Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
Ophthalmoscopy (funduscopy or fundoscopy) is a test that allows a health professional to see inside the fundus of the eye and other structures using an ophthalmoscope (or funduscope). It is done as part of an eye examination and may be done as part of a routine physical examinationor neurological examination. It is crucial in determining the health of the retina and the vitreous humor.
An alternative or complement to ophthalmoscopy is to perform a fundus photography, where the image can be analysed later by a professional.
It is of two major types:
- Direct ophthalmoscopy one that produces an upright, or unreversed, image of approximately 15 times magnification.
- Indirect ophthalmoscopy one that produces an inverted, or reversed, direct image of 2 to 5 times magnification.
|Features||Direct ophthalmoscopy||Indirect ophthalmoscopy|
|Condensing lens||Not Required||Required|
|Examination distance||As close to patient's eye as possible||At an arm's length|
|Image||Virtual, erect||Real, inverted|
|Illumination||Not so bright; so not useful in hazy media||Bright; so useful for hazy media|
|Area of field in focus||About 2 disc diameters||About 8 disc diameters|
|Accessible fundus view||Slightly beyond equator||Up to Ora serrata i.e. peripheral retina|
|Examination through hazy media||Not possible||Possible|
Each type of ophthalmoscopy has a special type of ophthalmoscope:
- The direct ophthalmoscope is an instrument about the size of a small flashlight (torch) with several lenses that can magnify up to about 15 times. This type of ophthalmoscope is most commonly used during a routine physical examination.
- An indirect ophthalmoscope, on the other hand, constitutes a light attached to a headband, in addition to a small handheld lens. It provides a wider view of the inside of the eye. Furthermore, it allows a better view of the fundus of the eye, even if the lens is clouded by cataracts. An indirect ophthalmoscope can be either monocular or binocular. It is used for peripheral viewing of the retina.
Template:Noref Ophthalmoscopy is done as part of a routine physical or complete eye examination.
In patients with headaches, the finding of swollen optic discs, or papilledema, on ophthalmoscopy is a key sign, as this indicates raised intracranial pressure (ICP) which could be due to hydrocephalus, benign intracranial hypertension (aka pseudotumor cerebri) or brain tumor, amongst other conditions. Cupped optic discs are seen in glaucoma.
In patients with diabetes mellitus, regular ophthalmoscopic eye examinations (once every 6 months to 1 year) are important to screen for diabetic retinopathy as visual loss due to diabetes can be prevented by retinal laser treatment if retinopathy is spotted early.
Dilation of the pupil
To allow for better inspection through the pupil, which constricts because of light from the ophthalmoscope, it is often desirable to dilate the pupil by application of a mydriatic agent, for instance tropicamide. It is primarily considered ophthalmologist equipment. Recent developments like Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope can make good quality images though pupils as small as 2 millimeters, so dilating pupils is no longer needed with these devices.
Dr. William Cumming in 1846 at the Royal London Ophthalmic Hospital (later Moorfields Eye Hospital), of his pioneering work wrote "every eye could be made luminous if the axis from a source of illumination directed towards a person's eye and the line of vision of the observer were coincident".
Although some credit the invention of the ophthalmoscope to Charles Babbage in 1847, it was not until it was independently reinvented by Hermann von Helmholtz in 1851 that its usefulness was recognized - it was to revolutionize ophthalmology.
While training in France, Andreas Anagnostakis, MD, an ophthalmologist from Greece, came up with the idea of making the instrument hand-held by adding a concave mirror. Austin Barnett created a model for Anagnostakis, which he used in his practice and subsequently when presented at the first Ophthalmological Conference in Brussels in 1857, the instrument became very popular among ophthalmologists.
In 1915, Francis A. Welch and William Noah Allyn invented the world's first hand-held direct illuminating ophthalmoscope, precursor to the device now used by clinicians around the world. This refinement and updating of von Helmholtz's invention enabled ophthalmoscopy to become one of the most ubiquitous medical screening techniques in the world today. The company started as a result of this invention is Welch Allyn.
- Charles Schepens
- Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy
- Principles of Ophthalmoscopy
- Ophthalmoscopy on Medlineplus
- Ophthalmoscopy on WebMD
- Overview at bmjjournals.com
- Medlineplus about different types of ophthalmoscopy
- Phisick Pictures and information about antique ophthalmoscopes