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Persecution is a form of antisocial behavior, the persistent mistreatment of an individual or group by another group. The most common forms are religious persecution, ethnic persecution, and political persecution, though there is naturally some overlap between these terms.
The most common scenario is a majority/ingroup persecuting a minority/outgroup, since the reverse is usually impractical, although Apartheid in South Africa is considered an exception. Majority groups, however, can inspire resentment where they are locally a minority and find themselves persecuted; persons of an ethnic majority who venture within a large minority neighborhood may experience or perceive a hostility towards them. See reverse discrimination.
International law[edit | edit source]
The crimes hereinafter set out are punishable as crimes under international law:...
(c)Crimes against humanity:
- Murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation and other inhumane acts done against any civilian population, or persecutions on political, racial, or religious grounds, when such acts are done or such persecutions are carried on in execution of or in connection with any crime against peace or any war crime.
Causes[edit | edit source]
There are various possible origins of persecutory behavior. For instance, a movement which is publicly or implicitly identified with a minority group — such as a religion, a genetic heritage, a region, or other traditional distinction — might be successful enough to disrupt the status quo or become associated with violent acts. A reflective persecutory movement might then arise within the majority, not necessarily distinguishing between those who are and are not part of the movement. This persecution might in turn radicalize the minority group, resulting in a feedback cycle.
So-called opportunistic persecution occurs when someone exploits and stirs up an existing current of resentment to enhance his own political power. This opportunism can be applied "in reverse", as where a minority orator provokes persecution in order to unify a minority movement.
Persecution and identity[edit | edit source]
Past persecutions can become important elements of a persecuted group's identity. Members of many ethnic groups and religions can name at least one time when their group was persecuted by others. Periods of persecution may include martyrdom, in which a person killed by the persecutor becomes a powerful cultural symbol for the persecuted group.
The historical memory of persecution may long outlast a group's status as an oppressed minority, becoming a symbol of group membership. For instance, Christianity's two best-known symbols -- the Christian cross and the ichthus -- are relics of persecution: the cross is the means by which Christ was martyred, while the ichthus was (according to one story) a secret symbol used by Christians to identify one another under Roman persecution. Even where Christianity is the majority religion and has had greater power, these symbols of persecution recall the oppressive past.
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
Books[edit | edit source]
- Aron, A. (1996). The collective nightmare of Central American refugees. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Becker, D., & Diaz, M. (1998). The social process and the transgenerational transmission of trauma in Chile. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
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- Tas, L. M. (1995). Choice of partner in war victims. Lisse, Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers.
- Thomas, L. K. (2007). The therapeutic needs of those fleeing persecution and violence, now and in the future. London, England: Karnac Books.
Papers=[edit | edit source]
- Allodi, F. (1989). The children of victims of political persecution and torture: A psychological study of a Latin American refugee community: International Journal of Mental Health Vol 18(2) Sum 1989, 3-15.
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- Freeman, D., & Garety, P. A. (2002). Cognitive therapy for an individual with a long-standing persecutory delusion: Incorporating emotional processes into a multi-factorial perspective on delusional beliefs. New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
- Freeman, D., Garety, P. A., Bebbington, P., Slater, M., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., et al. (2005). The Psychology of Persecutory Ideation II: A Virtual Reality Experimental Study: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 193(5) May 2005, 309-315.
- Freeman, D., Garety, P. A., & Kuipers, E. (2001). Persecutory delusions: Developing the understanding of belief maintenance and emotional distress: Psychological Medicine Vol 31(7) Oct 2001, 1293-1306.
- Freeman, D., Garety, P. A., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., & Bebbington, P. E. (2002). A cognitive model of persecutory delusions: British Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 41(4) Nov 2002, 331-347.
- Freeman, D., Slater, M., Bebbington, P. E., Garety, P. A., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., et al. (2003). Can Virtual Reality be Used to Investigate Persecutory Ideation? : Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 191(8) Aug 2003, 509-514.
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- Gay, N. W., & Combs, D. R. (2005). Social behaviors in persons with and without persecutory delusions: Schizophrenia Research Vol 80(2-3) Dec 2005, 361-362.
- Goldstein, R. (2006). Betraying Spinoza: The renegade Jew gave us modernity. New York, NY: Schocken Books.
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- Green, C., Garety, P. A., Freeman, D., Fowler, D., Bebbington, P., Dunn, G., et al. (2006). Content and affect in persecutory delusions: British Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 45(4) Nov 2006, 561-577.
- Green, C. E. L., Freeman, D., Kuipers, E., Bebbington, P., Fowler, D., Dunn, G., et al. (2008). Measuring ideas of persecution and social reference: The Green et al. Paranoid Thought Scales (GPTS): Psychological Medicine Vol 38(1) Jan 2008, 101-111.
- Haans, T. (1988). Group Psychotherapy with Survivors of World War II Persecution: Group Analysis Vol 21(3) Sep 1988, 267-280.
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- Hearst, L. (2005). Review of Die Schwere Erinnerung: Deutscher Widerstandskaempfer ueber die Verfolgung und Vernichtung der Juden: Group Analysis Vol 38(3) Sep 2005, 468-470.
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Dissertations[edit | edit source]
- Adam, B. D. (1979). Social psychology of inferiorized peoples: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Chin, T. L. (2004). An investigation of the effects of political persecution in Chinese immigrant women and their daughters. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Davoudi, M. (2004). Spiritual dimension of adaptation to persecution and torture among Iranian Bahai women. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Grinkis, C. M. (2001). Delusions of persecution: An existential-phenomenological study of persons diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Jackson, K. A. (1992). Trauma survivors: Adult children of McCarthyism and the Smith Act: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Karr, S. D. (1973). Second-generation effects of the Nazi holocaust: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Key, F. A. (2001). Using fear-reduction techniques to treat paranoid ideations and persecutory delusions in schizophrenic patients. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Murati, S. G. (2003). A cultural psychological study of the narratives of the ex-politically persecuted people of Albania: Toward a national narrative. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Ogunyemi, E. S. (1977). A content analysis of selected documents dealing with some relationships between Christians and Romans during the first three centuries: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Tausend, S. A. (1980). Determinants of undesirability: Development and expansion of the stigma process model: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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