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Pyrovalerone chemical structure

IUPAC name
CAS number
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Chemical formula {{{chemical_formula}}}
Molecular weight 245.36 g/mol
Elimination half-life
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Routes of administration Oral

Pyrovalerone (Centroton, Thymergix) is a psychoactive drug with stimulant effects via acting as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI), and is used for the clinical treatment of chronic fatigue or lethargy[1] and as an anorectic or appetite suppressant for weight loss purposes. It was developed in the late 1960s and has since been used in France and several other European countries. Though pyrovalerone is still occasionally prescribed, it is used infrequently due to problems with abuse and dependence.[2] Pyrovalerone is a Schedule V controlled substance in the United States (U.S.), and is the only stimulant in that category.[3] It is closely related on a structural level to a number of other stimulants, such as methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV, MDPK; "Sonic", "Magic", "Monkey Dust") and prolintane (Promotil, Katovit).

Side effects of pyrovalerone include anorexia or loss of appetite, anxiety, fragmented sleep or insomnia, and trembling, shaking, or muscle tremors. Withdrawal following abuse upon discontinuation often results in depression.[4]

The R-enantiomer of pyrovalerone is devoid of activity.[5]

See alsoEdit


  1. Gardos G, Cole JO. Evaluation of pyrovalerone in chronically fatigued volunteers. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental. 1971 Oct;13(10):631-5.
  2. Deniker P, Loo H, Cuche H, Roux JM. Abuse of pyrovalerone by drug addicts. Annales Medico-Psychologiques (Paris) 1975 Nov;2(4):745-8.
  3. Schedule V Controlled Substances. URL accessed on 2008-01-13.
  5. Meltzer PC, Butler D, Deschamps JR, Madras BK. 1-(4-Methylphenyl)-2-pyrrolidin-1-yl-pentan-1-one (Pyrovalerone) analogues: a promising class of monoamine uptake inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2006 Feb 23;49(4):1420-32. PMID 16480278


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