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Polygynandry occurs when two or more males have an exclusive relationship with two or more females and where each female mates with two or more males. The numbers of males and females need not be equal, and in vertebrate species studied so far, the number of males is usually lower.

Amongst humans this arrangement is rare. This mating system is most prevalent in species that live in troupes, such as chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans.

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