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The Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) is a rating scale to measure negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The scale was developed by Nancy Andreasen and was first published in 1981. SANS is split into 5 domains, and within each domain separate symptoms are rated from 0 (absent) to 5 (severe). The scale is closely linked to the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) which was published a few years later.


Affective Flattening or Blunting[]

  • Unchanging Facial Expression
  • Decreased Spontaneous Movements
  • Paucity of Expressive Gestures
  • Poor Eye Contact
  • Affective Nonresponsivity
  • Lack of Vocal Inflections
  • Global Rating of Affective Flattening
  • Inappropriate Affect


  • Poverty of Speech
  • Poverty of Content of Speech
  • Blocking
  • Increased Latency of Response
  • Global Rating of Alogia

Avolition - Apathy[]

  • Grooming and Hygiene
  • Impressistence at Work or School
  • Physical Anergia
  • Global Rating of Avolition - Apathy

Anhedonia - Asociality[]

  • Recreational Interests and Activities
  • Sexual Interest and Activity
  • Ability to Feel Intimacy and Closeness
  • Relationships with Friends and Peers
  • Global Rating of Anhedonia-Asociality


  • Social Inattentiveness
  • Inattentiveness During Mental Status Testing
  • Global Rating of Attention

See also[]


Andreasen NC: Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) . Iowa City, University of Iowa, 1981;

Andreasen NC. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Definition and reliability Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1982 Jul;39(7):784-8. PMID 7165477

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