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Rote learning is a learning technique which avoids understanding of a subject and instead focuses on memorization. The major practice involved in rote learning is learning by repetition. The idea is that one will be able to quickly recall the meaning of the material the more one repeats it.
Rote learning is widely used in the mastery of foundational knowledge. Examples include, phonics in reading, the periodic table in chemistry, multiplication tables in mathematics, anatomy in medicine, cases or statutes in law, basic formulas in any science, etc. Rote learning, by definition, eschews comprehension, however, and consequently, it is an ineffective tool in mastering any complex subject at an advanced level. However, rote learning is still useful in passing exams. If exam papers are not well designed, it is possible for someone with good memorization techniques to pass the test without any meaningful comprehension of the subject. However, learning the context of a particular topic can make the subject more memorable.
Rote learning vs. actual thinking[edit | edit source]
Rote learning is sometimes disparaged with the derogative terms parrot fashion, regurgitation, cramming, or mugging because one who engages in rote learning may give the wrong impression of having understood what they have written or said. It is strongly discouraged by many new curriculum standards. For example, science and mathematics standards in the United States specifically emphasize the importance of deep understanding (deep structure) over the mere recall of facts, which is seen to be less important, although advocates of traditional education have criticized the new standards as slighting learning basic facts and elementary arithmetic, and replacing content with process-based skills.
"When calculators can do multidigit long division in a microsecond, graph complicated functions at the push of a button, and instantaneously calculate derivatives and integrals, serious questions arise about what is important in the mathematics curriculum and what it means to learn mathematics. More than ever, mathematics must include the mastery of concepts instead of mere memorization and the following of procedures. More than ever, school mathematics must include an understanding of how to use technology to arrive meaningfully at solutions to problems instead of endless attention to increasingly outdated computational tedium." -National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Commonsense Facts to Clear the Air
A December 2006 study of Tennessee State achievement analyzed scores in math, science, reading and social studies of about 4000 middle school students over three years. Students were divided on the basis of whether or not they had hands-on trained teachers. This study found increased scores in science, social studies and math for students who had a hands-on science trained teacher for at least one year.
Rote learning as a necessity[edit | edit source]
However, with some material rote learning is the only way to learn it in a timely manner; for example, when learning the Greek alphabet or the vocabulary of a foreign language. Similarly, when learning the conjugation of foreign irregular verbs, the morphology is often too subtle to be learned explicitly in a short time. However, as in the alphabet example, learning where the alphabet came from helps one to grasp the concept of it and therefore memorize it. (Native speakers and speakers with a lot of experience usually get an intuitive grasp of those subtle rules and are able to conjugate even irregular verbs that they have never heard before.)
The source transmission could be auditory or visual, and is usually in the form of short bits such as rhyming phrases (but rhyming is not a prerequisite), rather than chunks of text large enough to make lengthy paragraphs. Brevity is not always the case with rote learning. For example, many Americans can recite their National Anthem, or even the much more lengthy Preamble to the United States Constitution. Their ability to do so can be attributed, at least in some part, to having been assimilated by rote learning. The repeated stimulus of hearing it recited in public, on TV, at a sporting event, etc. has caused the mere sound of the phrasing of the words and inflections to be "written", as if hammer-to-stone, into the long-term memory. Memorization is not learning. Rote learning is considered bad for children, because it can create bad studying habits at an early age.
Rote learning's complementary role[edit | edit source]
Rather than viewing rote memorization as something opposed to understanding, it can be viewed in a complementary role. As the left hand is to the right so is the memory to the understanding and reason. Memorized facts serve as the grist in the mill of the understanding which can be recalled and processed or combined for new unique conclusions when needed. Any theory of learning that tries to oppose these two faculties to one another will suffer a great handicap.
By nation and culture[edit | edit source]
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The system is widely practiced in schools across India, Pakistan, China, Singapore (which is often criticized for its inflexible education system), Japan (where rote learning is fundamental in learning to read and write kanji from a young age), Romania, Turkey, and Greece. Some of these nations are admired for their high test scores in international comparisons with regards to other nations around the world. At the same time, progressive reforms such as Outcomes-based education which have put an emphasis on eliminating rote learning in favor of deep understanding have produced a storm of controversy as a generation of students are failing new math assessments which were aimed at increasing math performance. Some texts such as the widely controversial TERC completely omit memorization or even presentation of standard elementary arithmetic methods. Xiaping Li (2006) seminal work looks specifically to the effects of rote learning in second language learning in Taiwan. He notes Chinese learners hold high the tradition of rote learning as being an integral part of their culture.
However, in Singapore, with the introduction of the integrated programme, the government is obviously making attempts to move away from rote learning, at least for the more able students.
In the United States[edit | edit source]
New curriculum standards from the NCTM and National Science Education Standards call for more emphasis on active learning, critical thinking and communication over recall of facts. In many fields such as mathematics and science it is still a matter of controversy as to whether rote memorization of facts such as the multiplication table or boiling point of water are still necessary. Some education agencies which embraced the new standards are revisiting them in response to sharp criticism from those who believe that future generations should learn at least as much knowledge as previous generations have been taught, rather than just "how to think". It is countered that thinking skills alone will not be useful without a base of memorized facts to work with, and that it is quicker to recall from memory than to have to refer to a calculator, reference book, or internet article.
Development[edit | edit source]
In the United Nations Arab human development report for 2004 the Arab researchers claim that rote learning is a major contributing factor to the lack of progress in science and research & development in the Arab countries. Asian nations, though scoring well on skill tests, are also studying standards of nations such as the United States to increase innovation and creativity. Studies of math skill advantages of Asian students show them to excel in basic skills, but not in complex problem solving not easily solved with standard methods.
Religion[edit | edit source]
Many religions contain vast amount of scriptures, commentaries and even commentaries on classical commentaries. Rote learning is prevalent in many religious schools throughout the world. This is partly due to the fact that most major religions appeared before the emergence of print.
Most Dharmatic religions such as Hinduism or Buddhism initially transmitted their scriptural knowledge through oral transmission without resort to text. This was done by converting verse into chant and repeating it to commit to memory. In Abrahamic religions, Jewish yeshivot or chederim (plural of cheder) use rote learning when teaching children Torah, Muslim madrasas utilize it in memorising Koran. A person who has memorised the entire Koran is known as Hafiz. In pre enlightenment Europe, memorisation techniques were known as Method of loci, mainly practiced in monastery and university, where divinity were taught. These skills were highly praised and they were known to be extensive allay of memorisation technique such as memory palace.
After the emergence of printing press, the memorisation of the entire scriptures was no longer an essential requirement of being a religious teacher. Rote learning is still used in various degrees, especially by young children, the main purpose being to memorize and retain as much textual material as possible, to prepare a student for a more analytical learning in the future.
Music[edit | edit source]
This term can also refer to learning music by ear, a practice used with those who cannot (yet) read musical notation. However, many music teachers make a clear distinction between the two approaches. Specialised forms of rote learning have also been used in Vedic chanting to preserve the intonation and lexical accuracy of texts by oral tradition. The Suzuki Method's underlying key is rote learning, that often results in flashy playing at a young age that develops into the destruction of musicality in later years.
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Understanding the Revised NCTM Standards: Arithmetic is Still Missing!
- The Interdisciplinary Effect of Hands On Science Cherry, Elvis H. Ed.D. M.Ed., B.S. Biology
- includeonly>Jones, Dorian. "Turkey: Revolutionizing The Classroom", Deutsche Welle, 2007-03-021. Retrieved on 2008-08-12.
- Xiuping Li (2007). An Analysis Of Chinese EFL Learners' Beliefs About The Role Of Rote Learning In Vocabulary Learning Strategies
- Unofficial Country Rankings - IMO
Further reading[edit | edit source]
Books[edit | edit source]
- Bruce, W. F., & Freeman, F. S. (1942). Pseudo-mechanical repetition. Ny: Henry Holt and Company.
- Derry, S. J. (1990). Learning strategies for acquiring useful knowledge. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Jahnke, J. C. (1988). Attribute comparisons in recognition memory. Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons.
- Kreitman, E.Teaching From the Balance Point by [How to reference and link to summary or text]
- Schwartz, A. J., & Power, F. C. (2000). Maxims to live by: The art and science of teaching wise sayings. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.
- Serwatka, M., & Healy, A. F. (1998). On the status of the count-mass distinction in a mental grammar. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Ward, J. (1918). Memorising, rhythmizing and reading. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
- Wichman, H. (1988). Simultaneous numerical concepts derived while memorizing digits. Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons.
- Wray, A., & Fitzpatrick, T. (2008). Why can't you just leave it alone? Deviations from memorized language as a gauge of nativelike competence. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Papers[edit | edit source]
- Agruso, V. M., & Reckase, M. D. (1976). The relative difficulty position function: British Journal of Psychology Vol 67(4) Nov 1976, 569-577.
- Andersson, K., & Post, B. (1974). Effects of cigarette smoking on verbal rote learning and physiological arousal: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology Vol 15(4) 1974, 263-267.
- Andrilovic, V. (1977). On self-evaluation in the course of rote learning: Revija za Psihologiju Vol 7(1-2) 1977, 3-19.
- Andrilovic, V. (1979). Relation between accuracy and confidence in rote learning: Revija za Psihologiju Vol 9(1-2) 1979, 1-11.
- Anrilovic, V., Arar, L., Jelavic, F., & Cota, M. (1981). Development of self-evaluation capabilities in rote learning by 10-year-old students: Revija za Psihologiju Vol 11(1-2) 1981, 1-8.
- Baird, R. (1974). Recall of embedded sentences: Perceptual or performance deficit? : Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 3(1A) Jan 1974, 36-38.
- Bean, L. L., & McCroskery, J. H. (1973). Implications for associative processes of switching the middle of the list during serial rote learning: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied Vol 83(2) Mar 1973, 227-235.
- Benjamin, A. S., & Bjork, R. A. (2000). On the relationship between recognition speed and accuracy for words rehearsed via rote versus elaborative rehearsal: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 26(3) May 2000, 638-648.
- Bing, S. B. (1982). Role of adjunct questions and reading ability levels on rote and conceptual learning from prose: Instructional Science Vol 11(2) Aug 1982, 129-138.
- Bing, S. B. (1984). Effects of testing versus review on rote and conceptual learning from prose: Instructional Science Vol 13(2) Jul 1984, 193-198.
- Bowers, P. (1989). Naming speed and phonological awareness: Independent contributors to reading disabilities: National Reading Conference Yearbook No 38 1989, 165-172.
- Bruce, A. J., & Cox, M. O. (1983). Metamemory and structure: Spelling: Educational Research Quarterly Vol 8(2) 1983, 38-43.
- Campos, A., Gonzalez, M. A., & Amor, A. (2003). Limitations of the Mnemonic-Keyword Method: Journal of General Psychology Vol 130(4) Oct 2003, 399-413.
- Canelos, J., Taylor, W., & Altschuld, J. W. (1982). Networking vs. rote learning strategies in concept acquisition: Educational Communication & Technology Journal Vol 30(3) Fal 1982, 141-149.
- Caracciolo, E., & Pedrabissi, L. (1985). Memory effects of incidental learning in children with different intellect levels: Archivio di Psicologia, Neurologia e Psichiatria Vol 46(1) Jan-Mar 1985, 44-59.
- Casner, S. M., Jones, K. M., Puentes, A., & Irani, H. (2003). FAA Pilot Knowledge Tests: Learning or Rote Memorization? : International Journal of Applied Aviation Studies Vol 3(2) 2003, 277-289.
- Cimpian, E. I. (2001). Integration of features during simultaneous learning of more than two categories: Cognitie Creier Comportament Vol 5(2) Jun 2001, 145-157.
- Cooperman, E. W. (1980). Field differentiation and intelligence: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied Vol 105(1) May 1980, 29-33.
- Daniels, B., & Hewitt, J. (1978). Anxiety and classroom examination performance: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 34(2) Apr 1978, 340-345.
- Dobbins, I. G., Kroll, N. E. A., & Yonelinas, A. P. (2004). Dissociating familiarity from recollection using rote rehearsal: Memory & Cognition Vol 32(6) Sep 2004, 932-944.
- Dommergues, J.-Y., & Grosjean, F. (1981). Performance structures in the recall of sentences: Memory & Cognition Vol 9(5) Sep 1981, 478-486.
- Ediger, M. (2008). Modern school mathematics: College Student Journal Vol 42(4) Dec 2008, 986-989.
- Elliott, L. (1973). Imagery versus repetition encoding in short- and long-term memory: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 100(2) Oct 1973, 270-276.
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- Fazio, B. B. (1997). Memory for rote linguistic routines and sensitivity to rhyme: A comparison of low-income children with and without specific language impairment: Applied Psycholinguistics Vol 18(3) Sep 1997, 345-372.
- Flannagan, D. A., & Blick, K. A. (1989). Levels of processing and the retention of word meanings: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 68(3, Pt 2) Jun 1989, 1123-1128.
- Galagovsky, L. R. (2004). From meaningful learning to sustainable learning. Part 1: The theoretical model: Ensenanza de las Ciencias Revista de investigacion y experiencias didacticas Vol 22(2) Jun 2004, 229-240.
- Glenberg, A., & Adams, F. (1978). Type I rehearsal and recognition: Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior Vol 17(4) Aug 1978, 455-463.
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- Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1987). Autonomy in children's learning: An experimental and individual difference investigation: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 52(5) May 1987, 890-898.
- Gupta, S. K. (1985). Associative memory: Role of mnemonics in information processing and ordering recall: Psycho-Lingua Vol 15(2) Jul 1985, 89-94.
- Hansen, R. S., McCann, J., & Myers, J. L. (1985). Rote versus conceptual emphases in teaching elementary probability: Journal for Research in Mathematics Education Vol 16(5) Nov 1985, 364-374.
- Hansson, K., & Leonard, L. B. (2003). The use and productivity of verb morphology in specific language impairment: An examination of Swedish: Linguistics Vol 41(2) 2003, 351-379.
- Hell, J. G. v., & Mahn, A. C. (1997). Keyword mnemonics versus rote rehearsal: Learning concrete and abstract foreign words by experienced and inexperienced learners: Language Learning Vol 47(3) Sep 1997, 507-546.
- Holley, C. D., Dansereau, D. F., & Fenker, R. M. (1981). Some data and comments regarding educational set theory: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 73(4) Aug 1981, 494-504.
- Holmes, V. M., & McGregor, J. (2007). Rote memory and arithmetic fact processing: Memory & Cognition Vol 35(8) Dec 2007, 2041-2051.
- Hoosain, R. (1977). Rote or concept learning as a function of set and difficulty: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 20(4) Dec 1977, 237-240.
- Hoosain, R. (1983). Memorization of classical Chinese: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 26(3) Sep 1983, 193-197.
- Hunkin, N. M., & Parkin, A. J. (1995). The method of vanishing cues: An evaluation of its effectiveness in teaching memory-impaired individuals: Neuropsychologia Vol 33(10) Oct 1995, 1255-1279.
- Intons-Peterson, M. J., & Smyth, M. M. (1987). The anatomy of repertory memory: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 13(3) Jul 1987, 490-500.
- Ivanova, I. P. (1980). Learning ability and memory in first-grade students: Voprosy Psychologii No 3 May-Jun 1980, 109-115.
- Jones, T. C. (2005). Study repetition and the rejection of conjunction lures: Memory Vol 13(5) Jul 2005, 499-515.
- Kallenbach, K. (1976). Connections between maze-learning, intelligence and the effectiveness of memorizing: Psychologische Beitrage Vol 18(4) 1976, 600-609.
- Kanemitsu, Y. (1980). The relationship between arousal level and human rote learning: Japanese Journal of Psychology Vol 51(4) Oct 1980, 207-210.
- Koivukari, A. M. (1987). Question level and cognitive processing: Psycholinguistic dimensions of questions and answers: Applied Psycholinguistics Vol 8(2) Jun 1987, 101-120.
- Krishna, K. P., & Varma, C. R. (1972). Rote serial learning in high and low anxious groups: Indian Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 6(1) Jan 1972, 35-37.
- Krotkova, O. A., Maksakova, O. A., & D'Yakova, N. V. (2002). Interhemispheric interaction during memorization of movement rhythm: Human Physiology Vol 28(1) Feb 2002, 7-11.
- Kurtz, B. E., & Schneider, W. (1988). The effects of age, study time, and importance of text units on strategy use and memory for texts: European Journal of Psychology of Education Vol 3(2) Jun 1988, 191-199.
- Kuwabara, Y. (2000). Imagery mediation strategy and learning Japanese characters: Paired-associate learning of characters and English translations: Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 48(4) Dec 2000, 389-399.
- Labouvie-Vief, G., Levin, J. R., Hurlbut, N. L., & Urberg, K. A. (1977). In pursuit of the elusive relationship between selected cognitive abilities and learning: Contemporary Educational Psychology Vol 2(3) Jul 1977, 239-250.
- Labrell, F., Bonnet, P., & Lemetayer, F. (2003). Memorizing object names at 4 yrs of age: Effects of the type of organization and of parental discourse: Bulletin de Psychologie Vol 56(4) Jul-Aug 2003, 599-608.
- Lesgold, A. M. (1987). Research to Improve Science and Math Teaching: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 32 (10), Oct, 1987.
- MacWhinney, B. (1975). Rules, rote, and analogy in morphological formations by Hungarian children: Journal of Child Language Vol 2(1) Apr 1975, 65-77.
- Mannes, S. (1988). A theoretical interpretation of learning vs. memorizing text: European Journal of Psychology of Education Vol 3(2) Jun 1988, 157-162.
- Marhenke, P. (1940). Mathematico-deductive theory of rote learning: Part II: The logical system: Psychological Bulletin Vol 37(10) Dec 1940, 815-817.
- Marshall, P. H., Chatfield, D. C., & Janek, E. J. (1975). The effects of natural language mediation on response recognition following paired-associate learning: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 5(5) May 1975, 411-412.
- Matsuda, M., & Matsuda, F. (1980). Concept and memory types in sensory-motor conceptual learning in children: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 23(1) Mar 1980, 10-20.
- Mayer, R. E. (1977). Different rule systems for counting behavior acquired in meaningful and rote contexts of learning: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 69(5) Oct 1977, 537-546.
- McDowd, J., & Botwinick, J. (1984). Rote and gist memory in relation to type of information, sensory mode, and age: Journal of Genetic Psychology Vol 145(2) Dec 1984, 167-178.
- Metzger, W. (1971). Didactic consequences: Ceskoslovenska Psychologie Vol 15(6) 1971, 610-614.
- Morrison, K., & Joan, T. F. H. (2002). Testing to Destruction: A problem in a small state: Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice Vol 9(3) Nov 2002, 289-317.
- Myles, F., Hooper, J., & Mitchell, R. (1998). Rote or rule? Exploring the role of formulaic language in classroom foreign language learning: Language Learning Vol 48(3) Sep 1998, 323-363.
- Nakashima, A., & Ogawa, H. (2001). Noise suppression in training examples for improving generalization capability: Neural Networks Vol 14(4-5) May 2001, 459-469.
- Newstead, S. (2004). The purposes of assessment: Psychology Learning & Teaching Vol 3(2) Mar 2004, 97-101.
- Noice, H. (1993). Effects of rote versus gist strategy on the verbatim retention of theatrical scripts: Applied Cognitive Psychology Vol 7(1) Feb 1993, 75-84.
- Noice, T., & Noice, H. (1997). Effort and active experiencing as factors in verbatim recall: Discourse Processes Vol 23(2) 1997, 149-167.
- Nolan, J. D. (1973). Conceptual and rote learning in children: Teachers College Record Vol 75(2) Dec 1973, 251-258.
- Okun, M. A., Siegler, I. C., & George, L. K. (1977). Sex differences in serial learning for aged persons with high verbal ability: Experimental Aging Research Vol 3(2) Mar 1977, 165-169.
- Pollmann, T. (2003). Some Principles Involved in the Acquisition of Number Words: Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics Vol 11(1) 2003, 1-31.
- Prehm, H. J., Logan, D. R., & Towle, M. (1972). The effect of warm-up on rote learning performance: Exceptional Children Vol 38(8) Apr 1972, 623-627.
- Ramsden, P., Beswick, D. G., & Bowden, J. A. (1986). Effects of learning skills interventions on first year university students' learning: Human Learning: Journal of Practical Research & Applications Vol 5(3) Jul-Sep 1986, 151-164.
- Rickards, J. P., & Di Vesta, F. J. (1974). Type and frequency of questions in processing textual material: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 66(3) Jun 1974, 354-362.
- Rickards, J. P., & Hatcher, C. W. (1977). Interspersed meaningful learning questions as semantic cues for poor comprehenders: Reading Research Quarterly Vol 13(4) 1977-1978, 538-553.
- Robbins, D., Bray, J. F., Irvin, J. R., & Wise, P. S. (1974). Memorial strategy and imagery: An interaction between instructions and rated imagery: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 102(4) Apr 1974, 706-709.
- Rohwer, W. D., & Litrownik, J. (1983). Age and individual differences in the learning of a memorization procedure: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 75(6) Dec 1983, 799-810.
- Ross, D. M., & Ross, S. A. (1978). Facilitative effect of mnemonic strategies on multiple-associate learning in EMR children: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 82(5) Mar 1978, 460-466.
- Ross-Reynolds, J. (1986). The influence of intelligence and adaptive behavior on rote learning and social skills: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Sagaria, S. D. (1981). How pictures influence learning when they are incorporated in connected discourse: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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Dissertations[edit | edit source]
- Agruso, V. M. (1972). The relative difficulty-position function: A developmental study: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
- Berger, B. L. (1978). An experimental comparison of the effects of verbal rote and verbal explanatory teaching procedures on computation with Hutchings' low-stress algorithm for subtraction: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Bing, J. R. (1977). Effects of peer teacher training and task structure on rote and conceptual learning of peer students and peer teachers at the college level: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Bing, S. B. (1977). Effects of question type and response mode on rote and conceptual learning from prose: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Bush, M. A. (1986). A comparison of two procedures for teaching a rote song: Parrot and reverse chaining: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Fehling, M. R. (1973). The comparative effects on associative learning of elaborative and non-elaborative encoding: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
- Fox, S. N. (1995). Keyword mnemonic and contextual analysis strategy instruction with at-risk adolescents. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Frohwein, M. S. (1974). Effects of differential teacher feedback upon elementary pupil performance on rote tasks: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Gasparrini, W. G. (1978). A treatment for memory problems in brain-damaged patients: Dissertation Abstracts International
- Glenn, K. A. (1999). Rote vs. note: The relationship of working memory capacity to performance and continuation in beginning string classes. (sixth-grade, middle school). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Greenberg, E. M. (1986). The effects of strategy training and verbalization of the multiplication fact proficiency of low achievers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Labouvie, G. V. (1973). Developmental changes in learning-ability relationships: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
- Lewis, L. P. (1981). Strategies children use in spelling: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Nietupski, J. A. (1979). Retention and transfer of short-term memory skills by mentally retarded adolescents: A comparison of two instructional approaches: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Overton, R. C. (1979). Rote rehearsal: Its role in influencing long-term recall: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Paull, R. C. (1980). The effect of relaxation training on a rote learning task and the psychosocial maturity of inner-city Black seventh graders: A program in holistic education: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Reeder, A. F. (1973). The learning and recall performance of trainable mentally retarded subjects on a rote-verbal task presented under massed and distributed practice: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
- Richard, N. J. (1978). The effect of college students' exposure to associated subject matter on rote and meaningful learning of selected text material: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Stenson, C. M. (1978). The effects of adjusted learner expectancy and material manipulation on learning rates of elementary students in rote memorization tasks: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Wang, A. Y. (1990). The metamemory-memory connection: Further evidence: Journal of Human Behavior & Learning Vol 7(1) 1990, 14-18.
- Walker, B. S. (1981). Imagery and verbal recognition memory: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Wier, J. I. (1991). Toward the use of hypermnesia: A comparison between mnemonic imagery and the traditional approach to learning and retention of basic Accounting I course material: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Witter, D. W. (1973). Performance and observation in rote and concept learning: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Zasloff, B. S. (1973). Learning strategies in numerical memory tasks: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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