Redundancy, in general terms, refers to the quality or state of being redundant, that is: exceeding what is necessary or normal; or duplication. This can have a negative connotation, especially in rhetoric: superfluous or repetitive; or a positive implication, especially in engineering: serving as a duplicate for preventing failure of an entire system.

The term redundancy is used, with variations on the above meanings, in the following fields:

Psychology of language[edit | edit source]


Organizational psychology[edit | edit source]

Biological sciences[edit | edit source]

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