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The Neo-Freudian psychologists were those followers of Sigmund Freud who accepted the basic tenets of his theory of psychoanalysis but altered it in some way. Jung, for example, de-emphasised the sexual nature of the libido and emphasised archetypes; Erik Erikson came up with de-sexualised stages of development roughly correlating to Freud's psychosexual stages. The school also emphasized the importance of cultural and social factors in psychological development.
The Neo-Freudian psychiatrists and psychologists were a group of loosely linked American theorists of the mid-twentieth century, who were all influenced by Sigmund Freud, but who extended his theories, often in social or cultural directions. They have been defined as 'American writers who attempted to restate Freudian theory in sociological terms and to eliminate its connections with biology'. First, the Neo-Freudian was born in Germany (Neopsychoanalyse) (1945) by the German psychiatrist Harald Schultz-Hencke.
Dissidents and post-Freudians[edit | edit source]
The term neo-Freudian is sometimes loosely (but inaccurately) used to cover those early followers of Freud who at some point accepted the basic tenets of Freud's theory of psychoanalysis but later dissented from it. 'The best-known of these dissenters are Alfred Adler and Jung...The Dissidents'.
The 'Independent Analysts' Group of the British Psycho-Analytical Society, as distinct from the Kleinians and what are now called the Contemporary Freudians', who include figures such as Christopher Bollas, D. W. Winnicott and Adam Phillips, are - like the ego-psychologists such as Heinz Hartmann or the intersubjectivist analysts in the States - perhaps best considered of as 'different schools of psychoanalytic thought', or as 'Post-Freudians...post-Freudian developments'.
Neo-Freudian ideas[edit | edit source]
An interest in the social approach to psychodynamics was the major theme linking the so-called Neo-Freudians. Adler had perhaps been 'the first to explore and develop a comprehensive social theory of the psychodynamic self'; and 'after Adler's death, some of his views...came to exert considerable influence on neo-Freudian theory': indeed, it has been suggested of 'Horney and Sullivan...that these theorists could be more accurately described as "neo-Adlerians" than "neo-Freudians"'.
As early as 1932, however, Fromm had been independently regretting that psychoanalysts 'did not concern themselves with the variety of life experience...and therefore did not try to explain psychic structure as determined by social structure'.
Horney too 'emphasised the role culture exerts in the development of personality and downplayed the classical driven features outlined by Freud'.
Erikson for his part stressed that 'psychoanalysis today is...shifting its emphasis...to the study of the ego's roots in social organisation', and that its method should be 'what H. S. Sullivan called "participant", and systematically so'.
Harald Schultz-Hencke (1892–1953), doctor and psychotherapist, was thoroughly busy with questions like impulse and inhibition and with the therapy of psychoses as well as the interpretation of dreams. He was against't the libido freudian theory and also working with Prof. Matthias Göring in his institute (Deutsches Institut für psychologische Forschung und Psychotherapie). He created the name "neopsychoanalyse" in 1945.
The 'Neo-Freudian revolt against the orthodox theory of instincts' was thus anchored in a sense of what Sullivan termed '"our incredibly culture-ridden life"'. By their writings, and 'in accessible prose, Fromm, Horney, and others mounted a cultural and social critique which became almost conventional wisdom'.
Through informal and more formal institutional links, such as the William Alanson White Institute, as well as through likeness of ideas, the Neo-Freudians made up a cohesively distinctive and influential psychodynamic movement.
Horney theorized that to deal with basic anxiety, the individual has three options:
- 1. Moving toward others. Accept the situation and become dependent on others. This strategy may entail an exaggerated desire for approval or affection.
- 2. Moving against others. Resist the situation and become aggressive. This strategy may involve an exaggerated need for power, exploitation of others, recognition, or achievement.
- 3. Moving away from others. Withdraw from others and become isolated. This strategy may involve an exaggerated need for self-sufficiency, privacy, or independence.
Neo-Freudian, Abram Kardiner, was primarily interested in learning how a specific society acquires adaptation with respect to its own environment. He does this by forming within its members what he names a "basic personality." The "basic personality" can initially be traced to the operation of primary institutions. It ultimately creates clusters of unconscious motivations in the specific individual "which in turn are projected in the form of secondary institutions," such as reality systems. The basic personality finds expression in the secondary institutions.
Criticism[edit | edit source]
'Fenichel developed a stringent theoretical critique of the neo-Freudians', which informed and fed into the way 'Herbert Marcuse, in his "Critique of Neo-Freudian Revisionism"...icily examines the tone of uplift and the Power of Positive Thinking that pervades the revisionists' writings, and mocks their claims to scientific seriousness'.
In comparable fashion, 'an article...by Mr Edward Glover, entitled Freudian or Neo-Freudian, directed entirely against the constructions of Mr Alexander' equally used the term as a form of orthodox reproach.
In the wake of such contemporary criticism, a 'consistent critique levelled at most theorists cited above is that they compromise the intrapersonal interiority of the psyche'; but one may accept nonetheless that 'they have contributed an enduring and vital collection of standpoints relating to the human subject'.
Influence and successors[edit | edit source]
In 1940, Carl Rogers had launched what would become person-centered psychotherapy, 'crediting its roots in the therapy of Rank...& in the neo-Freudian analysts - especially Karen Horney'. A decade later, he would report that it had 'developed along somewhat different paths than the psychotherapeutic views of Horney or Sullivan, or Alexander and French, yet there are many threads of interconnection with these modern formulations of psychoanalytic thinking'.
A half-century further on, whether by direct or by indirect influence, 'consistent with the traditions of these schools, current theorists of the social and psychodynamic self are working in the spaces between social and political theory and psychoanalysis (Wolfenstein 1993; Chodorow 1994; Hinshelwood 1996)' once again.
Cultural offshoots[edit | edit source]
In his skit on Freud's remark that 'if my name were Oberhuber, my innovations would have found far less resistance', Peter Gay, considering the notional eclipse of "Oberhuber" by his replacement Freud, adjudged that 'the prospect that deviants would have to be called neo-Oberhuberians, or Oberhuberian revisionists, contributed to the master's decline'.
- Alfred Adler
- Erik Erikson
- Karen Horney
- Erich Fromm
- Carl Jung
- Harry Stack Sullivan
- Clara Thompson
- Michael Balint
- Jessica Benjamin
- Wilfred Bion
- Christopher Bollas
- John Bowlby
- Nancy Chodorow
- Nina Coltart
- W.R.D. Fairbairn
- Sandor Ferenczi
- Anna Freud
- Frieda Fromm-Reichmann
- Merton Gill
- Jay Greenberg
- Harry Guntrip
- Heinz Hartmann
- Edith Jacobson
- Betty Joseph
- Otto Kernberg
- Jacques Lacan
- Edgar Levenson
- Hans Loewald
- Margaret Mahler
- Thomas Ogden
- Adam Phillips
- Fred Pine
- Heinrich Racker
- David Rapaport
- Joseph Sandler
- Roy Schafer
- Harold Searles
- Donald Spence
- Daniel Stern
- Robert Stolorow
- Clara Thompson
- D.W. Winnicott
[edit | edit source]
- Jessica Benjamin
- Nancy Chodorow
- Richard Hakim
- Thomas Ogden
- David Rapaport
- Alex Unger
- Mark Blechner
- Franz Alexander
- T. M. French
See also[edit | edit source]
- Individual therapy
- Freudian psychoanalytic school
- List of psychoanalytical theorists
- Jungian psychology
- Modern psychoanalysis
- Neo-Freudian school
- Psychoanalytic theory
References[edit | edit source]
Books[edit | edit source]
- Boukobza, C. (1999). Maud Mannoni and the retarded child. London, England: Free Association Books.
- Chung, M. C. (2000). Understanding the psychology of personality. Philadelphia, PA: Whurr Publishers.
- Frosh, S. (1987). The politics of psychoanalysis: An introduction to Freudian and post-Freudian theory. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
- Jaffe, D. S. (1988). Psychoanalytic principles and principle deviations. Madison, CT: International Universities Press, Inc.
- Kradin, R. (2006). The herald dream: An approach to the initial dream in psychotherapy. London, England: Karnac Books.
- Mitchell, S. A. (1994). The origin and nature of the "object" in the theories of Klein and Fairbairn. Oxford, England; New York, NY: Free Association Books; Guilford Press.
- Mitchell, S.A., & Black M.J. (1995). Freud and beyond: a history of modern psychoanalytic thought. USA: Basic Books.
- Modell, A. H. (1994). Fairbairn's structural theory and the communication of affects. Oxford, England; New York, NY: Free Association Books; Guilford Press.
- Mosak, H. H., & Mosak, B. (1975). A bibliography for Adlerian psychology. Oxford, England: Hemisphere.
- Sternlicht, M. (1987). The neo-Freudians. Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing Corp.
- Stocking, G. W., Jr. (1986). Malinowski, Rivers, Benedict and others: Essays on culture and personality. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
- Thompson, Clara M. (1950). Psychoanalysis: Evolution and development. New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons.
Papers[edit | edit source]
- Bernstein, J., & Liebea, R. O. (2006). "Freud and Modern Psychoanalysis": A Summary of Andre Green's Presentation: Modern Psychoanalysis Vol 31(1) 2006, 1-6.
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- Drescher, J. (2007). Homosexuality and Its Vicissitudes. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Drescher, J. (2007). Reply: Parler Foucault Sans Le Savoir. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Ernsberger, C. (1995). "The modern school" twenty years later: Modern Psychoanalysis Vol 20(2) 1995, 199-205.
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- Flax, J. (2002). Resisting woman: On feminine difference in the work of Horney, Thompson, and Moulton: Contemporary Psychoanalysis Vol 38(2) Apr 2002, 257-276.
- Florenskaya, T. A. (1974). The sociologizing of Freudianism in the personality theories of K. Horney and H. S. Sullivan: Voprosy Psychologii No 3 May-Jun 1974, 161-167..
- Goldfried, M. R., & Pachankis, J. E. (2007). Commentary: Homosexuality--Toward Affirmative Therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Goldner, V. (2007). Commentary: Holding the Tension Between Constructionist and Deconstructionist Perspectives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Gray, J. P. (1980). Cross-cultural factors associated with sexual foreplay: Journal of Social Psychology Vol 111(1) Jun 1980, 3-8.
- Guillaumin, J. (1994). The smugglers of transference or countertransference and the circumventing of the setting by the external reality: Revue Francaise de Psychanalyse Vol 58(Spec Issue) 1994, 1481-1520.
- Hannum, H. G. (1974). Archetypal echoes in Mann's Death in Venice: Psychological Perspectives Vol 5(1) Spr 1974, 48-59.
- Harris, M., & Lane, R. C. (2003). The changing place of the dream in psychoanalytic history, part II: Other perspectives, sociocultural influences and the challenges of neuroscience: Psychoanalytic Review Vol 90(1) Feb 2003, 101-123.
- Hirsch, I. (1986). Guttman's "deviant theories." International Journal of Psycho-Analysis Vol 67(3) 1986, 375-376.
- Huber, R. J. (1975). Social interest revisited: A second look at Adler: Character Potential: A Record of Research Vol 7(2) Mar 1975, 65-67.
- Hymer, S. M. (1984). The therapist's seduction by the feminist resistance: Dynamic Psychotherapy Vol 2(1) Spr-Sum 1984, 31-41.
- Johnston, A. (2001). The vicious circle of the super-ego: The pathological trap of guilt and the beginning of ethics: Psychoanalytic Studies Vol 3(3) Sep 2001, 411-424.
- Kardener, S. H. (1975). Rape fantasies: Journal of Religion & Health Vol 14(1) Jan 1975, 50-57.
- Kernberg, O. F. (2001). Recent developments in the technical approaches of English-language psychoanalytic schools: Psychoanalytic Quarterly Vol 70(3) Jul 2001, 519-547.
- Kernberg, O. F. (2006). Recent Developments in the Technical Approaches of English-Language Psychoanalytic Schools. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
- Kirsch, J. (1974). Imagination and reality: Psychological Perspectives Vol 5(1) Spr 1974, 34-47.
- Le Guen, C. (1992). Necessity and risks of the control of regression. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
- Lemoine-Luccioni, E. (1999). The discovery of eroticism: L'Evolution Psychiatrique Vol 64(1) Jan-Mar 1999, 61-68.
- Mack, S. J. (1999). Ego psychology and the interpretation of Walt Whitman's struggle: PsyART Vol 3 1999, No Pagination Specified.
- Mann, W. E. (1973). Orgone, Reich and eros: Wilhelm Reich's theory of life energy. Oxford, England: Simon & Schuster.
- Manson, W. C. (1988). The psychodynamics of culture: Abram Kardiner and neo-Freudian anthropology. New York, NY, England: Greenwood Press.
- Marmer, S. S. (1994). Theories of the mind and psychopathology. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
- Massey, R. F. (1986). Erik Erikson: Neo-Adlerian: Individual Psychology: Journal of Adlerian Theory, Research & Practice Vol 42(1) Mar 1986, 65-91.
- Massey, R. F. (1993). Neo-Adlerian constructs in Berne's transactional analysis: Individual Psychology: Journal of Adlerian Theory, Research & Practice Vol 49(1) Mar 1993, 13-35.
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- Mendell, D. (1984). Discussion of "The therapist's seduction by the feminist resistance," by Sharon M. Hymer, Ph.D: Dynamic Psychotherapy Vol 2(1) Spr-Sum 1984, 42-44.
- Mollinger, R. N. (1974). Hero as poetic image: Psychological Perspectives Vol 5(1) Spr 1974, 60-66.
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- Pardeck, J. A., & Pardeck, J. T. (1985). Bibliotherapy using a neo-Freudian approach for children of divorced parents: School Counselor Vol 32(4) Mar 1985, 313-318.
- Patterson, C. H., & Watkins, C. E., Jr. (1996). Theories of psychotherapy (5th ed.). New York, NY: HarperCollins College Publishers.
- Pines, M. (1995). Dissension in context: Schisms in the psychoanalytic movement: Topique: Revue Freudienne Vol 25(57) 1995, 191-206.
- Price, M. (1998). Karen Horney's counterdiscourses: Contemporary implications. New York, NY: New York University Press.
- Roazen, P. (2002). The trauma of Freud: Controversies in psychoanalysis. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
- Robbins, A. D. (1989). Harry Stack Sullivan: Neo-Freudian or not? : Contemporary Psychoanalysis Vol 25(4) Oct 1989, 624-640.
- Rubens, R. L. (1994). Fairbairn's structural theory. Oxford, England; New York, NY: Free Association Books; Guilford Press.
- Rubovits-Seitz, P. F. D. (2002). The fate of interpretation in postclassical schools of psychoanalysis: Psychoanalysis & Contemporary Thought Vol 25(4) Fal 2002, 363-432.
- Schwartzman, G. (1984). Narcissistic transferences: Implications for the treatment of couples: Dynamic Psychotherapy Vol 2(1) Spr-Sum 1984, 5-14.
- Seifert, T. (1975). Necessity and possibility of scientific methods in the field of analytical psychology: Analytische Psychologie Vol 6(19) 1975, 26-44.
- Siegel, E. V. (1984). Severe body image distortions in some female homosexuals: Dynamic Psychotherapy Vol 2(1) Spr-Sum 1984, 18-28.
- Singer, J. L. (1977). The foundation of a humanistic psychoanalysis: The contribution of Ernest Schachtel: Contemporary Psychoanalysis Vol 13(2) Apr 1977, 200-208.
- Steiner, B. (1994). The problem of power and its interweavement with feelings of shame, guilt, and inferiority: Zeitschrift fur Individualpsychologie Vol 19(2) 1994, 104-112.
- Steiner, J. (1984). Some reflections on the analysis of transference: A Kleinian view: Psychoanalytic Inquiry Vol 4(3) 1984, 443-463.
- Stolorow, R. D. (1975). Narcissus revisited: The American Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol 35(3) Fal 1975, 286.
- Taylor, W. S. (1922). Review of The psychology of medicine and Psycho-analysis: The Journal of Abnormal Psychology and Social Psychology Vol 17(3) Oct-Dec 1922, 319-322.
- White, M. T. (1984). Discussion of "Narcissistic transferences: Implications for the treatment of couples" by Gertrude Schwartzman, M.S: Dynamic Psychotherapy Vol 2(1) Spr-Sum 1984, 15-17.
- Will, H. (2001). What is classical psychoanalysis? From defensive and polemic to historical uses of the term: Psyche: Zeitschrift fur Psychoanalyse und ihre Anwendungen Vol 55(7) Jul 2001, 685-717.
Dissertations[edit | edit source]
- Borowitz, E. C. (1985). The origins of the self as viewed in the self psychology of Heinz Kohut and the movement analysis of Judith Kestenberg: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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- Charles Rycroft, A Critical Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (London 1995) p. 60
- Geoffrey Cocks : Psychotherapy in the Third Reich, Publisher: Transaction Publishers; 2 edition (January 1, 1997), ISBN 1-56000-904-7
- Eric Berne, A Layman's Guide to Psychiatry and Psychoanalysis (Middlesex 1976) p. 277 and p. 298
- Patrick Casement, Further Learning from the Patient (London 1996) p. 177n
- John H. Padel, "Freudianism: Later Developments" in Richard Gregory ed, The Oxford Companion to the Mind (Oxford 1987) p. 270
- Jean-Michel Quinodox, Reading Freud (London 2005) p, ix
- Janet Malcolm, Psychoanalysis: The Impossible Profession (London 1988) p.28
- Paul Brinich/Christopher Shelley, The Self and Personality Structure (Buckingham 2002) p. 61
- O. Zangwill, "Freud", in Gregory, Mind p. 269
- Brinich, Self p. 54
- Quoted in Adam Phillips, On Flirtation (London 1994) p. 132
- Brinich, Self p. 61
- Erik H. Erikson, Childhood and Society (Middlesex 1973) p. 13-4
- Alain de Mijolla International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis, 3 Vol., Publisher: Macmillan Reference USA; 1 edition (July 21, 2005), ISBN 0-02-865927-9
- Martin Birnbach, Neo-Freudian Social Philosophy (Stanford 1961) p. 50
- Russell Jacoby, The Repression of Psychoanalysis: Otto Fenichel and the Political Freudians (Chicago 1986) p. 153
- Carlson, N. R. (2010). Psychology, the science of behaviour. (4 ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. p.459
- Lunksy, L.L. "Neo-Freudian Social Philosophy ." Archives of Internal Medicine. 111.5 (1963): 680-680. Web. 7 Mar. 2012.
- Jacoby, Otto Fenichel and the political Freudians p. 153
- Malcolm, Impossible p. 28
- Jacques Lacan, The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis (London 1994) p. 174
- Brinich, Self p. 66
- Howard Kirschenbaum, The Life and Work of Carl Rogers (Ross-on-Wye 2007) p. 109
- Rogers, quoted in Kirschenbaum, Rogers p. 279
- Brinich, Self p. 66
- Quoted in Peter Gay, Reading Freud (London 1990) p. 160
- Gay, p. 163