File:A child sad that his hot dog fell on the ground.jpg

A child crying

Sadness is an emotional state characterized by feelings of disadvantage, loss, and helplessness. When sad, people often become quiet, less energetic, and withdrawn.

Sad is the negation of happy. Its synonyms are sorrow, grief, misery, and melancholy. The philosopher Baruch Spinoza defined sadness as the transfer of a person from a large perfection to a smaller one.

Sadness can be viewed as a temporary lowering of mood, whereas depression is characterized by a persistent and intense lowered mood, as well as disruption to one's ability to function in day to day matters. When sad we often go through a process called crying where we shed tears.

Studies have shown that when someone says they are angry or filled with hate that they are actually deeply sad or disappointed. Hate and anger are often ways emotionally disturbed individuals express sadness or disappointment. Due to an inability or refusal to express their true feelings of sadness and disappointment.

Pupil empathy[edit | edit source]

Facial expressions of sadness with small pupils are judged significantly more intensely sad with decreasing pupil size. A person's own pupil size also mirrors this with them being smaller when viewing sad faces with small pupils. No parallel effect exists when people look at neutral, happy or angry expressions.[1] The greater degree to which a person's pupil's mirror another predicts a person's greater score on empathy.[2]

See also[edit | edit source]

References & Bibliography[edit | edit source]

  1. Harrison NA, Singer T, Rotshtein P, Dolan RJ, Critchley HD (June 2006). Pupillary contagion: central mechanisms engaged in sadness processing. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 1 (1): 5–17.
  2. Harrison NA, Wilson CE, Critchley HD (November 2007). Processing of observed pupil size modulates perception of sadness and predicts empathy. Emotion 7 (4): 724–9.

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simple:Sad cs:Deprese (psychologie)

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