Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Philosophy Index: Aesthetics · Epistemology · Ethics · Logic · Metaphysics · Consciousness · Philosophy of Language · Philosophy of Mind · Philosophy of Science · Social and Political philosophy · Philosophies · Philosophers · List of lists
Reductionism can either mean (a) an approach to understanding the nature of complex things by reducing them to the interactions of their parts, or to simpler or more fundamental things or (b) a philosophical position that a complex system is nothing but the sum of its parts, and that an account of it can be reduced to accounts of individual constituents. This can be said of objects, phenomena, explanations, theories, and meanings.
Reductionism is strongly related to a certain perspective on causality. In a reductionist framework, phenomena that can be explained completely in terms of other, more fundamental phenomena, are called epiphenomena. Often there is an implication that the epiphenomenon exerts no causal agency on the fundamental phenomena that explain it.
Reductionism does not preclude emergent phenomenon but it does imply the ability to understand the emergent in terms of the phenomena from and process(es) by which it emerges.
Reductionism dates back to ancient Greek philosophy in which some philosophers, notably Democritus, viewed the world as a mechanistic, material machine. Democritus was famous for his theory of atomism.
It was introduced later by Descartes in Part V of his Discourses (1637). Descartes argued the world was like a machine, its pieces like clockwork mechanisms, and that the machine could be understood by taking its pieces apart, studying them, and then putting them back together to see the larger picture. Descartes was a full mechanist, but only because he did not accept the conservation of direction of motions of small things in a machine, including an organic machine. Newton's theory required such conservation for inorganic things at least. When such conservation was accepted for organisms as well as inorganic objects by the middle of the 20th century, no organic mechanism could easily, if at all, be a Cartesian mechanism.[How to reference and link to summary or text]
Types of reductionism
There are a number of distinctions made within reductionism
- Ontological reductionism is the idea that everything that exists is made from a small number of basic substances that behave in regular ways (compare to monism).
- Methodological reductionism is the idea that explanations of things, such as scientific explanations, ought to be continually reduced to the very simplest entities possible (but no simpler). Occam's Razor forms the basis of this type of reductionism.
- Theoretical reductionism is the idea that older theories or explanations are not generally replaced outright by new ones, but that new theories are refinements or reductions of the old theory in greater detail.
- Scientific reductionism has been used to describe all of the above ideas as they relate to science, but is most often used to describe the idea that all phenomena can be reduced to scientific explanations.
- Linguistic reductionism is the idea that everything can be described in a language with a limited number of core concepts, and combinations of those concepts. (See Basic English and the constructed language Toki Pona).
- The term "greedy reductionism" was coined by Daniel Dennett to condemn those forms of reductionism that try to explain too much with too little.
- Analytical reductionism as used in "Is Reductionism A Good Approach In Science?" "is the underlying a priori of ontological reductionism".
The distinction between the processes of theoretical and ontological reduction is important. Theoretical reduction is the process by which one theory is absorbed into another; for example, both Kepler's laws of the motion of the planets and Galileo’s theories of motion worked out for terrestrial objects are reducible to Newtonian theories of mechanics, because all the explanatory power of the former are contained within the latter. Furthermore, the reduction is considered to be beneficial because Newtonian mechanics is a more general theory—that is, it explains more events than Galileo's or Kepler's. Theoretical reduction, therefore, is the reduction of one explanation or theory to another—that is, it is the absorption of one of our ideas about a particular thing into another idea.
Methodological reductionism is the position that the best scientific strategy is to attempt to reduce explanations to the smallest possible entities. Methodological reductionism would thus hold that the atomic explanation of a substance’s boiling point is preferable to the chemical explanation, and that an explanation based on even smaller particles (quarks, perhaps) would be even better.
Theoretical reductionism is the position that all scientific theories either can or should be reduced to a single super-theory through the process of theoretical reduction.
Finally, ontological reductionism is the belief that reality is composed of a minimum number of kinds of entities or substances. This claim is usually metaphysical, and is most commonly a form of monism, in effect claiming that all objects, properties and events are reducible to a single substance. (A dualist who is an ontological reductionist would presumably believe that everything is reducible to one of two substances.)
Reductionism and science
Reductionist thinking and methods are the basis for many of the well-developed areas of modern science, including much of physics, chemistry and cell biology. Classical mechanics in particular is seen as a reductionist framework, and statistical mechanics can be viewed as a reconciliation of macroscopic thermodynamic laws with the reductionist approach of explaining macroscopic properties in terms of microscopic components.
In science, reductionism can be understood to imply that certain fields of study are based on areas that study smaller spatial scales or organizational units. While it is commonly accepted that the foundations of chemistry are based in physics, and microbiology is rooted in chemistry, similar statements become controversial when one considers larger-scale fields. For example, claims that sociology is based on psychology, or that economics is based on sociology and psychology would be met with reservations. These claims are difficult to substantiate even though there are clear connections between these fields (for instance, most would agree that psychology can impact and inform economics.) The limit of reductionism's usefulness stems from emergent properties of complex systems which are more common at certain levels of organization. For example, certain aspects of evolutionary psychology and sociobiology are rejected by some who claim that complex systems are inherently irreducible and that a holistic approach is needed to understand them.
Daniel Dennett defends scientific reductionism, which he says is really little more than materialism, by making a distinction between this and what he calls "Greedy reductionism": the idea that every explanation in every field of science should be reduced all the way down to particle physics or string theory. Greedy reductionism, he says, deserves some of the criticism that has been heaped on reductionism in general because the lowest-level explanation of a phenomenon, even if it exists, is not always the best way to understand or explain it.
Some strong reductionists believe that the behavioral sciences should become "genuine" scientific disciplines by being based on genetic biology, and on the systematic study of culture (cf. Dawkins's concept of memes). In his book The Blind Watchmaker, Richard Dawkins introduced the term "hierarchical reductionism" to describe the view that complex systems can be described with a hierarchy of organizations, each of which can only be described in terms of objects one level down in the hierarchy. He provides the example of a computer, which under hierarchical reductionism can be explained well in terms of the operation of hard drives, processors, and memory, but not on the level of AND or NOR gates, or on the even lower level of electrons in a semiconductor medium.
Both Dennett and Steven Pinker argue that too many people who are opposed to science use the words "reductionism" and "reductionist" less to make coherent claims about science than to convey a general distaste for the endeavor, saying the opponents often use the words in a rather slippery way, to refer to whatever they dislike most about science. Dennett suggests that critics of reductionism may be searching for a way of salvaging some sense of a higher purpose to life, in the form of some kind of non-material / supernatural intervention. Dennett terms such aspirations "skyhooks," in contrast to the "cranes" that reductionism uses to build its understanding of the universe from solid ground.
Others argue that inappropriate use of reductionism limits our understanding of complex systems. In particular, ecologist Robert Ulanowicz says that science must develop techniques to study ways in which larger scales of organization influence smaller ones, and also ways in which feedback loops create structure at a given level, independently of details at a lower level of organization. He advocates (and uses) information theory as a framework to study propensities in natural systems. Ulanowicz attributes these criticisms of reductionism to the philosopher Karl Popper and biologist Robert Rosen.
Reductionism in mathematics
In mathematics, reductionism can be interpreted as the philosophy that all mathematics can (or ought to) be built off a common foundation, which is usually axiomatic set theory. Ernst Zermelo was one of the major advocates of such a view, and he was also responsible for the development of much of axiomatic set theory. It has been argued that the generally accepted method of justifying mathematical axioms by their usefulness in common practice can potentially undermine Zermelo's reductionist program.
As an alternative to set theory, others have argued for category theory as a foundation for certain aspects of mathematics.[How to reference and link to summary or text]
Ontological reductionism is the claim that everything that exists is made from a small number of basic substances that behave in regular ways (compare to monism). Ontological reductionism denies the idea of ontological emergence, and claims that emergence is an epistemological phenomenon that only exists through analysis or description of a system, and does not exist on a fundamental level.
Ontological reductionism takes two different forms: Token ontological reductionism is the idea that every item that exists is a sum item. For perceivable items, it says that every perceivable item is a sum of items at a smaller level of complexity. Type ontological reductionism is the idea that every type of item is a sum (of typically less complex) type(s) of item(s). For perceivable types of item, it says that every perceivable type of item is a sum of types of items at a lower level of complexity. Token ontological reduction of biological things to chemical things is generally accepted. Type ontological reduction of biological things to chemical things is often rejected.[How to reference and link to summary or text]
Reductionism in linguistics
Linguistic reductionism is the idea that everything can be described in a language with a limited number of core concepts, and combinations of those concepts. The most known form of reductionist constructed language would be Esperanto (Also See Basic English and the constructed language Toki Pona).[How to reference and link to summary or text]
Limits of reductionism
A contrast to the reductionist approach is holism or emergentism. Holism recognizes the idea that things can have properties as a whole that are not explainable from the sum of their parts (emergent properties). The principle of holism was concisely summarized by Aristotle in the Metaphysics: "The whole is more than the sum of its parts".
The concept of downward causation poses an alternative to reductionism within philosophy. This view is developed and explored by Peter Bøgh Andersen, Claus Emmeche, Niels Ole Finnemann, and Peder Voetmann Christiansen, among others. These philosophers explore ways in which one can talk about phenomena at a larger-scale level of organization exerting causal influence on a smaller-scale level, and find that some, but not all proposed types of downward causation are compatible with science. In particular, they find that constraint is one way in which downward causation can operate. The notion of causality as constraint has also been explored as a way to shed light on scientific concepts such as self-organization, natural selection, adaptation, and control.
Phenomena such as emergence and work within the field of complex systems theory pose limits to reductionism. Stuart Kauffman is one of the advocates of this viewpoint. Emergence is strongly related to nonlinearity. The limits of the application of reductionism become especially evident at levels of organization with higher amounts of complexity, including culture, neural networks, ecosystems, and other systems formed from assemblies of large numbers of interacting components. Symmetry breaking is an example of an emergent phenomenon. Nobel laureate P.W.Anderson used this idea in his famous paper in Science in 1972, 'More is different' to expose some of the limitations of reductionism. The limitation of reductionism was explained as follows. The sciences can be arranged roughly linearly in a hierarchy as particle physics, many body physics, chemistry, molecular biology, cellular biology, ..., physiology, psychology and social sciences. The elementary entities of one science obeys the laws of the science that precedes it in the above hierarchy. But, this does not imply that one science is just an applied version of the science that precedes it. Quoting from the article, "At each stage, entirely new laws, concepts and generalizations are necessary, requiring inspiration and creativity to just as great a degree as in the previous one. Psychology is not applied biology nor is biology applied chemistry."
Sven Erik Jorgensen, an ecologist, lays out both theoretical and practical arguments for a holistic approach in certain areas of science, especially ecology. He argues that many systems are so complex that it will not ever be possible to describe all their details. Drawing an analogy to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in physics, he argues that many interesting and relevant ecological phenomena cannot be replicated in laboratory conditions, and thus cannot be measured or observed without influencing and changing the system in some way. He also points to the importance of interconnectedness in biological systems. His viewpoint is that science can only progress by outlining what questions are unanswerable and by using models that do not attempt to explain everything in terms of smaller hierarchical levels of organization, but instead model them on the scale of the system itself, taking into account some (but not all) factors from levels both higher and lower in the hierarchy.
Disciplines such as cybernetics and systems theory strongly embrace a non-reductionist view of science, sometimes going as far as explaining phenomena at a given level of hierarchy in terms of phenomena at a higher level, in a sense, the opposite of a reductionist approach..
In decision theory
In decision theory, a nonlinear utility function for a quantity such as money can create a situation in which all relevant decisions to be made in a given time period must to be considered simultaneously in order to maximize utility, if all relevant decisions act on utility only through this quantity. In such a situation, the optimal choice for a given decision depends on the possible outcomes of all other decisions, including those which may have no causal relationship to the decision at hand. Breaking such a problem apart into individual decisions and optimizing each smaller decision can lead to drastically sub-optimal decisions. Such nonlinear utility functions for money are used in economics and are necessary in order to satisfy reasonable assumptions about rational behavior. Such decision making situations are the norm, rather than the exception, in many business settings.
Certain religious beliefs or doctrines assign supernatural original causes to phenomena. In this context, even if a given system appears to operate by causes and effects that can be explained within a strict reductionist framework, belief or doctrine might hold that its true genesis and placement within larger (and typically unknown) systems is bound up with an intelligence or consciousness that is beyond normal or uninvited human perception. Some such beliefs constitute a form of teleology, a perspective which is generally in conflict with reductionism.
Benefits of reduction
An ontological reduction reduces the number of ontological primitives that exist within our ontology. Philosophers welcome this, because every ontological primitive demands a special explanation for its existence. If we maintain that life is not a physical property, for example, then we must give a separate explanation of why some objects possess it and why others do not. This is more often than not a daunting task, and such explanations often have the flavor of ad hoc contrivances or deus ex machina. Also, since every ontological primitive must be acknowledged as one of the fundamental principles of the natural world, we must also account for why this element in particular should be considered one of those underlying principles. (To return to an earlier example, it would be extremely difficult to explain why planets are so fundamental that special laws of motion should apply to them.) This is often extremely hard to do, especially in the face of our strong preference for simple explanations. Pursuing ontological reduction thus serves to unify and simplify our ontology, while guarding against needless multiplication of entities in the process.
At the same time, the requirements for satisfactorily showing that one thing is reducible to another are extremely steep. First and foremost, all features of the original property or object must be accounted for. For example, lightning would not be reducible to the electrical activity of air molecules if the reduction explained why lightning is deadly, but not why it always seeks the highest point to strike. Our preference for simple and unified explanations is a strong force for reductionism, but our demand that all relevant phenomena be accounted for is at least as strong a force against it.
Alternatives to reductionism
In recent years, the development of systems thinking has provided methods for tackling issues in a holistic rather than a reductionist way, and many scientists approach their work in a holistic paradigm. When the terms are used in a scientific context, holism and reductionism refer primarily to what sorts of models or theories offer valid explanations of the natural world; the scientific method of falsifying hypotheses, checking empirical data against theory, is largely unchanged, but the approach guides which theories are considered. The conflict between reductionism and holism in science is not universal--it usually centers on whether or not a holistic or reductionist approach is appropriate in the context of studying a specific system or phenomenon.
In many cases (such as the kinetic theory of gases), given a good understanding of the components of the system, one can predict all the important properties of the system as a whole. In other cases, trying to do this leads to a fallacy of composition. In those systems, emergent properties of the system are almost impossible to predict from knowledge of the parts of the system. Complexity theory studies such systems.
- Cognitive neuroscience
- Philosophy of Mind
- Positivism (philosophy)
- Systems theory
- Symmetry breaking
- see eg Reductionism in the Interdisciplinary Encyclopedia of Religion and Science
- Burns, Tony (2000), "Materialism in Ancient Greek Philosophy and in the Writings of the Young Marx", Historical Materialism 7: 3, doi:10.1163/156920600100414623
- "" Interview with Third Way magazine in which Richard Dawkins discusses reductionism and religion, February 28, 1995
- R.E. Ulanowicz, Ecology: The Ascendant Perspective, Columbia University Press (1997) (ISBN 0231108281)
-  R. Gregory Taylor, "Zermelo, Reductionism, and the Philosophy of Mathematics". Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, Vol. 34, No. 4 (Fall 1993)
-  Michael Silberstein, John McGeever, "The Search for Ontological Emergence", The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 49, No. 195 (April 1999), (ISSN: 0031-8094).
-  Michael Ruse, "Do Organisms Exist?", Amer. Zool., 29:1061-1066 (1989)
- P.B. Andersen, C. Emmeche, N.O. Finnemann, P.V. Christiansen, Downward Causation: Minds, Bodies and Matter, Aarhus University Press (ISBN 8772888148) (2001)
- http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/Einmag_Abstr/AJuarrero.html - A. Juarrero, Causality as Constraint
- Beyond Reductionism: Reinventing the Sacred by Stuart Kauffman
- http://personal.riverusers.com/~rover/RedRev.pdf A. Scott, Reductionism Revisited, Journal of Consciousness Studies, 11, No. 2, 2004 pp. 51-68
- Anderson, P.W. (1972). More is Different. Science 177 (4047): 393–396.
- S. E. Jørgensen, Integration of Ecosystem Theories: A Pattern, 3rd ed. Kluwer Academic Publishers, (ISBN 1-4020-0651-9) (2002) Chapters 1 & 2.
- Downward Causation
- J.O. Berger, Statistical Decision Theory and Bayesian Analysis. Springer-Verlag 2nd ed. (1985) ch. 2. (ISBN 3540960988)
- Alland, A., Jr. (1987). Folk-models, reductionism, and emergent patterns in human behavioral evolution. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Antony, L. (2007). Everybody has got it: A defense of non-reductive materialism. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
- Atkinson, M. (1988). Cognitive science and philosophy of mind. Chichester, West Sussex, England; Oxford, England: Ellis Horwood; Halsted Press.
- Basu, A. (1997). Reducing concern with self: Parfit and the ancient Buddhist schools. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
- Bechtel, W. (2007). Reducing psychology while maintaining its autonomy via mechanistic explanations. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Berntson, G. G., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2004). Multilevel analyses and reductionism: Why social psychologists should care about neuroscience and vice versa. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- Bickle, J. (2007). Who says you can't do a molecular biology of consciousness? Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Bovens, L., & Bohrer, A. (1989). Situationist charges versus personologist defenses and the issue of skills. New York, NY, England: Praeger Publishers.
- Brown, T. (2002). Reductionism and the circle of the sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Brown, T., & Smith, L. (2002). Reductionism and the development of knowledge. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Capre, F.. (1982) The Turning Point.
- Chalmers, D. (2008). Supervenience. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- Churchland, P. S. (1988). Reduction and the neurobiological basis of consciousness. New York, NY: Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press.
- Churchland, P. S. (1996). Toward a neurobiology of the mind. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
- Clark, A. (2000). Visual awareness and visuomotor action. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
- Dalenoort, G. J. (1987). Is physics reductionistic? Oxford, England: North-Holland.
- Dawkins, R. (1976) The Selfish Gene. Oxford University Press; 2nd edition, December 1989 ISBN 0-19-217773-7.
- Dennett, Daniel. (1995) Darwin's Dangerous Idea. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-82471-X.
- Descartes (1637) Discourses Part V
- Dupre, J. (1993) The Disorder of Things. Harvard University Press.
- Jones, Richard H. Reductionism: Analysis and the Fullness of Reality. Bucknell University Press. (For the general reader.)
- El-Hani, C. N., & Pereira, A. M. (1999). Understanding biological causation. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
- Nagel, E. (1961) The Structure of Science. New York.
- Endicott, R. (2007). Reinforcing the three "R"s: Reduction, reception, and replacement. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Feinstein, A. R. (1997). Problems in defining quality of life. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
- Gendlin, E. T. (2000). The 'mind'/'body' problem and first-person process. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
- Gertler, B. (2006). Consciousness and Qualia Cannot Be Reduced. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Gillett, C. (2003). Non-reductive realization and non-reductive identity: What physicalism does not entail. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
- Gillett, C. (2007). The metaphysics of mechanisms and the challenge of the new reductionism. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Gold, M., & Douvan, E. (1997). Integrative strategies. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Greenberg, G., & Kenyon, G. Y. (1987). Issues for continuing discussion of integrative levels. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Hardcastle, V. G. (2000). Dissolving differences: How to understand the competing approaches to human emotion. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
- Holzman, P. S. (2003). Less is truly more: Psychopathology research in the 21st century. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Ismael, J. (2007). Science and the phenomenal. New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
- Kim, J. (2008). Making sense of emergence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- Kincaid, H. (1994). Reduction, explanation, and individualism. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
- Leatherman, T., & Goodman, A. (2005). Context and Complexity in Human Biological Research. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
- Lewis, D. (2006). "Reduction of mind". New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
- Looren de Jong, H. (1996). Levels: Reduction and elimination in cognitive neuroscience. North York, ON, England: Captus Press, Inc.
- Looren de Jong, H., & Schouten, M. (2007). Mind reading and mirror neurons: Exploring reduction. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Lycan, W. G. (2006). Consciousness and Qualia Can be Reduced. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Marr, M. J. (1990). Behavioral pharmacology: Issues of reductionism and causality. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Marras, A. (2003). Methodological and ontological aspects of the mental causation problem. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
- McCauley, R. N. (2007). Enriching philosophical models of cross-scientific relations: Incorporating diachronic theories. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- McCauley, R. N. (2007). Reduction: Models of Cross-Scientific Relations and their Implications for the Psychology-Neuroscience Interface. Amsterdam, Netherlands: North Holland/Elsevier.
- Melnyk, A. (2007). Functionalism and psychological reductionism: Friends, not foes. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Miller, D. L. (2004). Biblical Imagery and Psychological Likeness. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
- Mitchell, E. M. (1891). The Atomists. Chicago, IL: S C Griggs and Company.
- Munro, R. (2005). Partial organization: Marilyn Strathern and the elicitation of relations. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Nagel, E. (2008). Issues in the logic of reductive explanations. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- Nakayama, K. (1998). Vision fin de siecle: A reductionistic explanation of perception for the 21st century? San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
- Noordhof, P. (2003). Not old . . . but not that new either: Explicability, emergence, and the characterisation of materialism. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
- Olshausen, B. A., & Field, D. J. (2006). What Is the Other 85 Percent of V1 Doing? New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Overton, W. F. (2002). Understanding, explanation, and reductionism: Finding a cure for Cartesian anxiety. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Palazzoli, M. S., Boscolo, L., Cecchin, G., & Prata, G. (1988). The problem of the referring person. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
- Paranjpe, A. C., & Hanson, R. K. (1988). On dealing with the stream of consciousness: A comparison of Husserl and Yoga. New York, NY, England: Praeger Publishers.
- Peruzzi, A. (2004). Causality in the texture of mind. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
- Piner, S. (2002) The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature. Viking Penguin.
- Polger, T. W. (2007). Some metaphysical anxieties of reductionism. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Pronko, N. H. (1987). Language with or without consciousness. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Raymont, P. (2003). Kim on closure, exclusion and nonreductive physicalism. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
- Richardson, R. C. (2007). Reduction without the structures. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Rose, S. (1998). The rise of neurogenetic determinism. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Rosenberg, A. (2006) Darwinian Reductionism or How to Stop Worrying and Love Molecular Biology. University of Chicago Press.
- Rosenberg, C. E. (1997). Banishing risk: Continuity and change in the moral management of disease. Florence, KY: Taylor & Frances/Routledge.
- Ruse, M. (1988) Philosophy of Biology. Albany, NY.
- Schaal, D. W. (2003). Explanatory Reductionism in Behavior Analysis. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
- Schaffner, K. F. (1994). Psychiatry and molecular biology: Reductionistic approaches to schizophrenia. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Schouten, M., & Looren de Jong, H. (2007). The matter of the mind: Philosophical essays on psychology, neuroscience, and reduction. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Schouten, M., & Looren de Jong, H. (2007). Mind matters: The roots of reductionism. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Searle, J. (2008). Reductionism and the irreducibility of consciousness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- Shapiro, L. A. (2007). Reductionism, embodiment, and the generality of psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Stankov, L. (2005). Reductionism versus charting: Ways of examining the role of lower-order cognitive processes in intelligence. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
- Thornton, T. (2004). Reductionism/antireductionism. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Uttal, W. R. (1998). Toward a new behaviorism: The case against perceptual reductionism. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers
- Varela, F. J., & Vermersch, P. (2003). The point of view of the researcher. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
- Vega, J. O. F., Hernandez, G., & Rivaud, J. J. (2002). Reductionism in mathematics. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Velmans, M. (2000). Understanding consciousness. Florence, KY: Taylor & Frances/Routledge.
- Velmans, M. (2007). Dualism, reductionism, and reflexive monism. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Weinberg, S. (2008). Newtonianism, reductionism, and the art of congressional testimony. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- Weismer, G., & Liss, J. M. (1991). Reductionism is a dead-end in speech research: Perspectives on a new direction. Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes Publishing.
- Witmer, G. (2003). Multiple realizability and psychological laws: Evaluating Kim's challenge. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
- Wright, C. (2003). Mind-brain reductionism and the reality of the mental. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
- Wright, C. D. (2007). Is psychological explanation becoming extinct? Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Zamagni, S. (2005). Happiness and Individualism: A Very Difficult Union. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Adcock, C. J. (1984). Science and psychoanalysis: British Journal of Medical Psychology Vol 57(1) Mar 1984, 1-6.
- Ader, R. (1980). Psychosomatic and psychoimmunologic research: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 42(3) May 1980, 307-321.
- Andersen, D. C. (1993). Beyond rumor and reductionism: A textual dialogue with Erik H. Erikson: Psychohistory Review Vol 22(1) Fal 1993, 35-68.
- Anthony, D. (1982). The outer master as the inner guide: Autonomy and authority in the process of transformation: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology Vol 14(1) 1982, 1-36.
- Argente, J. A. (1992). From speech to speaking styles: Speech Communication Vol 11(4-5) Oct 1992, 325-335.
- Ausubel, D. P. (1982). Neurobiological reductionism in psychiatry and psychology: American Psychologist Vol 37(7) Jul 1982, 864-866.
- Banzato, C. E. M. (2004). Classification in psychiatry: The move towards ICD-11 and DSM-V: Current Opinion in Psychiatry Vol 17(6) Nov 2004, 497-501.
- Barash, D. P. (2007). Against the endarkenment: Evolutionary Psychology Vol 5(3) 2007, 680-682.
- Barendregt, M., & van Rappard, J. F. H. (2004). Reductionism revisited: On the role of reduction in psychology: Theory & Psychology Vol 14(4) Aug 2004, 453-474.
- Bassin, F. V. (1977). The role of neuropsychology in the system of contemporary brain sciences: Voprosy Psychologii No 4 Jul-Aug 1977, 137-143.
- Bechtel, W. (2001). The compatibility of complex systems and reduction: A case analysis of memory research: Minds and Machines Vol 11(4) Nov 2001, 483-502.
- Begelman, D. A. (1978). Tombstone polishing and Wittgenstein: A rejoinder to Johnson: Behaviorism Vol 6(2) Fal 1978, 221-228.
- Belous, V. V. (1996). Integral individuality: Approaches, facts, perspectives: Psikhologicheskiy Zhurnal Vol 17(1) Jan-Feb 1996, 44-51.
- Berger, L. S. (2001). Psychotherapy, biological psychiatry, and the nature of matter: A view from physics: American Journal of Psychotherapy Vol 55(2) 2001, 185-201.
- Bermudez, J. L. (1997). Reduction and the self: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 4(5-6) 1997, 458-466.
- Bermudez, J. L. (1999). Reduction and the self. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
- Berry, P. (1973). On reduction: Spring 1973, 67-84.
- Betts, P. G. (1992). Suicide and Science: Challenging Reductionist Paradigms: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 37 (5), May, 1992.
- Bickle, J. (1995). Connectionism, reduction, and multiple realizability: Behavior and Philosophy Vol 23(2) Sum 1995, 29-39.
- Bickle, J. (2001). Understanding neural complexity: A role for reduction: Minds and Machines Vol 11(4) Nov 2001, 467-481.
- Bickle, J. (2005). Molecular Neuroscience to My Rescue (Again): Reply to Looren de Jong & Schouten: Philosophical Psychology Vol 18(4) Aug 2005, 487-494.
- Blasi, A. J. (1978). Beyond reductionism, with invidious comparisons between behavioral and Paretian sociology: Qualitative Sociology Vol 1(1) May 1978, 1-20.
- Boice, R. (1974). Preaching to the Converted: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 19 (3), Mar, 1974.
- Boudewijnse, G. J., & Wermter, S. (2005). Review of Reductionism and the Development of Knowledge: Cognitive Systems Research Vol 6(4) Dec 2005, 396-401.
- Brattico, P. (2008). Shallow reductionism and the problem of complexity in psychology: Theory & Psychology Vol 18(4) Aug 2008, 483-504.
- Brito Fernandez, H. (1982). About the problem of the relation between the affective and the cognitive in the psychology of personality: Boletin de Psicologia (Cuba) Vol 5(2) May-Aug 1982, 76-92.
- Cantor, C. (2003). Interdisciplinary wormholes: Letter across the pacific: Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention Vol 24(3) 2003, 131-133.
- Cassidy, C. M. (1994). Unraveling the ball of string: Reality, paradigms, and the study of alternative medicine: Advances Vol 10(1) Win 1994, 5-31.
- Ceroni, G. B., & Grava, G. (2005). Psychologization and somatization. Two opposite approaches of reductionism in patient-therapist relationship: Psichiatria e Psicoterapia Vol 24(2) Jun 2005, 101-110.
- Chadwick-Jones, J. K. (1973). Logical reduction and social psychology: Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour Vol 3(1) Apr 1973, 3-21.
- Chauvot, B. (1987). Psychiatry and medicine: At cross-purposes: Psychologie Medicale Vol 19(7) May 1987, 1039-1040.
- Chotai, J. (1988). Holism, reductionism, and models in psychiatry: Integrative Psychiatry Vol 6(3-4) Dec 1988, 229-234.
- Clark, A. (1999). Visual awareness and visuomotor action: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 6(11-12) Nov-Dec 1999, 1-18.
- Clements, C. D. (1983). The lesion and the function: Setting up the reductionist problem: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine Vol 26(3) Spr 1983, 433-440.
- Cobb, K. Y. (1984). Reductionism in marital happiness research: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Colborn, M. (2008). An essay review of Irreducible mind: Towards a psychology for the 21st century": European Journal of Parapsychology Vol 23(2) 2008, 189-205.
- Cooper, W. S. (1988). Is decision theory a branch of biology? Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
- Cornelissen, M. (2003). The need for the Indian tradition: Psychological Studies Vol 48(3) 2003, 38-52.
- Crooks, M. (2002). Four rejoinders: A dialogue in continuation: Journal of Mind and Behavior Vol 23(3) Sum 2002, 249-278.
- Crooks, M. (2002). Intertheoretic identification and mind-brain reductionism: Journal of Mind and Behavior Vol 23(3) Sum 2002, 193-222.
- Crumbaugh, J. C. (1999). A contribution of Tipler's Omega Point Theory to near-death studies: Journal of Near-Death Studies Vol 18(1) Fal 1999, 5-11.
- Cullen, C. N. (1975). "Behaviourism and Education": A reply: AEP (Association of Educational Psychologists) Journal Vol 3(9) Sum 1975, 35-38.
- Cummins, R. C. (1981). Reduction and Functionalism: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 26 (12), Dec, 1981.
- Cunningham, B. (2001). Capturing qualia: Higher-order concepts and connectionism: Philosophical Psychology Vol 14(1) Mar 2001, 29-41.
- Dai, D. Y. (2005). Reductionism Versus Emergentism: A Framework for Understanding Conceptions of Giftedness: Roeper Review Vol 27(3) Spr 2005, 144-151.
- de Jong, H. L., & Schouten, M. K. D. (2005). Ruthless Reductionism: A Review Essay of John Bickle's Philosophy and neuroscience: A ruthlessly reductive account: Philosophical Psychology Vol 18(4) Aug 2005, 473-486.
- De Simone, J. (2006). Reductionist inference-based medicine, i.e. EBM: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice Vol 12(4) Aug 2006, 445-449.
- Deary, I. J. (1996). Reductionism and intelligence: The case of inspection time: Journal of Biosocial Science Vol 28(4) Oct 1996, 405-423.
- Delprato, D. J. (1979). The interbehavioral alternative to brain-dogma: Psychological Record Vol 29(3) Sum 1979, 409-418.
- Delprato, D. J. (1980). The reactional biography concept: Early contribution to a perspective for the psychology of aging: Human Development Vol 23(5) 1980, 314-322.
- Depraz, N. (1999). The phenomenological reduction as praxis: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 6(2-3) Feb-Mar 1999, 95-110.
- Dongping, F. (2007). Towards complex holism: Systems Research & Behavioral Science Vol 24(4) Jul-Aug 2007, 417-430.
- Dovolich, C. (1995). With Derrida a passage from phenomenology to hermeneutics: Psichiatria e Psicoterapia Analitica Vol 14(4) Dec 1995, 337-355.
- Duster, T. (2006). Comparative Perspectives and Competing Explanations: Taking on the Newly Configured Reductionist Challenge to Sociology: American Sociological Review Vol 71(1) Feb 2006, 1-15.
- Edwards, G. (1994). Addiction, reductionism and Aaron's rod: Addiction Vol 89(1) Jan 1994, 9-22.
- Eidelberg, P. (1992). The malaise of modern psychology: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied Vol 126(2) Mar 1992, 109-120.
- Elkind, D. (1969). Review of La Connaissance D'Autrui: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 14 (8), Aug, 1969.
- Emanuele, E. (2008). Of love and death: The emerging role of romantic disruption in suicidal behavior: Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior Vol 38(4) Aug 2008, 482.
- Farah, M. J. (2005). Reply to Jedlicka: Neuroethics, reductionism and dualism: Trends in Cognitive Sciences Vol 9(4) Apr 2005, 173.
- Farmer, A., Owen, M., & McGuffin, P. (1998). "Genetics of human behaviour": Comment: Psychiatric Bulletin Vol 22(8) Aug 1998, 518.
- Finlay, L. (2008). A dance between the reduction and reflexivity: Explicating the "phenomenological psychological attitude." Journal of Phenomenological Psychology Vol 39(1) 2008, 1-32.
- Fischer, N. (1986). "Witch hunting": A form of reductionistic thinking: The American Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol 46(1) Spr 1986, 45-54.
- Floersch, J., Longhofer, J., & Latta, K. (1997). Writing Amish culture into genes: Biological reductionism in a study of manic depression: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry Vol 21(2) Jun 1997, 137-159.
- Fonagy, P. (2007). The interpersonal interpretation mechanism (IIM) the connection of genetics and theory in development: Analytische Kinder- und Jugendlichenpsychotherapie Vol 38(134) 2007, 197-222.
- Francescotti, R. (2002). Understanding physical realization (and what it does not entail): Journal of Mind and Behavior Vol 23(3) Sum 2002, 279-292.
- Francescotti, R. M. (1997). What multiple realizability does not show: Journal of Mind and Behavior Vol 18(1) Win 1997, 13-27.
- Francescotti, R. M. (1998). Defining "physicalism." Journal of Mind and Behavior Vol 19(1) Win 1998, 51-64.
- Freedman, A. M. (1991). Conceptualizing behavior: Developing new approaches: Psychiatria Fennica Vol 22 1991, 11-22.
- Frijda, N. H., & et al. (1981). The multiple determination of human behavior: Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de Psychologie en haar Grensgebieden Vol 36(3) Apr 1981, 127.
- Gabbard, G. O. (2007). 'Bound in a nutshell': Thoughts on complexity, reductionism, and 'infinite space': International Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol 88(3) Jun 2007, 559-574.
- Galizio, M. (1982). In defense of reductionism: Bulletin of the Society of Psychologists in Substance Abuse Vol 1(3) Spr 1982, 98-99.
- Gallagher, S. (1999). A cognitive way to the transcendental reduction: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 6(2-3) Feb-Mar 1999, 230-232.
- Garner, W. (1999). Reductionism Reduced: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 44 (1), Feb, 1999.
- Gillett, G. (1992). Consciousness, intentionality and internalism: A philosophical perspective on Velmans and his critics: Philosophical Psychology Vol 5(2) 1992, 173-179.
- Gonzalez, J. C. S., & Narciandi, J. C. L. (2007). Reviewing contemporary constructivisms: Revista de Historia de la Psicologia Vol 28(2-3) 2007, 35-41.
- Graber, A. V. (2005). From Homo sapiens to Home noeticus: International Forum for Logotherapy Vol 28(2) Fal 2005, 99-107.
- Greco, P. (1985). Reduction and construction: Archives de Psychologie Vol 53(204) Mar 1985, 21-35.
- Hannan, B. (1990). "Non-scientific realism" about propositional attitudes as a response to eliminativist arguments: Behavior and Philosophy Vol 18(2) Fal-Win 1990, 21-31.
- Harris, B. (2005). Organicist Psychiatry Gone Mad: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 50 (44), 2005.
- Harth, E. (2004). Art and Reductionism: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 11(3-4) Mar-Apr 2004, 111-116.
- Hasanoglu, A. (2005). Binswanger and Dasein analysis: Yeni Symposium: psikiyatri, noroloji ve davranis bilimleri dergisi Vol 43(3) Jun 2005, 101-106.
- Hauser, L. (2002). Don't go there: Reply to Crooks: Journal of Mind and Behavior Vol 23(3) Sum 2002, 223-232.
- Hawkins, A. H. (1994). Reforming the biomedical model: Finding a successor model or going beyond the paradigms? : Advances Vol 10(1) Win 1994, 55-56.
- Heil, J. (1995). Reduction, illumination, and elimination: A response to Robinson: New Ideas in Psychology Vol 13(1) Mar 1995, 13-16.
- Henningsen, P., & Kirmayer, L. J. (2000). Mind beyond the net: Implications of cognitive neuroscience for cultural psychiatry: Transcultural Psychiatry Vol 37(4) Dec 2000, 467-494.
- Herdt, G. (1990). Mistaken gender: 5-Alpha reductase hermaphroditism and biological reductionism in sexual identity reconsidered: American Anthropologist Vol 92(2) Jun 1990, 433-446.
- Herlihy, J., & Gandy, J. (2002). Causation and explanation: The Psychologist Vol 15(5) May 2002, 248-251.
- Hill, W. F. (1979). Metatheory of Learning: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 24 (1), Jan, 1979.
- Hoche, H.-U. (2007). Reflexive monism versus complementarism: An analysis and criticism of the conceptual groundwork of Max Velmans's reflexive model of consciousness: Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences Vol 6(3) Jul 2007, 389-409.
- Holzhey, H. (2003). Critique of materialist reductionism in psychiatry: Schweizer Archiv fur Neurologie und Psychiatrie Vol 154(5) 2003, 216-223.
- Horta, M. C. (1995). Sigmund Freud, enlightenment and romanticism: Revista Intercontinental de Psicologia y Educacion Vol 8(2) Dec 1995, 99-107.
- Hut, P. (1999). Theory and experiment in philosophy: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 6(2-3) Feb-Mar 1999, 241-244.
- Hyland, M. E. (1995). Against nomological reductionism in psychology: A response to Robinson: New Ideas in Psychology Vol 13(1) Mar 1995, 9-11.
- Ilardi, S. S., & Feldman, D. (2001). The cognitive neuroscience paradigm: A unifying metatheoretical framework for the science and practice of clinical psychology: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 57(9) Sep 2001, 1067-1088.
- Jacobs, G. (2000). What's in a crisis?: A critical look at the field of crisis communication: Document Design Vol 2(3) 2000-2001, 225-235.
- Jedlicka, P. (2005). Neuroethics, reductionism and dualism: Trends in Cognitive Sciences Vol 9(4) Apr 2005, 172.
- Jones, J. W. (1999). "In defense of an unfriendly Freud: Psychoanalysis, feminism, and theology": Commentary reply: Pastoral Psychology Vol 47(3) Jan 1999, 183-189.
- Jones, T. E. (2004). Special Sciences: Still a flawed argument after all these years: Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal Vol 28(3) May-Jun 2004, 409-432.
- Jonker, C. M., Treur, J., & Wijngaards, W. C. A. (2002). Reductionist and anti-reductionist perspectives on dynamics: Philosophical Psychology Vol 15(4) Dec 2002, 381-409.
- Jonte-Pace, D. (1999). In defense of an unfriendly Freud: Psychoanalysis, feminism, and theology: Pastoral Psychology Vol 47(3) Jan 1999, 175-181.
- Kalat, J. W. (2002). Identism without objective qualia: Commentary on Crooks: Journal of Mind and Behavior Vol 23(3) Sum 2002, 233-238.
- Kapitan, T. (2005). Psychology and the Question of Agency: Philosophical Psychology Vol 18(5) Oct 2005, 656-660.
- Kaplan, L. V., & Miller, R. D. (1991). On psychiatry and its disavowal of mind: Legal and cultural implications: Journal of Psychiatry & Law Vol 19(3-4) Fal-Win 1991, 237-280.
- Kay, M. (1996). Biological psychiatry and psychotherapy: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 168(1) Jan 1996, 128-129.
- Keen, E. (2000). Chemicals for the mind: Psychopharmacology and human consciousness. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
- Kemker, S. S., & Khadivi, A. (1995). Psychiatric education: Learning by assumption. Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons.
- King, A. (2007). Why I am not an individualist: Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour Vol 37(2) Jun 2007, 211-219.
- Klatetzki, T. (2007). Not really ordinary organizations: A critique of Stefan Kuhl's reinterpretation of simulated brutalities: Zeitschrift fur Soziologie Vol 36(4) Aug 2007, 302-312.
- Klein, D. F., & Gittelman, R. (1982). Theories must be tested: American Psychologist Vol 37(7) Jul 1982, 863-864.
- Kopytko, R. (1995). Against rationalistic pragmatics: Journal of Pragmatics Vol 23(5) May 1995, 475-491.
- Kreitler, S. (2007). To represent or to be represented: That is the question: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 52 (33), 2007.
- Lau, R. W. K. (2004). Habitus and the Practical Logic of Practice: An Interpretation: Sociology Vol 38(2) Apr 2004, 369-387.
- Leahey, T. (2008). Does mind matter? Psychology in the age of neuroscience: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 53 (27), 2008.
- Lehtonen, J. (1981). Psychosomatic factors in long-term illness: Some problems of reduction and synthesis in the theories of psychophysiology and psychosomatics: Psychiatria Fennica Suppl 1981, 201-203.
- Leitner, L. M., & Phillips, S. N. (2003). The immovable object versus the irresistible force: Problems and opportunities for humanistic psychology: Journal of Humanistic Psychology Vol 43(3) Sum 2003, 156-173.
- Lilienfeld, S. O. (2007). Cognitive neuroscience and depression: Legitimate versus illegitimate reductionism and five challenges: Cognitive Therapy and Research Vol 31(2) Apr 2007, 263-272.
- Looren de Jong, H. (2000). Genetic determinism: How not to interpret behavioral genetics: Theory & Psychology Vol 10(5) Oct 2000, 615-637.
- Looy, H., Reimer, K., & Seybold, K. (2005). Reductive No More: Explaining Religion Without Explaining it Away: Journal of Psychology and Christianity Vol 24(2) Sum 2005, 101-104.
- Mahoney, l. T. (2008). Review of Engaged scholarship: A guide for organizational and social research: Academy of Management Review Vol 33(4) Oct 2008, 1015-1019.
- Manicas, P. T. (1983). Reduction, epigenesis and explanation: Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour Vol 13(3) Oct 1983, 331-354.
- Mares, G., Rivas, O., & Bazan, A. (2000). Training factors that increase the probability of relating linguistic objects to organisms in a conditional, causal, and functional manner: Revista Latina de Pensamiento y Lenguaje Vol 9(1) Win-Sum 2000-2001, 81-103.
- Margolis, E. (1998). How to acquire a concept: Mind & Language Vol 13(3) Sep 1998, 347-369.
- Margolis, J. (1976). Countering physicalistic reduction: Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour Vol 6(1) Apr 1976, 5-19.
- Markman, A. B. (2004). Reductionism and Knowledge Representation: Can They Be Integrated? : PsycCRITIQUES Vol 49 (5), Oct, 2004.
- Martin, J., & Dawda, D. (2002). Reductionism in the comments and autobiographical accounts of prominent psychologists: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied Vol 136(1) Jan 2002, 37-52.
- Matusov, E. (2007). In search of 'the appropriate' unit of analysis for sociocultural research: Culture & Psychology Vol 13(3) Sep 2007, 307-333.
- Maunder, R. (1995). Implications of mind-body theory for integration in psychiatry: Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes Vol 58(1) Feb 1995, 85-97.
- Meyering, T. (2001). Explanatory pluralism and macro-causation: Theory & Psychology Vol 11(6) Dec 2001, 761-772.
- Millar, M. (1998). Psychology and anti-oppressive social work: Understanding the complexity of individual lives: Social Work and Social Sciences Review Vol 8(1) 1998-1999, 25-41.
- Miller, A. (1997). Boghossian on reductive dispositionalism about content: The case strengthened: Mind & Language Vol 12(1) Mar 1997, 1-10.
- Miller, R. (1990). Beyond reductionism: The emerging holistic paradigm in education: The Humanistic Psychologist Vol 18(3) Fal 1990, 314-323.
- Miner, M. H. (2007). Back to the basics in attachment to God: Revisiting theory in light of theology: Journal of Psychology & Theology Vol 35(2) Sum 2007, 112-122.
- Moalem, S., & Percy, M. E. (2002). The Quandary of Reductionism: Relevance to Alzheimer Disease Research: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Vol 4(6) 2002, 531-537.
- Moghaddam, F. M. (2003). Interobjectivity and Culture: Culture & Psychology Vol 9(3) Sep 2003, 221-232.
- Moghaddam, F. M., Bianchi, C., Daniels, K., Apter, M. J., & Harre, R. (1999). Psychology and national development: Psychology and Developing Societies Vol 11(2) Jul-Dec 1999, 119-141.
- Moncrieff, J. (1998). Genetics of human behaviour: Psychiatric Bulletin Vol 22(3) Mar 1998, 158-161.
- Moncrieff, J. (1998). "Genetics of human behaviour": Reply: Psychiatric Bulletin Vol 22(8) Aug 1998, 518-519.
- Moreno Gonzalez, A. (2006). Atomism versus energetism: Scientific controversy at the end of the 19th century: Ensenanza de las Ciencias Revista de investigacion y experiencias didacticas Vol 24(3) Nov 2006, 411-428.
- Morse, S. J. (1984). Straw man or ghost in the machine? : PsycCRITIQUES Vol 29 (10), Oct, 1984.
- Munoz O, M. A. (1976). Behavior as an object of science: Revista de Psicologia Vol 21(1-2) 1976, 125-127.
- Musek, J. (1983). The concept of structure in psychology: Anthropos Vol 3(1-2) 1983, 179-198.
- Naudin, J. (1999). "Does psychiatry need the Husserlian detour?": Reply to Sullivan: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 6(2-3) Feb-Mar 1999, 298-299.
- Naudin, J., Gros-Azorin, C., Mishara, A., Wiggins, O. P., Schwartz, M. A., & Azorin, J.-M. (1999). The use of the Husserlian reduction as a method of investigation in psychiatry: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 6(2-3) Feb-Mar 1999, 155-171.
- Naudin, J., Pringuey, D., & Azorin, J. M. (1999). The use of phenomenological reduction in psychiatry: Annales Medico-Psychologiques Vol 157(9) Nov 1999, 611-619.
- No authorship, i. (1983). Review of Man, Time, and World: Two Contributions to Anthropological Psychology: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 28 (8), Aug, 1983.
- No authorship, i. (2006). Ah, the French: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association Vol 54(2) Spr 2006, 355-356.
- Notterman, J. M. (2000). Note on reductionism in cognitive psychology: Reification of cognitive processes into mind, mind-brain equivalence, and brain-computer analogy: Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology Vol 20(2) Fal 2000, 116-121.
- Notterman, J. M. (2001). Reductionism and dialectical materialism: Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology Vol 21(2) Fal 2001, 173-178.
- Nudelman, H. B., Herbrich, K. E., Hoyt, B. D., & Rosenfield, D. B. (1989). A neuroscience model of stuttering: Journal of Fluency Disorders Vol 14(6) Dec 1989, 399-427.
- Olshewsky, T. M. (1975). Dispositions and reductionism in psychology: Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour Vol 5(2) Oct 1975, 129-144.
- Orange, D. (2005). Reply to Pariser (2005): Psychoanalytic Psychology Vol 22(1) Win 2005, 131-134.
- Orange, D. M. (2003). Antidotes and alternatives: Perspectival realism and the new reductionisms: Psychoanalytic Psychology Vol 20(3) Sum 2003, 472-486.
- Owen, I., & Morris, N. (1999). The Husserlian phenomenology of consciousness and cognitive science: We can see the path but nobody is on it: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 6(2-3) Feb-Mar 1999, 269-272.
- Paciuk, S. (2003). Horizons on object relation: Revista Uruguaya de Psicoanalisis No 98 Nov 2003, 60-86.
- Paniagua, C. (2000). Neuroscience and psychoanalysis: Archivos de Psiquiatria Vol 63(4) Oct-Dec 2000, 339-350.
- Pariser, M. (2005). Splitting and reductive identification: Comment on Orange (2003): Psychoanalytic Psychology Vol 22(1) Win 2005, 120-130.
- Peele, S. (1981). Reductionism in the psychology of the Eighties: Can biochemistry eliminate addiction, mental illness, and pain? : American Psychologist Vol 36(8) Aug 1981, 807-818.
- Peters, J. (1973). Towards a reductionist view of Sigmund Freud: Journal of Biological Psychology Vol 15(1) Jul 1973, 24-26.
- Phelps, B. J. (2007). Why we are still not cognitive psychologists: A review of Why I Am Not a Cognitive Psychologist: A Tribute to B. F. Skinner: Behavior Analyst Vol 30(2) Fal 2007, 217-226.
- Pleh, C. (1984). Interdisciplinary relationships in the history of psychology: Magyar Pszichologiai Szemle Vol 41(3) 1984, 181-200.
- Presland, J. L. (1975). Reply to "Behaviourism and Education" by J. C. Quicke: AEP (Association of Educational Psychologists) Journal Vol 3(9) Sum 1975, 34-35.
- Putnam, H. (1973). Reductionism and the nature of psychology: Cognition Vol 2(1) 1973, 131-146.
- Raudsepp, M. (2005). Why is it so Difficult to Understand the Theory of Social Representations? : Culture & Psychology Vol 11(4) Dec 2005, 455-468.
- Rentoul, R. (1992). "Consciousness, brain and the physical world": A reply to Velmans: Philosophical Psychology Vol 5(2) 1992, 163-166.
- Rettinger, V., Waters, W., & Poplin, M. S. (1989). Constructing a response to responses: Journal of Learning Disabilities Vol 22(5) May 1989, 309-313.
- Robinson, D. N. (1995). The logic of reductionistic models: New Ideas in Psychology Vol 13(1) Mar 1995, 1-8.
- Robinson, D. N. (1995). "The logic of reductionistic models": Reply: New Ideas in Psychology Vol 13(1) Mar 1995, 25-27.
- Roseneil, S. (2006). The ambivalences of Angel's 'arrangement': A psychosocial lens on the contemporary condition of personal life: Sociological Review Vol 54(4) Nov 2006, 847-869.
- Roshchin, S. K. (1976). The struggle of progressive Western scientists against reductionism in sciences about man: Voprosy Psychologii No 1 Jan-Feb 1976, 38-45.
- Rottschaefer, W. A. (1991). Some philosophical implications of Bandura's social cognitive theory of human agency: American Psychologist Vol 46(2) Feb 1991, 153-155.
- Rowe, B. (2006). A Web, Not a Tree: American Journal of Psychology Vol 119(2) Sum 2006, 319-329.
- Rozeboom, W. W. (1972). Review of Interpretations of Life and Mind: Essays around the Problem of Reduction: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 17 (10), Oct, 1972.
- Rubin, H. B. (1967). Keniston's Three Wrongs: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 12 (9), Sep, 1967.
- Rubinstein, R. A., & Laughlin, C. D. (1977). Bridging levels of systemic organization: Current Anthropology Vol 18(3) Sep 1977, 459-463.
- Sachdev, P. (1999). Is the reduction of mental phenomena an attainable goal? : Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences Vol 11(2) Spr 1999, 274-279.
- Saperstein, J., & Gaines, J. (1978). A commentary on the divergent views between Kernberg and Kohut on the theory and treatment of narcissistic personality disorders: International Review of Psycho-Analysis Vol 5(4) 1978, 413-423.
- Sapira, J. D. (1992). The whole patient is not less than the sum of his parts: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 54(4) Jul-Aug 1992, 383-393.
- Saunders, B. (2006). Review of Clinical Textbook of Addictive Disorders: Behaviour Change Vol 23(1) 2006, 83-84.
- Schouten, M., & Looren de Jong, H. (1997). Reduction and elimination in psychology: Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de Psychologie en haar Grensgebieden Vol 52(1) Jan 1997, 31-41.
- Schouten, M. K. D. (1999). Disconnecting the concepts of consciousness: The virtues of interdisciplinarity: New Ideas in Psychology Vol 17(3) Dec 1999, 291-308.
- Schouten, M. K. D., & de Jong, H. L. (1999). Reduction, elimination, and levels: The case of the LTP-learning link: Philosophical Psychology Vol 12(3) Sep 1999, 237-262.
- Schwartz, M. A., & Wiggins, O. (1985). Discussion: On "Integration versus reductionism in psychiatry." Integrative Psychiatry Vol 3(1) Mar 1985, 68-69.
- Schwindt, J.-M. (2008). Mind as hardware and matter as software: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 15(4) Apr 2008, 5-27.
- Scott, A. (2004). Reductionism Revisited: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 11(2) Feb 2004, 51-68.
- Simmonds, J. G. (2006). The oceanic feeling and a sea change: Historical challenges to reductionist attitudes to religion and spirit from within psychoanalysis: Psychoanalytic Psychology Vol 23(1) Win 2006, 128-142.
- Singer, W. (1990). Ontogenetic self-organization and learning. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Skolnik, T. (1994). Paradigms, beliefs, and causality: Gestalt Journal Vol 17(2) Fal 1994, 63-91.
- Slors, M. (1997). Why Functional Properties can be Emergent: An Argument against Kim: Intellectica No 25 1997, 59-65.
- Smart, J. J. C. (2002). The compatibility of direct realism with the scientific account of perception: Comment on Mark Crooks: Journal of Mind and Behavior Vol 23(3) Sum 2002, 239-244.
- Smith, D. L. (1996). Should psychoanalysts believe what they say? : British Journal of Psychotherapy Vol 13(1) Fal 1996, 64-74.
- Smith, T. S., & Franks, D. D. (1999). Introduction: Emergence, reduction, and levels of analysis in the neurosociological paradigm. Us: Elsevier Science/JAI Press.
- Smythies, J. (2002). Comment on Crooks's "Intertheoretic identification and mind-brain reductionism": Journal of Mind and Behavior Vol 23(3) Sum 2002, 245-248.
- Spada, H. (1978). Understanding proportionality: A comparison of different models of cognitive development: International Journal of Behavioral Development Vol 1(4) Dec 1978, 363-376.
- Spivey, M. J., & Anderson, S. E. (2008). Commentary: On a compatibility between emergentism and reductionism: Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence Vol 20(3) Sep 2008, 239-245.
- Stacey, B. G. (1975). Men and machines: Bulletin of the British Psychological Society Vol 28 Jun 1975, 270-276.
- Stafford, K. R., & Combs, C. F. (1967). Radical reductionism: A possible source of inadequacy in autoinstructional techniques: American Psychologist Vol 22(8) Aug 1967, 667-669.
- Stahl, G. (1982). On not reducing agents to organisms: Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour Vol 12(3) Oct 1982, 305-316.
- Stephens, G. G. (1986). Careers of illness: Problems in the diagnosis of chronic illness: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine Vol 29(3, Pt 1) Spr 1986, 464-474.
- Suchecki, J. (1978). The psychosemantic status of metaphoric expressions: Polish Psychological Bulletin Vol 9(4) 1978, 209-213.
- Sullivan, M. (1999). Does psychiatry need the Husserlian detour? : Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 6(2-3) Feb-Mar 1999, 296-298.
- Sundqvist, F. (2007). Two themes of reductionism and the predicaments of archetypical empiricism: The crossroads between empiricism and rationalism: Part II: Gestalt Theory Vol 29(2) Jun 2007, 130-147.
- Thomas, B. (1999). Reflections of the role of psychological theory in psychotherapy: Gestalt Review Vol 3(2) 1999, 130-146.
- Tolman, C. (1984). The crisis in comparative psychology, the concept of levels and the necessity of dialectics: Ceskoslovenska Psychologie Vol 28(1) 1984, 1-6.
- Ussher, J. M. (2004). IV. Biological Politics Revisited: Reclaiming the Body and the Intra-psychic within Discursive Feminist Psychology: Feminism & Psychology Vol 14(3) Aug 2004, 425-430.
- van Strien, P. J. (2007). The intimate side of science: Psycholoog Vol 42(1) Jan 2007, 9-15.
- Vandamme, F. (1975). Synthesis against reductionism: Communication & Cognition Vol 8(1) 1975, 13-22.
- Varela, F. (1999). "The Husserlian phenomenology of consciousness and cognitive science: We can see the path but nobody is on it": Reply to Owen and Morris: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 6(2-3) Feb-Mar 1999, 272-273.
- Velmans, M. (1990). Consciousness, brain and the physical world: Philosophical Psychology Vol 3(1) 1990, 77-99.
- Velmans, M. (1992). "Consciousness, intentionality and internalism: A philosophical perspective on Velmans and his critics": Reply: Philosophical Psychology Vol 5(2) 1992, 181-182.
- Velmans, M. (1992). The world as-perceived, the world as-described by physics, and the thing-itself: A reply to Rentoul and Wetherick: Philosophical Psychology Vol 5(2) 1992, 167-172.
- Velmans, M. (2007). How experienced phenomena relate to things themselves: Kant, Husserl, Hoche, and reflexive monism: Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences Vol 6(3) Jul 2007, 411-423.
- Velmans, M. (2008). Reflexive monism: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 15(2) Feb 2008, 5-50.
- Voelklein, C., & Howarth, C. (2005). A Review of Controversies about Social Representations Theory: A British Debate: Culture & Psychology Vol 11(4) Dec 2005, 431-454.
- von Uexkull, T. (1990). Freud, psychoanalysis and the psychosomatic problem: Psyche: Zeitschrift fur Psychoanalyse und ihre Anwendungen Vol 44(5) May 1990, 445-458.
- Wallace, E. R. I. V. (1997). Psychiatry's sickness and its biological cure: Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes Vol 60(1) Spr 1997, 89-99.
- Wallach, L. (1972). No Reductionism without Behaviorism? : PsycCRITIQUES Vol 17 (3), Mar, 1972.
- Walsh, A. (1997). Methodological individualism and vertical integration in the social sciences: Behavior and Philosophy Vol 25(2) Fal 1997, 121-136.
- Webel, C., & Stigliano, T. (2004). Are we 'beyond good and evil'? Radical psychological materialism and the 'cure' for evil: Theory & Psychology Vol 14(1) Feb 2004, 81-103.
- Wesley, F. (1982). Reducing Reductionism: American Psychologist Vol 37(7) Jul 1982, 866.
- Wetherick, N. E. (1992). Velmans on "Consciousness, brain and the physical world." Philosophical Psychology Vol 5(2) 1992, 159-161.
- Williams, L. (1977). Challenge to survival. (Rev ed). Oxford, England: New York U Press.
- Williams, R. N. (1995). The priority of ontology in reductionist models: A response to Robinson: New Ideas in Psychology Vol 13(1) Mar 1995, 17-23.
- Wilson, E. O. (1977). Biology and the social sciences: Daedalus Vol 106(4) Fal 1977, 127-140.
- Wollman, N. (1982). Jung and Freud compared on two types of reductionism: The Journal of Analytical Psychology Vol 27(2) Apr 1982, 149-161.
- Wood, J. M., Koch, P. B., & Mansfield, P. K. (2006). Women's Sexual Desire: A Feminist Critique: Journal of Sex Research Vol 43(3) Aug 2006, 236-244.
- Wright, C. (2000). Eliminativist undercurrents in the new wave model of psychoneural reduction: Journal of Mind and Behavior Vol 21(4) Fal 2000, 413-436.
- Wright, C. (2004). The New Face of Positivism: Theory & Psychology Vol 14(6) Dec 2004, 855-857.
- Wrigley, T. (2004). 'School effectiveness': The problem of reductionism: British Educational Research Journal Vol 30(2) Apr 2004, 227-244.
- Young, R. A. (2004). Wittgenstein's Tractatus Project as Philosophy of Information: Minds and Machines Vol 14(1) Feb 2004, 119-132.
- Yun, D. Y. (1998). Quine's criterion of ontological reduction. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Zakzanis, K. K., Mraz, R., Campbell, Z., & Graham, S. J. (2004). Neuropsychological reductionism and a possible solution toward clinical and experimental measurement of real world cognitive function and dysfunction: A case study using virtual reality within a functional magnetic resonance imaging bore: Hellenic Journal of Psychology Vol 1(3) Dec 2004, 326-347.
- Zinchenko, V. P. (1977). Methodological problems of the psychological analysis of activity: Magyar Pszichologiai Szemle Vol 34(4) 1977, 342-350.
- Bolender, J. H. (1996). Explaining psychology: Psychophysical reductionism, explanation, and the unity of science. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Butler, K. L. (1992). Connectionism, classical cognitivism and reduction: A case for parallel distributed processing: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Byrd, J. D., Jr. (2004). Is a unified account of concepts possible? Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Gottlieb, M. (1999). Naturalizing intentionality. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Hannan, B. E. (1989). Between reduction and elimination: Finding the place of commonsense propositional attitude psychology: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Weiskopf, D. A. (2003). A defense of conceptual pluralism. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Yerger, J. V. (2001). Considering reductionism in psychoanalytic theory: A hermeneutic study of Pine's synthesis (Fred Pine). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Ingo Brigandt and Alan Love, "Reductionism in Biology", in: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- John Dupré: The Disunity of Science, an interview at the Galilean Library covering criticisms of reductionism.
- Eric Scerri The reduction of chemistry to physics has become a central aspect of the philosophy of chemistry. See several articles by this author.
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|