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The correct title of this article is Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4. It appears incorrectly here because of technical restrictions.



The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 4 (CHRM4), is a human gene.[1]

The muscarinic cholinergic receptors belong to a larger family of G protein-coupled receptors. The functional diversity of these receptors is defined by the binding of acetylcholine and includes cellular responses such as adenylate cyclase inhibition, phosphoinositide degeneration, and potassium channel modulation. Muscarinic receptors mediate many effects of acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. The clinical implications of this receptor are unknown; however, mouse studies link its function to adenylyl cyclase inhibition.[1]


Orthosteric Agonists[]

Allosteric Agonists[]

  • VU-0152100, VU-0152099 [3]

See also[]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Entrez Gene: CHRM4 cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 4.
  2. Chan WY, McKinzie DL, Bose S, et al (2008). Allosteric modulation of the muscarinic M4 receptor as an approach to treating schizophrenia. PNAS 105 (31): 10978–83.
  3. Brady AE, Jones CK, Bridges TM, et al (2008). Centrally active allosteric potentiators of the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor reverse amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotor activity in rats. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 327 (3): 941–53.

External links[]

Further reading[]

  • Goyal RK (1989). Muscarinic receptor subtypes. Physiology and clinical implications.. N. Engl. J. Med. 321 (15): 1022–9.
  • Brann MR, Ellis J, Jørgensen H, et al. (1994). Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes: localization and structure/function.. Prog. Brain Res. 98: 121–7.
  • Grewal RP, Martinez M, Hoehe M, et al. (1992). Genetic linkage mapping of the m4 human muscarinic receptor (CHRM4).. Genomics 13 (1): 239–40.
  • Detera-Wadleigh SD, Wiesch D, Bonner TI (1989). An SstI polymorphism for the human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor gene, m4 (CHRM 4).. Nucleic Acids Res. 17 (15): 6431.
  • Ashkenazi A, Ramachandran J, Capon DJ (1989). Acetylcholine analogue stimulates DNA synthesis in brain-derived cells via specific muscarinic receptor subtypes.. Nature 340 (6229): 146–50.
  • Bonner TI, Buckley NJ, Young AC, Brann MR (1987). Identification of a family of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor genes.. Science 237 (4814): 527–32.
  • Bonner TI, Young AC, Brann MR, Buckley NJ (1990). Cloning and expression of the human and rat m5 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor genes.. Neuron 1 (5): 403–10.
  • Peralta EG, Ashkenazi A, Winslow JW, et al. (1988). Distinct primary structures, ligand-binding properties and tissue-specific expression of four human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.. EMBO J. 6 (13): 3923–9.
  • van Koppen CJ, Lenz W, Nathanson NM (1993). Isolation, sequence and functional expression of the mouse m4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor gene.. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1173 (3): 342–4.
  • Haga K, Kameyama K, Haga T, et al. (1996). Phosphorylation of human m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and protein kinase C.. J. Biol. Chem. 271 (5): 2776–82.
  • von der Kammer H, Mayhaus M, Albrecht C, et al. (1998). Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors activate expression of the EGR gene family of transcription factors.. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (23): 14538–44.
  • Oldenhof J, Vickery R, Anafi M, et al. (1998). SH3 binding domains in the dopamine D4 receptor.. Biochemistry 37 (45): 15726–36.
  • Sato KZ, Fujii T, Watanabe Y, et al. (1999). Diversity of mRNA expression for muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in human mononuclear leukocytes and leukemic cell lines.. Neurosci. Lett. 266 (1): 17–20.
  • Dias Neto E, Correa RG, Verjovski-Almeida S, et al. (2000). Shotgun sequencing of the human transcriptome with ORF expressed sequence tags.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (7): 3491–6.
  • Wang H, Han H, Zhang L, et al. (2001). Expression of multiple subtypes of muscarinic receptors and cellular distribution in the human heart.. Mol. Pharmacol. 59 (5): 1029–36.
  • Buchli R, Ndoye A, Arredondo J, et al. (2002). Identification and characterization of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed in human skin melanocytes.. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 228 (1-2): 57–72.
  • McClatchy DB, Knudsen CR, Clark BF, et al. (2002). Novel interaction between the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and elongation factor 1A2.. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (32): 29268–74.
  • Dean B, McLeod M, Keriakous D, et al. (2003). Decreased muscarinic1 receptors in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia.. Mol. Psychiatry 7 (10): 1083–91.

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.


es:Receptor muscarínico M4

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