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In biology, an organ (Latin: organum, "instrument, tool") is a group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions. Common animal organs include the heart, lungs, brain, eye, stomach, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, liver, intestines, skin, uterus, bladder, bone, etc. A group of related organs is an organ system.
List of mammalian organ systems
There are eleven major organ systems found in mammals.
- Circulatory system: pumping and channeling blood to and from the body and lungs with heart, blood and blood vessels.
- Digestive system: digestion and processing food with salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, intestines, colon, rectum and anus.
- Endocrine system: communication within the body using hormones made by endocrine glands such as the hypothalamus, pituitary or pituitary gland, pineal body or pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroids and adrenals, i.e., adrenal glands.
- Excretory system: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra involved in fluid balance, electrolyte balance and excretion of urine.
- Immune System: structures involved in the transfer of lymph between tissues and the blood stream, the lymph and the nodes and vessels that transport it including the Immune system: defending against disease-causing agents with leukocytes, tonsils, adenoids, thymus and spleen.
- Integumentary system: skin, hair and nails.
- Muscular system: movement with muscles.
- Nervous system: collecting, transferring and processing information with brain, spinal cord and nerves.
- Reproductive system: the sex organs, such as ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis.
- Respiratory system: the organs used for breathing, the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs and diaphragm.
- Skeletal system: structural support and protection with bones, cartilage, ligaments and tendons.
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