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Brain: Nucleus raphe pallidus
Section of the medulla oblongata at about the middle of the olive. (Raphe nuclei not labeled, but 'raphe' labeled at left.)
Latin nucleus raphes pallidus
nucleus raphe pallidus receives afferent connections from the periaqueductal gray, the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, central nucleus of the amygdala, lateral hypothalamic area, and parvocellular reticular nucleus.
Also, the pallidus receives afferents from the
medial preoptic area, median preoptic nucleus and lateral paragigantocellular reticular nuclei .
The pallidus has recently been shown to be involved in the activation of a fever as an immunoreaction. It has been implied that the preoptic area is constantly inhibiting the raphe pallidus, especially the rostral portion, with
preoptic area receives immune signals from the body, the inhibition stops and the rostral portion of the raphe pallidus excites the intermediolateral cell column, which induces a fever .
The raphe pallidus has also been known to mediate the
tachycardia response, an extremely high heart rate known to be incited by emotional or psychological stress.
Microinjections of a
GABA-a antagonist into the raphe pallidus, induces an increased heart rate.
Conversely, microinjections of
muscimol, a GABA-a agonist, inhibit tachycardia in rats under air-stress stimuli .
In both of these cases, GABA is mediating two different sympathetic responses, so clearly the nucleus raphe pallidus is a far more a complex nucleus than previously thought.
See also [ ]
References [ ]
↑ Hermann, Dirk M. et al. Afferent projections to the rat nuclei raphe magnus, raphe pallidus and
reticularis gigantocellularis pars demonstrated by iontophoretic application of choleratoxin (subunit b). Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Volume 13, Issue 1 , June 1997, Pages 1-21
↑ Nakamura, Kazuhiro et al. The Rostral Raphe Pallidus Nucleus Mediates Pyrogenic Transmission from the Preoptic Area. The Journal of Neuroscience, June 1, 2002, 22(11):4600-4610
↑ Zaretsky, Dmitry V. et al. Microinjection of muscimol into raphe pallidus suppresses tachycardia associated with air stress in conscious rats. Journal of Physiology (2003), 546.1, pp. 243-250
Brain: rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
surface: Locus ceruleus
Trigeminal lemniscus ( Dorsal trigeminal tract, Ventral trigeminal tract)
cranial nuclei: GSA: Principal V/ Spinal V - VIII-c ( Dorsal, Anterior)/ VIII-v ( Lateral, Superior, Medial, Inferior) - SVE: Motor V - VII - GSE: VI - GVE: VII: Superior salivary nucleus
MLF, III, IV and VI ( vestibulo-oculomotor fibers, medial vestibulospinal tract)
sensory/ascending: Trapezoid body/VIII - Superior olivary nucleus
Inferior cerebellar peduncle ( Vestibulocerebellar tract)
motor/descending: Apneustic center • Pneumotaxic center ( Medial parabrachial nucleus) - Lateral parabrachial nucleus
Middle cerebellar peduncles ( Pontocerebellar fibers) - Pontine nuclei motor/descending: Corticospinal tract - Corticobulbar tract - Corticopontine fibers
Reticular formation ( Caudal, Oral, Tegmental, Paramedian) • Raphe nuclei ( Median)
surface: Posterior median sulcus - Postero-lateral sulcus - Area postrema
cranial nuclei: GVA: VII,IX,X: Solitary/ tract • SVA: Gustatory nucleus • GSE: XII • GVE: IX,X,XI: Ambiguus • SVE: X: Dorsal • IX: Inferior salivatory nucleus - MLF, III, IV and VI
sensory/ascending: Gracile nucleus • Cuneate nucleus ( Accessory cuneate nucleus) • Sensory decussation • Medial lemniscus
motor/descending: Dorsal respiratory group
motor/descending: Ventral respiratory group - Pyramid ( Motor decussation) - Inferior olivary nucleus ( Olivocerebellar tract, Rubro-olivary tract) surface: Anterior median fissure - Antero-lateral sulcus - Arcuate nucleus of medulla - Olivary body
Reticular formation ( Gigantocellular, Parvocellular, Ventral, Lateral, Paramedian) • Raphe nuclei ( Obscurus, Magnus, Pallidus)