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Places of articulation (passive & active):
1. Exo-labial, 2. Endo-labial, 3. Dental, 4. Alveolar, 5. Post-alveolar, 6. Pre-palatal, 7. Palatal, 8. Velar, 9. Uvular, 10. Pharyngeal, 11. Glottal, 12. Epiglottal, 13. Radical, 14. Postero-dorsal, 15. Antero-dorsal, 16. Laminal, 17. Apical, 18. Sub-apical

In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact, where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an active (moving) articulator (typically some part of the tongue) and a passive (stationary) articulator (typically some part of the roof of the mouth). Along with the manner of articulation and phonation, this gives the consonant its distinctive sound.

Types of articulation[edit | edit source]

A place of articulation is defined as both the active and passive articulators. For instance, the active lower lip may contact either a passive upper lip (bilabial, like [m]) or the upper teeth (labiodental, like [f]). The hard palate may be contacted by either the front or the back of the tongue. If the front of the tongue is used, the place is called retroflex; if back of the tongue ("dorsum") is used, the place is called "dorsal-palatal", or more commonly, just palatal.

There are five basic active articulators: the lip ("labial consonants"), the flexible front of the tongue ("coronal consonants"), the middle/back of the tongue ("dorsal consonants"), the root of the tongue together with the epiglottis ("radical consonants"), and the larynx ("laryngeal consonants"). These articulators can act independently of each other, and two or more may work together in what is called coarticulation (see below).

The passive articulation, on the other hand, is a continuum without many clear-cut boundaries. The places linguolabial and interdental, interdental and dental, dental and alveolar, alveolar and palatal, palatal and velar, velar and uvular merge into one another, and a consonant may be pronounced somewhere between the named places.

In addition, when the front of the tongue is used, it may be the upper surface or blade of the tongue that makes contact ("laminal consonants"), the tip of the tongue ("apical consonants"), or the under surface ("sub-apical consonants"). These articulations also merge into one another without clear boundaries.

Consonants that have the same place of articulation, such as alveolar [n, t, d, s, z, l] in English, are said to be homorganic. A homorganic nasal rule is a case where the point of articulation of the initial sound is assimilated by the last sound in a prefix. As in the case of the language Yoruba where 'ba' ="hide" → 'mba' ="is hiding" and 'sun'= "sleep" → 'nsun' ="is sleeping".

Table of active articulations and places of articulation[edit | edit source]

Places of articulation
Active gesture Active + passive place of articulation
Labial Bilabial
Coronal Laminal Linguolabial
Laminal dental
Laminal denti-alveolar
Laminal alveolar
Laminal postalveolar ("retroflex" #1)
Domed_consonant (partially palatalized) Domed_consonant postalveolar ("palato-alveolar")
Palatalized Palatalized postalveolar ("alveolo-palatal")
Apical Apical dental
Apical alveolar
Apical postalveolar ("retroflex" #2)
Sub-apical Sub-apical (pre)palatal ("retroflex" #3)
Dorsal Prepalatal
Prevelar (or medio-palatal)
Radical Upper pharyngeal
Lower pharyngeal
Laryngeal Glottal

List of places where the obstruction may occur[edit | edit source]

  • Bilabial: between the lips
  • Labiodental: between the lower lip and the upper teeth
  • Linguolabial_consonant: between the front of the tongue and the upper lip
  • Dental: between the front of the tongue and the top teeth
  • Alveolar_consonant: between the front of the tongue and the ridge behind the gums (the alveolus)
  • Postalveolar_consonant: between the front of the tongue and the space behind the alveolar ridge
  • Retroflex: in "true" retroflexes, the tongue curls back so the underside touches the palate
  • Palatal: between the middle of the tongue and the hard palate
  • Velar: between the back of the tongue and the soft palate (the velum)
  • Uvular: between the back of the tongue and the uvula (which hangs down in the back of the mouth)

(All of the above may be nasalized, and most may be lateralized.)

Nasals and laterals[edit | edit source]

  • In nasals, the velum is lowered to allow air to pass through the nose (technically a place, but generally considered as a manner of articulation)
  • In laterals, the air is released past the tongue sides and teeth rather than over the tip of the tongue. English has only one lateral, /l/, but many languages have more than one, e.g. Spanish written "l" vs. "ll"; Hindi with dental, palatal, and retroflex laterals; and numerous Native American languages with not only lateral approximants, but also lateral fricatives and affricates. Some Northeast Caucasian languages have five, six, or even seven lateral consonants.

Coarticulation[edit | edit source]

Some languages have consonants with two simultaneous places of articulation, called coarticulation. When these are doubly articulated, the articulators must be independently movable, and therefore there may only be one each from the categories labial, coronal, dorsal, and radical. (The glottis controls phonation and sometimes the airstream, and is not considered an articulator.)

However, more commonly there is a secondary articulation of an approximantic nature, in which case both articulations can be similar, such as labialized labials, palatalized velars, etc.

Some common coarticulations include:

See also[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]

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