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{{EdPsy}}
 
{{EdPsy}}
 
{{Play}}
 
{{Play}}
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{{Refimprove|date=June 2008}}
 
[[Image:PlayEquipComboPlastic wb.jpg|right|thumb|Combination playground structure for small children; slides, climbers (stairs in this case), playhouse]]
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[[Image:PlayEquipComboPlastic wb.jpg|thumb|Combination playground structure for small children; slides, climbers (stairs in this case), playhouse]]
 
 
 
A '''playground''' or '''play area''' place with a specific design for [[children]] be able to [[Play (activity)|play]] there. It may be indoors but is typically outdoors, and when it is the latter, it may be occasionally referred to as a '''tot lot''' by some people or in some regions.<ref>http://www.doubletongued.org/index.php/dictionary/tot_lot/</ref>
 
A '''playground''' or '''play area''' place with a specific design for [[children]] be able to [[Play (activity)|play]] there. It may be indoors but is typically outdoors, and when it is the latter, it may be occasionally referred to as a '''tot lot''' by some people or in some regions.<ref>http://www.doubletongued.org/index.php/dictionary/tot_lot/</ref>
   
Modern playgrounds often have recreational equipment such as the [[see-saw]], [[Roundabout (play)|merry-go-round]], [[swing (seat)|swingset]], [[Playground slide|slide]], [[jungle gym]], [[chin-up bar]]s, [[sandpit|sandbox]], [[spring rider]], [[monkey bars]], [[overhead ladder]], [[trapeze]] rings, playhouses, and [[mazes]], many of which help children develop physical coordination, strength, and flexibility, as well as providing [[recreation]] and [[enjoyment]]. Common in modern playgrounds are "play structures" that link many different pieces of equipment.
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Modern playgrounds often have recreational equipment such as the see-saw, merry-go-round, swingseat, slide, jungle gym, |sandbox]], [[spring rider, [[monkey bars]], playhouses, and [[mazes]], many of which help children develop physical coordination, [[strength]], and flexibility, as well as providing [[recreation]] and [[enjoyment]]. Common in modern playgrounds are "play structures" that link many different pieces of equipment.
 
Playgrounds often also have facilities for playing informal games of adult [[sport]]s, such as a [[baseball]] diamond, a [[Roller skating|skating]] arena, a [[basketball]] court, or a [[tether ball]].
 
   
 
Playgrounds often also have facilities for playing informal games of adult [[sport]]s, such as a [[baseball]] diamond, a skating arena, a [[basketball]] court etc
 
"Public" playground equipment refers to equipment intended for use in the play areas of [[park]]s, [[school]]s, child care facilities, institutions, multiple family dwellings, restaurants, resorts, and recreational developments, and other areas of public use.
 
"Public" playground equipment refers to equipment intended for use in the play areas of [[park]]s, [[school]]s, child care facilities, institutions, multiple family dwellings, restaurants, resorts, and recreational developments, and other areas of public use.
   
 
A type of playground called a [[playscape]] is designed to provide a safe environment for play in a natural setting.
 
A type of playground called a [[playscape]] is designed to provide a safe environment for play in a natural setting.
   
Recognizing the need for such, former [[President]] [[Theodore Roosevelt]] stated in 1907,
+
Recognizing the need for such, former US President Theodore Roosevelt stated in 1907,
   
 
:''City streets are unsatisfactory playgrounds for children because of the danger, because most good games are against the law, because they are too hot in summer, and because in crowded sections of the city they are apt to be schools of crime. Neither do small back yards nor ornamental grass plots meet the needs of any but the very small children. Older children who would play vigorous games must have places especially set aside for them; and, since play is a fundamental need, playgrounds should be provided for every child as much as schools. This means that they must be distributed over the cities in such a way as to be within walking distance of every boy and girl, as most children can not afford to pay carfare''.<ref>To Cuno H. Rudolph, Washington Playground Association, February 16, 1907. Presidential Addresses and State Papers VI, 1163.</ref>
 
:''City streets are unsatisfactory playgrounds for children because of the danger, because most good games are against the law, because they are too hot in summer, and because in crowded sections of the city they are apt to be schools of crime. Neither do small back yards nor ornamental grass plots meet the needs of any but the very small children. Older children who would play vigorous games must have places especially set aside for them; and, since play is a fundamental need, playgrounds should be provided for every child as much as schools. This means that they must be distributed over the cities in such a way as to be within walking distance of every boy and girl, as most children can not afford to pay carfare''.<ref>To Cuno H. Rudolph, Washington Playground Association, February 16, 1907. Presidential Addresses and State Papers VI, 1163.</ref>
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*Connected to a business, for customers only, e.g., at [[McDonald's]] and [[IKEA]].
 
*Connected to a business, for customers only, e.g., at [[McDonald's]] and [[IKEA]].
 
*Elaborate indoor mazes, like those at the (now defunct) [[Discovery Zone]], Zoom Zoom's Indoor Playground in Ancaster, Ontario, [[Jungle Jam Indoor Playground]] and [[Chuck E. Cheese's]]
 
*Elaborate indoor mazes, like those at the (now defunct) [[Discovery Zone]], Zoom Zoom's Indoor Playground in Ancaster, Ontario, [[Jungle Jam Indoor Playground]] and [[Chuck E. Cheese's]]
 
==Playground safety==
 
 
Sometimes the safety of playgrounds is disputed in school or among regulators. Over at least the last twenty years, the kinds of equipment to be found in playgrounds has changed, often towards safer equipment built with modern materials. For example, an older jungle gym might be constructed entirely from steel bars, while newer ones tend to have a minimal steel framework while providing a web of [[nylon]] ropes for children to climb on. Playgrounds with equipment that children may fall off often use [[mulch]] on the ground to help break their falls.<ref>EPA Playground Surfaces http://www.epa.gov/waste/conserve/tools/cpg/products/playgrnd.htm</ref> [[Rubber mulch]] is gaining popularity due to its added ability to break falls<ref>[http://www.rubberecycle.com/F1951-99.pdf] Detroit Testing Laboratory </ref>.
 
 
A [http://secure.cihi.ca/cihiweb/dispPage.jsp?cw_page=media_18jul2007_e study] done by the [[Canadian Institute for Health Information]] found that playground injuries were responsible for 23 visits a day to [[emergency room]]s in [[Ontario Canada|Ontario, Canada]]. The largest proportion of these visits were for [[orthopedic]] and [[head injury|head injuries]] (51% and 22% respectively.) In the [[United States]], approximately 200,000 [[emergency room]] visits occur each year because of accidents on commercial and residential playgrounds.<ref>[http://www.cpsc.gov/CPSCPUB/PUBS/Playfct.pdf] U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Tips for Public Playground Safety, Publication #324 </ref>.
 
 
In the United States the [[Consumer Product Safety Commission]] and the American National Standards Institute have created a Standardized Document and Training System for certification of Playground Safety Inspectors. These regulations are nation wide and provide a basis for safe playground installation and maintenance practices. [[ASTM]] F1487-07 deals with specific requirements regarding issues such as play ground layout, use zones, and various test criteria for determining play ground safety. ASTM F2373 covers public use play equipment for children 6-24 months old. This information can be applied effectively only by a trained C.P.S.I. A National Listing of Trained Playground Safety Inspectors is available for many states. A Certified Playground Safety Inspector (CPSI) is a career that was developed by the National Playground Safety Institute (NPSI) and is recognized nationally by the National Recreation and Park Association or N.R.P.A. (Some information sources offer [http://www.playgroundinspectionusa.com/partsgallery.html interactive examples] of playground equipment that violates CPSC guidelines.)
 
 
[[European Committee for Standardization|European Standards]] [[EN 1177]] specifies the requirements for surfaces used in playgrounds. For each material type and height of equipment it specifies a minimum depth of material required.<ref>http://www.en1177.com/en1177.htm EN 1177 - Impact Absorbing Playground Surfacing</ref> [[EN 1176]] covers playground equipment standards.<ref>http://www.rospa.com/playsafety/info/10_en1176.htm The Royal Society for the prevention of Accidents: EN1176 Playground Equipment Standard</ref><ref>http://www.smp.co.uk/cust_services/pdf/EN1176.pdf
 
SMP Specifiers Guide to EN 1176 parts 1 To 7 Playground Equipment (A light-hearted guide)</ref> In the UK playground inspectors can sit the examinations of the [[Register of Play Inspectors International]] at the three required levels - routine, operational and annual. Annual inspectors are able to undertake the post-installation inspections recommended by EN 1176.
 
 
The [[risk aversion]] of prioritising safety above other factors, such as cost or developmental benefit to the users, is often forgotten.<ref>{{cite book|title=No fear: Growing up in a Risk Averse society|first=Tim|last=Gill| year=2007| publisher=Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation|page=81| isbn=9781903080085| url=http://www.gulbenkian.org.uk/media/item/1266/223/No-fear-19.12.07.pdf#page=28}}</ref> It is important than children gradually develop the skill of [[risk assessment]], and a completely safe environment does not allow that. A [[playscape]] or [[forest kindergarten]] are steps towards a balanced approach to [[risk]].
 
   
 
==Playground safety==
 
==Playground safety==
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{{Main|Playground injuries}}
 
{{Main|Playground injuries}}
   
Approximately 156,040 (75.8 %) of the 1999 injuries occurred on equipment designed for public use; 46,930 (22.8 %) occurred on equipment designed for home use; and 2,880 (1.4 %) occurred on homemade playground equipment (primarily rope swings).
 
Percentage of injuries involving public equipment
 
 
* About 46% occurred in schools.
 
* About 31% occurred in public parks.
 
* About 10% occurred in commercial childcare centers.
 
* About 3% occurred in home childcare.
 
* About 3% occurred in apartment complexes.
 
* About 2% occurred in fast food restaurants.
 
* About 9% occurred in other locations.
 
 
From January 1990 to August 2000, CPSC received reports of 147 deaths to children younger than 15 that involved playground equipment.
 
 
* 70% of those deaths occurred in home
 
* 30% of those deaths occurred in public use
 
 
Girls were involved in a slightly higher percentage of injuries (55%) than were boys (45%).
 
 
Injuries to the head and face accounted for 49% of injuries to children 0-4, while injuries to the arm and hand accounted for 49% of injuries to children ages 5-14.
 
 
For children ages 0-4, climbers (40%) had the highest incidence rates, followed by slides (33%).
 
 
For children ages 5-14, climbing equipment (56%) had the highest incidence rates, followed by swings (24%).
 
 
Approximately 15% of the injuries were classified as severe, with 3% requiring hospitalization.
 
 
The most prevalent diagnoses were fractures (39%), lacerations (22%), contusions/abrasions (20%), strains/sprains (11%).
 
 
Falls to the surface was a contributing factor in 79% of all injuries. On home equipment, 81% were associated with falls.
 
 
Most injuries on public playground equipment were associated with climbing equipment (53%), swings (19%), and slides (17%).
 
 
Based on these statistics and other research, the National Program for Playground Safety advocates that:
 
 
* Adults actively supervise the children in the play environment.
 
* Adults choose appropriate developmental equipment for the play environment.
 
* Adults provide safe surfacing both in the public use areas and at home for playground equipment.
 
* Adults insure that all equipment and surfacing located in the children's play areas be maintained on a regular basis.<ref>U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) National Electronic Surveillance System (NEISS)</ref>
 
   
 
==Playgrounds in the Soviet Union==
 
==Playgrounds in the Soviet Union==
Playgrounds were an integral part of [[urban culture]] in the [[USSR]]. In the 1970s and 1980s, there were playgrounds in almost every park in many Soviet cities. Playground apparatus was reasonably standard all over the country; most of them consisted of metallic bars with relatively few wooden parts, and were manufactured in state-owned factories. Some of the most common constructions were the [[carousel]], sphere, [[seesaw]], [[rocket]], bridge, etc.
+
Playgrounds were an integral part of [[urban culture]] in the USSR. In the 1970s and 1980s, there were playgrounds in almost every park in many Soviet cities. Playground apparatus was reasonably standard all over the country; most of them consisted of metallic bars with relatively few wooden parts, and were manufactured in state-owned factories. Some of the most common constructions were the carousel, sphere, seesaw, rocket, bridge, etc.
   
In the 1990s, after the breakup of the USSR, many items of playground apparatus in post-Soviet states were stolen by metal-thieves, while relatively few new playgrounds were built. However, there were so many Soviet playgrounds that many of them still exist and are in a relatively good state, especially those which were repainted.
 
   
 
==Natural playground==
 
==Natural playground==
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* [[Playwork]]
 
* [[Playwork]]
 
* [[Ropes course]]
 
* [[Ropes course]]
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* [[School facilities]]
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
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<!-- Do not list commercial playground equipment suppliers in this article! -->
 
<!-- Do not list commercial playground equipment suppliers in this article! -->
   
 
[[Category:Outdoor recreation]]
 
[[Category:Playgrounds| ]]
 
[[Category:Playgrounds| ]]
 
[[Category:Play]]
 
[[Category:Play]]
[[Category:Outdoor recreation]]
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[[Category:Recreation areas]]
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[[Category:Parks]]
 
   
-->
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[[bg:Детска площадка]]
 
[[bg:Детска площадка]]
 
[[cs:Dětské hřiště]]
 
[[cs:Dětské hřiště]]

Latest revision as of 16:27, 8 January 2010

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File:PlayEquipComboPlastic wb.jpg

Combination playground structure for small children; slides, climbers (stairs in this case), playhouse

A playground or play area place with a specific design for children be able to play there. It may be indoors but is typically outdoors, and when it is the latter, it may be occasionally referred to as a tot lot by some people or in some regions.[1]

Modern playgrounds often have recreational equipment such as the see-saw, merry-go-round, swingseat, slide, jungle gym, |sandbox]], [[spring rider, monkey bars, playhouses, and mazes, many of which help children develop physical coordination, strength, and flexibility, as well as providing recreation and enjoyment. Common in modern playgrounds are "play structures" that link many different pieces of equipment.

Playgrounds often also have facilities for playing informal games of adult sports, such as a baseball diamond, a skating arena, a basketball court etc "Public" playground equipment refers to equipment intended for use in the play areas of parks, schools, child care facilities, institutions, multiple family dwellings, restaurants, resorts, and recreational developments, and other areas of public use.

A type of playground called a playscape is designed to provide a safe environment for play in a natural setting.

Recognizing the need for such, former US President Theodore Roosevelt stated in 1907,

City streets are unsatisfactory playgrounds for children because of the danger, because most good games are against the law, because they are too hot in summer, and because in crowded sections of the city they are apt to be schools of crime. Neither do small back yards nor ornamental grass plots meet the needs of any but the very small children. Older children who would play vigorous games must have places especially set aside for them; and, since play is a fundamental need, playgrounds should be provided for every child as much as schools. This means that they must be distributed over the cities in such a way as to be within walking distance of every boy and girl, as most children can not afford to pay carfare.[2]

History and development[edit | edit source]

Professionals recognize that the social skills that children develop on the playground become lifelong skill sets that are carried forward into their adulthood. Independent research concludes that playgrounds are among the most important environments for children outside the home. Most forms of play are essential for healthy development, but free, spontaneous play—the kind that occurs on playgrounds—is the most beneficial type of play.

File:SeesawWithKids wb.png

Seesaw with a crowd of children playing

File:KidsRopeBridge wb.png

Rope bridge for improving balance

Children have devised many playground games and pastimes. But because playgrounds are usually subject to adult supervision and oversight, young children's street culture often struggles to fully thrive there. Research by Robin Moore (Childhood's Domain: Play and Place, 1986) has clearly shown that playgrounds need to be balanced with marginal areas that (to adults) appear to be derelict or wasteground but to children they are area's that they can claim for themselves, ideally a wooded area or field.

A type of playground called a playscape can provide children with the necessary feeling of ownership that Moore describes above. Playscapes can also provide parents with the assurance of their child's safety and wellbeing, which may not be prevalent in an open field or wooded area.

Playgrounds can be

  • Built by collaborative support of corporate and community resources to achieve an immediate and visible "win" for their neighborhood.
  • Public, free of charge, like at most rural elementary schools
  • A business with an entrance fee
  • Connected to a business, for customers only, e.g., at McDonald's and IKEA.
  • Elaborate indoor mazes, like those at the (now defunct) Discovery Zone, Zoom Zoom's Indoor Playground in Ancaster, Ontario, Jungle Jam Indoor Playground and Chuck E. Cheese's

Playground safety[edit | edit source]

Main article: Playground safety


Playground Injury[edit | edit source]

Main article: Playground injuries


Playgrounds in the Soviet Union[edit | edit source]

Playgrounds were an integral part of urban culture in the USSR. In the 1970s and 1980s, there were playgrounds in almost every park in many Soviet cities. Playground apparatus was reasonably standard all over the country; most of them consisted of metallic bars with relatively few wooden parts, and were manufactured in state-owned factories. Some of the most common constructions were the carousel, sphere, seesaw, rocket, bridge, etc.


Natural playground[edit | edit source]

Main article: Playscape

"Natural playgrounds" are play environments that blend natural materials, features, and indigenous vegetation with creative landforms to create purposely complex interplays of natural, environmental objects in ways that challenge and fascinate children and teach them about the wonders and intricacies of the natural world while they play within it.

Play components may include earth shapes (sculptures), environmental art, indigenous vegetation (trees, shrubs, grasses, flowers, lichens, mosses), boulders or other rock structures, dirt and sand, natural fences (stone, willow, wooden), textured pathways, and natural water features.


See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. http://www.doubletongued.org/index.php/dictionary/tot_lot/
  2. To Cuno H. Rudolph, Washington Playground Association, February 16, 1907. Presidential Addresses and State Papers VI, 1163.

External links[edit | edit source]


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