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|Diagram of longitudinal sections of medullated nerve fibers.|
|Gray's||subject #183 727|
|Transverse sections of medullated nerve fibers.|
Neurolemma (also known as neurilemma or sheath of Schwann (Schwann's Sheath)) is the outermost nucleated cytoplasmic layer of Schwann cells that surrounds the axon of the neuron. It forms the outermost layer of the nerve fiber in the peripheral nervous system.
The neurolemma is underlain by the basal lamina (referred to as the medullary sheath in the included illustrations). In the CNS, axons are myelinated by oligodendrocytes, thus lack neurolemma. The myelin sheaths of Oligodendrocytes do not have neurolemma because excess cytoplasm is directed centrally toward the Oligodendrocyte cell body.
A neurilemoma is a tumor of the neurilemma.
Unlike the axon and the myelin sheath, the neurolemma does not degenerate after a nerve has been cut or crushed; the hollow tube formed by the neurolemma is instrumental in regenerating the nerve fiber
- Elaine N. Marieb and Katja Hoehn (2007). Human Anatomy & Physiology (7th Ed.), 394–5, Pearson.
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