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Rhodopsin-like receptors are the largest group of G-protein coupled receptors.

G-protein-coupled receptors, GPCRs, constitute a vast protein family that encompasses a wide range of functions (including various autocrine, paracrine and endocrine processes). They show considerable diversity at the sequence level, on the basis of which they can be separated into distinct groups. GPCRs are usually described as "superfamily" because they embrace a group of families for which there are indications of evolutionary relationship, but between which there is no statistically significant similarity in sequence.[1] The currently known superfamily members include the rhodopsin-like GPCRs, the secretin-like GPCRs, the cAMP receptors, the fungal mating pheromone receptors, and the metabotropic glutamate receptor family. There is a specialised database for GPCRs: http://www.gpcr.org/7tm/.

The rhodopsin-like GPCRs themselves represent a widespread protein family that includes hormone, neurotransmitter and light receptors, all of which transduce extracellular signals through interaction with guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins. Although their activating ligands vary widely in structure and character, the amino acid sequences of the receptors are very similar and are believed to adopt a common structural framework comprising 7 transmembrane (TM) helices.[2][3][4]

Rhodopsin-like GPCRs have been classified into the following 19 subgroups (A1-A19) based on a phylogenetic analysis.[5]

Subfamily A1[edit | edit source]

Subfamily A2[edit | edit source]

Subfamily A3[edit | edit source]

Subfamily A4[edit | edit source]

Subfamily A5[edit | edit source]

Subfamily A6[edit | edit source]

Subfamily A7[edit | edit source]

Subfamily A8[edit | edit source]

Subfamily A9[edit | edit source]

Subfamily A10[edit | edit source]

Subfamily A11[edit | edit source]

Subfamily A12[edit | edit source]

Subfamily A13[edit | edit source]

Subfamily A14[edit | edit source]

Subfamily A15[edit | edit source]

Subfamily A16[edit | edit source]

Subfamily A17[edit | edit source]

Subfamily A18[edit | edit source]

Subfamily A19[edit | edit source]

Unclassified[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Attwood TK, Findlay JB (1994). Fingerprinting G-protein-coupled receptors. Protein Eng. 7 (2): 195-203.
  2. Birnbaumer L (1990). G proteins in signal transduction. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 30: 675-705.
  3. Gilman AG, Casey PJ (1988). G protein involvement in receptor-effector coupling. J. Biol. Chem. 263 (6): 2577-2580.
  4. Attwood TK, Findlay JB (1993). Design of a discriminating fingerprint for G-protein-coupled receptors. Protein Eng. 6 (2): 167-176.
  5. Joost P, Methner A (2002). Phylogenetic analysis of 277 human G-protein-coupled receptors as a tool for the prediction of orphan receptor ligands. Genome Biol 3 (11): research0063.1-0063.16.
  6. Terakita A (2005). The opsins. Genome Biol. 6 (3): 213.

External links[edit | edit source]

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).
  1. Horn F, Bettler E, Oliveira L, Campagne F, Cohen FE, Vriend G (2003). GPCRDB information system for G protein-coupled receptors. Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (1): 294–7.
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