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A neural substrate is a term used in neuroscience to indicate a part of the nervous or brain system that underlies a specific behavior or psychological state. Neural is an adjective relating to "a nerve or the nervous system",[1] while a substrate is an "underlying substance or layer".[2]

Some examples are the neural substrates of language acquisition,[3] memory,[4] prediction and reward,[5] facial recognition,[6] envisioning the future,[7] intentional empathy,[8] religious experience,[9] spontaneous musical performance,[10] and anxiety.[11]

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