suicide. The victims comprised 13 school staff (12 teachers and one administrator), two students and one police officer. In addition, seven people were injured.
- 16-year-old student shoots two of his teachers before taking his own life.
- Principal (H. van Wieren) shot in the head by a student .
- Attack purpertrated by Chechen Rebels, 31 of which died and 1 was captured.
- After being ordered to leave the classroom a 14-year-old student returns with a gun threatening the life of the 35-year-old class teacher. During a struggle the weapon is fired, the weapon is removed from the student. Investigators' findings state that the student did not intend to kill the teacher, but himself. No one was injured.
- Bastian Bosse, an 18-year-old male, and former student, had fired shots with a front loader and a sawed-off shotgun on campus, threw a molotow cocktail outside the school, and lid a pipe bomb upon arrival of the police. The incident ended with 37 people injured, including 19 students (three girls and a boys suffered gunshot wounds), one teachers, 16 police officers (most suffering from smoke inhalation), and the custodian who was shot in the abdomen inside the school. The shooter took his own life. A total of 13 pipe/smoke bombs and four shot guns where found (five smoke bombs in a backpack near the body of the student, four in the car, three where strapped to the body, one was set off by police while on school grounds).
- The incident resulted in the deaths of nine people: five male students (ages 16-18) and one female adult student (age 25) the school principal, Helena Kalmi (age 61); the school nurse (age 43); and the gunman, Auvinen, himself, who was also one of the school's students. One other person suffered gunshot wounds, and eleven people were injured by shattering glass while escaping from the school building. The day before the incident, Auvinen posted a video on YouTube predicting the massacre at the school.
- Former 17-year-old student kills 16, injuring nine others.
- Nine-year-old pupil fires shotgun in schoolyard; nobody is injured.
- 23-year-old student entered the building of the university's biophysics research institute and opened fire in the classroom.One man died in the shooting. Earlier two people were reported to be in a critical condition, a third in serious condition.
- The Sanaa massacre was a school massacre that occurred in Sana'a, Yemen, on March 30, 1997. Mohammad Ahman al-Naziri, 48, attacked hundreds of pupils at two schools, killing six children and two adults with an assault rifle. Naziri, whose five children attended the Tala'i school, alleged that one of his daughters had been raped by the school administrator. No evidence was found of this. Naziri was sentenced to death the next day and executed on April 5, 1997.
- A student was shot dead by a fraternity member after being mistaken for a member of the rival fraternity.
- The Monash University shooting refers to a shooting in which a student shot his classmates and teacher, killing two and injuring five. It took place at Monash University in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, on October 21, 2002.
- 17-year-old Anatcha Boonkwan killed two, injured four of his fellow students after losing a fist-fight with one of his classmates.
- Four students killed and five wounded by a 15-year-old student in a town 620 miles south of Buenos Aires. Crisis Management: The Case of School Schootings - Case Study: "Islas Malvinas" Middle School
- Four people were shot dead in clashes between pro- and anti-government activists on Thursday and about 200 were hurt in the violence that flared after a scuffle between students at a Beirut university. The opposition accused the government camp of starting the riots and the four dead included two Hezbollah students, who were fired at from rooftops.
- The Euro International school shooting occurred on December 12, 2007 at Euro International, a private secondary school in Gurgaon, Haryana, India. The gunmen were 14-year-old Akash Yadav and 13-year-old Vikas Yadav, who were both students at the school, shot and killed a 14-year-old student.
- Alaa Abu Dhein, an Israeli Arabic yeshiva bus driver, entered the Mercaz HaRav yeshiva with guns blazing, killing eight and wounding seven, before being shot dead himself by a part-time student. This incident, as do many massacres in the Levant, soon took on racial and religious overtones, pitting Palestinians and Israeli Arabs against Jews.
- Azerbaijan Oil Academy mass shooting, 30 April 2009[dead link]
-  A former student (23) shot at least 13 people inside the school, before turning the gun on himself
- LearnAboutGuns.com. A discussion of the reasoning behind gun free zone, 2007-2008. Learnaboutguns.com. URL accessed on 2012-05-04.
- includeonly>"New Year gun amnesty planned", BBC News, December 27, 2002. Retrieved on July 14, 2009.
- James C. McKinley Jr.: "In Texas School, Teachers Carry Books and Guns" New York Times, August 28, 2008
- "Guns on college campuses allowed in U.S. state Utah" The Associated Press, in ''The International Herald Tribune'', April 27, 2007. International Herald Tribune. URL accessed on 2012-05-04.
- "Utah Supreme Court Shoots down University of Utah Gun Ban" September 9, 2006, ''John Lott's Website''. Johnrlott.blogspot.com. URL accessed on 2012-05-04.
- "U of Wisconsin Prepares for New Concealed Carry Law" University Security, in "Campus Safety Magazine", September 7, 2011. Campussafetymagazine.com. URL accessed on 2012-05-04.
- "Mississippi Passes New Campus Gun Laws" in "The DM Online", February 19, 2012
- includeonly>By Monte WhaleyThe Denver Postdenverpost.com. ""Colorado Supreme Court affirms that CU students with permits can carry concealed guns on campus" in "The Denver Post", March 5, 2012", Denverpost.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-04.
- includeonly>Bill Graves/The Oregonian. ""Oregon Court of Appeals rejects university system's ban on guns on campus" in "The Oregonian", September 28, 2011", Oregonlive.com, September 28, 2011. Retrieved on 2012-05-04.
- Dave Kopel: "Follow the Leader: Israel and Thailand set an example by arming teachers." National Review Online, September 2, 2004[dead link]
- "Are U.S. Schools Safe?" - CNN In-Depth Special
- "School Killers." - Crime Library
- SchoolShooting.org - Map of school shootings in the US and related info.
- The Depressive and the Psychopath: The FBI's analysis of the Columbine killers' motives
- Schoolboy killing stuns Canada (The Guardian)
- BBC timeline of US school shootings
- Identity annihilation as explanation for school shootings
- Indianapolis Star: School violence around the world (November 2004)
- The Scene of the Crime Was the Cause of the Crime - Excerpt from Going Postal: Rage, Murder, and Rebellion—From Reagan's Workplaces to Clinton's Columbine and Beyond by Mark Ames.
- Dreading Columbine - Sociological exploration of suburban school shootings.
- Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence
- Teaching Kids to Kill
- Chronology of School Shootings
- Held Hostage at Case Western
- Student Threat Assessment and Management System Guide
- Causes of school shootings. Reviewing the social interaction of pupils
- Horrific School Shootings - slideshow by Life magazine
- Mass Shootings at Virginia Tech Report of the Review Panel
- U.S. study of school shootings, "The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative"
- Advice for safe schools, Threat assessment in schools: A Guide to managing threatening situations and to creating safe school climates
- School Violence
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