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- This article is about the self-inflicted factitious disorder. For the type of abuse commonly known as Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy, see Fabricated or Induced Illness.
Munchausen syndrome is a psychiatric disorder in which those affected feign disease, illness, or psychological trauma in order to draw attention or sympathy to themselves. It is in a class of disorders known as factitious disorders which involve "illnesses" whose symptoms are either self-induced or falsified by the patient. It is also sometimes known as Hospital addiction syndrome.
Munchausen syndrome[edit | edit source]
In Munchausen syndrome, the affected person exaggerates or creates symptoms of illnesses in himself or herself in order to gain investigation, treatment, attention, sympathy, and comfort from medical personnel. The role of "patient" is a familiar and comforting one, and it fills a psychological need in people with Munchausen's. It is distinct from hypochondria in that the patient is aware that he is exaggerating, while sufferers of hypochondria actually believe they have a disease.
There is some controversy on the exact causes of the syndrome, but an increased occurrence has been reported[How to reference and link to summary or text] in healthcare professionals and close family members of people with a chronic illness such as manic depression.
Individuals with the Munchausen pattern of behaviour may be admitted to many hospitals under many medical teams.
Origin of the name[edit | edit source]
In 1951, Sir Richard Asher (father of Jane Asher and Peter Asher) was the first to describe a pattern of self-harm, where individuals fabricated histories, signs, and symptoms of illness. Remembering Baron Munchausen, Asher named this condition Munchausen's Syndrome. Originally, this term was used for all factitious disorders. Now, however, there is considered to be a wide range of factitious disorders, and the diagnosis of "Munchausen syndrome" is reserved for the most severe form, where the simulation of disease is the central activity of the affected person's life.
Comparison to Fabricated or Induced Illness (FII)[edit | edit source]
Fabricated or Induced Illness (FII) is the formal name of a type of abuse in which a caregiver feigns or induces an illness in a person under their care, in order to attract attention, sympathy, or to fill other emotional needs. It is aso known as Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSbP), due to its similarity to Munchausen syndrome, in which a person feigns or induces illness in themselves for similar emotional reasons. While a person can be said to be "suffering" from Munchausen syndrome, it is incorrect to state that a caretaking person who perpetrates abuse is "suffering" from Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy.
See also[edit | edit source]
- Fabricated or Induced Illness, also known as Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy
- Factitious disorders
- Psychosomatic illness
- Somatoform disorders
[edit | edit source]
- Dr. Marc Feldman's Munchausen Syndrome, Malingering, Factitious Disorder, & Munchausen by Proxy Page - Page offering information on Munchausen and its many other names. Offers information on Dr. Feldman's books and his email address for interested parties.
References[edit | edit source]
- Feldman M.D. 2004. Playing Sick? Untangling the Web of Munchausen Syndrome, Munchausen by Proxy, Malingering, and Factitious Disorder. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
- Fisher, Jill A. 2006. Playing Patient, Playing Doctor: Munchausen Syndrome, Clinical S/M, and Ruptures of Medical Power. Journal of Medical Humanities 27 (3): 135-149.
- Fisher, Jill A. 2006. Investigating the Barons: Narrative & Nomenclature in Munchausen Syndrome. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 49 (2): 250-262.
Further reading[edit | edit source]
Books[edit | edit source]
- Ayoub, C. C. (2006). Munchausen by Proxy. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
- Leamon, M. H., Feldman, M. D., & Scott, C. L. (2003). Factitious Disorders and Malingering. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
Papers[edit | edit source]
Abed, R. T. (1995). Voluntary false confessions in a Munchausen patient: A new variant of the syndrome? : Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine Vol 12(1) Mar 1995, 24-26.
- Amarilli, P., & Patris, M. (1995). The Munchhausen syndrome: An inquiry concerning a "patient" above suspicion: Annales Medico-Psychologiques Vol 153(7) Aug-Sep 1995, 433-440.
- Arroyo, J. M. G., & Larana, C. (2006). Structural determinants in Munchausen syndrome: Anales de Psiquiatria Vol 22(7) Dec 2006, 344-352.
- Barker, L. H., & Howell, R. J. (1994). Munchausen syndrome by proxy in false allegations of child sexual abuse: Legal implications: Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law Vol 22(4) 1994, 499-510.
- Black, W. (1993). Resource implications of Munchausen's syndrome: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 162 Jun 1993, 847-848.
- Bools, C., Neale, B., & Meadow, R. (1994). Munchausen syndrome by proxy: A study of psychopathology: Child Abuse & Neglect Vol 18(9) Sep 1994, 773-788.
- Brady, M. M. (1994). Munchausen syndrome by proxy: How should we weigh our options? : Law & Psychology Review Vol 18 Spr 1994, 361-375.
- Bulik, C. M., Sullivan, P. F., Fear, J. L., & Alison, P. (1996). A case of comorbid anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and Munchausen's syndrome: International Journal of Eating Disorders Vol 20(2) Sep 1996, 215-218.
- Burge, C. K., & Lacey, J. H. (1993). A case of Munchausen's syndrome in anorexia nervosa: International Journal of Eating Disorders Vol 14(3) Nov 1993, 379-381.
- Callegari, C., Bortolaso, P., & Vender, S. (2006). A single case report of recurrent surgery for chronic back pain and its implications concerning a diagnosis of Munchausen syndrome: Functional Neurology Vol 21(2) Apr-Jun 2006, 103-108.
- Carek, D. J. (1995). The Munchausen by proxy controversy: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 34(3) Mar 1995, 261.
- Conway, S. P., & Pond, M. N. (1995). Munchausen syndrome by proxy abuse: A foundation for adult Munchausen syndrome: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry Vol 29(3) Sep 1995, 504-507.
- de Menezes, A. P. T., Holanda, E. d. M., Silveira, V. A. L., de Oliveira, K. C. d. S., & Oliveira, F. G. M. (2002). Munchausen's Syndrome: A case report and literature review: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria Vol 24(2) Jun 2002, 83-85.
- Defontaine-Catteau, M. C. (2005). Pain and perversion--factitious disorders--Munchausen's syndrome: Pictoral: Douleur et Analgesie Vol 18(3) 2005, 107-112.
- Delmont, E., Bourg, V., & Thomas, P. (2003). Epileptic Munchausen syndrome by idiosyncratic of effect antiepileptic drugs: Revue Neurologique Vol 159(3) Mar 2003, 313-315.
- Diefenbacher, A., & Heim, G. (1997). Neuropsychiatric aspects in Munchausen's syndrome: General Hospital Psychiatry Vol 19(4) Jul 1997, 281-285.
- Eaton, J. S., Jr. (2006). Review of Playing Sick? Untangling the Web of Munchausen Syndrome, Munchausen by Proxy, Malingering, and Factitious Disorder: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 163(2) Feb 2006, 334-335.
- Fehnel, C. R., & Brewer, E. J. (2006). Munchausen's Syndrome With 20-Year Follow-Up: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 163(3) Mar 2006, 347.
- Feldman, M. D. (1994). Denial in Munchausen syndrome by proxy: The consulting psychiatrist's dilemma: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine Vol 24(2) 1994, 121-128.
- Feldman, M. D. (2004). Munchausen by Proxy and Malingering by Proxy: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 45(4) Aug 2004, 365-366.
- Feldman, M. D., & Peychers, M. E. (2007). Legal issues surrounding the exposure of "Munchausen by Internet." Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 48(5) Sep-Oct 2007, 451-452.
- Fisher, J. A. (2006). Investigating the barons: Narrative and nomenclature in Munchausen syndrome: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine Vol 49(2) Spr 2006, 250-262.
- Fisher, J. A. (2006). Playing Patient, Playing Doctor: Munchausen Syndrome, Clinical S/M, and Ruptures of Medical Power: Journal of Medical Humanities Vol 27(3) Sep 2006, 135-149.
- Folks, D. G. (1995). Munchausen's syndrome and other factitious disorders: Neurologic Clinics Vol 13(2) May 1995, 267-281.
- Garralda, M. E. (2000). The links between somatisation in children and in adults. New York, NY: Routledge.
- Garrett, T. (2005). Review of Sickened: The Memoir of a Munchausen By Proxy Childhood: Journal of Sexual Aggression Vol 11(1) Jan 2005, 120-121.
- Gregory, R. J., & Jindal, S. (2006). Factitious disorder on an inpatient psychiatry ward: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Vol 76(1) Jan 2006, 31-36.
- Hassler, F., Zamorski, H., & Weirich, S. (2007). The problem of differentiating between sudden infant death syndrome, fatal Munchausen 's syndrome by proxy, and infanticide: Zeitschrift fur Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie Vol 35(4) Jul 2007, 237-246.
- Hedges, B. E., Dimsdale, J. E., & Hoyt, D. B. (1995). Munchausen syndrome presenting as recurrent multiple trauma: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 36(1) Jan-Feb 1995, 60-63.
- Huffman, J. C., & Stern, T. A. (2003). The diagnosis and treatment of Munchausen' s syndrome: General Hospital Psychiatry Vol 25(5) Sep-Oct 2003, 358-363.
- Jaghab, K., Skodnek, K. B., & Padder, T. A. (2006). Munchausen's Syndrome and Other Factitious Disorders in Children--Case Series and Literature Review: Psychiatry Vol 3(3) Mar 2006, 46-55.
- Janofsky, J. S. (1994). The Munchausen syndrome in civil forensic psychiatry: Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law Vol 22(4) 1994, 489-497.
- Jimenez Hernandez, J. L., & Figuerido-Poulain, J. L. (1996). Munchausen syndrome in Spanish pediatrics: Actas Luso-Espanolas de Neurologia, Psiquiatria y Ciencias Afines Vol 24(1) Jan-Feb 1996, 29-32.
- Johnson, B. R., & Harrison, J. A. (2000). Suspected Munchausen's syndrome and civil commitment: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Vol 28(1) 2000, 74-76.
- Jones, D. P. H. (1994). The syndrome of Munchausen by proxy: Child Abuse & Neglect Vol 18(9) Sep 1994, 769-771.
- Kent, J. D. (1994). Munchausen's syndrome and substance abuse: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment Vol 11(3) May-Jun 1994, 247-251.
- Krahn, L. E., Lee, J., Richardson, J. W., Martin, M. J., & O'Connor, M. K. (1997). Hypokalemia leading to Torsades de Pointes: Munchausen's disorder or bulimia nervosa? : General Hospital Psychiatry Vol 19(5) Sep 1997, 370-377.
- Libow, J. A. (1995). Munchausen by Proxy victims in adulthood: A first look: Child Abuse & Neglect Vol 19(9) Sep 1995, 1131-1142.
- Loshak, R. (2004). Review of The Internal and External Worlds of Children and Adolescents: Collaborative Therapeutic Care: Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Vol 18(2) Jun 2004, 238-240.
- Martinovic, Z. (1995). Fictitious epilepsy in Munchausen syndrome by Proxy: Family psychodynamics: Seizure Vol 4(2) Jun 1995, 129-134.
- Masanori, N., Shin-Ya, S., Aki, M., Tsutomu, K., Yoritsuna, Y., Yuji, T., et al. (2005). A Case of Munchausen Syndrome with Repeated Factitious Hypoglycemia: Its underlying hypervigilant type narcissistic personality disorder: Seishin Igaku (Clinical Psychiatry) Vol 47(1) Jan 2005, 69-76.
- Meessen, N. E. L., Walenkamp, G. H. I. M., & Jacobs, J. A. (1998). Munchausen's microbes? : New England Journal of Medicine Vol 339(23) Dec 1998, 1717-1718.
- Middleton, C. (1995). Controversy:... in the best interests of the childppp: Child: Care, Health and Development Vol 21(4) Jul 1995, 271-285.
- Miguel, P. S. S., Lledo, J. B., Crespo, R. C., & Livianos Aldana, L. (2003). Familiar Munchausen syndrome: An unusual presentation: Actas Espanolas de Psiquiatria Vol 31(5) Sep-Oct 2003, 302-305.
- Moore, K. (1995). Social work's role with patients with Munchausen syndrome: Social Work Vol 40(6) Nov 1995, 823-825.
- Morgan, C. N., Roy, A., Houldey, L., & Miller, D. (2001). Munchausen's syndrome in learning disability: Journal of Learning Disabilities Vol 5(3) Sep 2001, 259-265.
- Mountz, J. M., Parker, P. E., Liu, H.-G., Bentley, T. W., & et al. (1996). Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT scanning in Munchausen syndrome: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience Vol 21(1) Jan 1996, 49-52.
- Murray, J. B. (1997). Munchausen syndrome/Munchausen syndrome by proxy: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied Vol 131(3) May 1997, 343-352.
- Ody, R. (1993). Munchausen's syndrome? : British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 163 Sep 1993, 416-417.
- O'Flynn, K., O'Donohoe, A., & Gill, M. (1997). Gastrointestinal presentations of Munchausen's syndrome: Three case reports: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine Vol 14(4) Dec 1997, 153-155.
- Olry, R., & Haines, D. E. (2006). Munchausen Syndrome By Proxy: Karl Friedrich Hieronymus, Baron von Munchhausen, Hasn't Got Anything To Do With It: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences Vol 15(3) Sep 2006, 276-278.
- O'Shea, B. (2003). Factitious disorders: The Baron's legacy: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice Vol 7(1) Mar 2003, 33-39.
- Paesen, L., Miedema, A., & Raes, D. (2004). Munchausen's syndrome in a forensic psychiatric hospital: A case report: Tijdschrift voor Psychotherapie Vol 30(2) Mar 2004, 117-128.
- Pankratz, L. (2006). Persistent problems with the Munchausen syndrome by proxy label: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Vol 34(1) 2006, 90-95.
- Pearl, P. T. (1995). Identifying and responding to Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy: Early Child Development and Care Vol 106 1995, 177-185.
- Pino, A. P., Benavent, P., Sierra, P., & Livanos, L. (2004). Early onset Munchausen's syndrome: Actas Espanolas de Psiquiatria Vol 32(3) May-Jun 2004, 181-183.
- Plassmann, R. (1994). Munchhausen syndromes and factitious diseases: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics Vol 62(1-2) 1994, 7-26.
- Polat, A., Kulaksizoglu, I. B., & Vatansever, S. (2002). An adolescent in Istanbul with Munchausen's syndrome: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine Vol 32(3) 2002, 311-315.
- Porter, G. E., Heitsch, G. M., & Miller, M. D. (1994). Munchausen syndrome by proxy: Unusual manifestations and disturbing sequelae: Child Abuse & Neglect Vol 18(9) Sep 1994, 789-794.
- Powell, R., & Boast, N. (1993). "Resource implications of Munchausen's syndrome": Reply: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 162 Jun 1993, 848.
- Qureshi, N. A., Al-Habeed, T. A., Abdelgadir, M., & Al-Ghamdy, Y. S. (1999). Factitious disorders: Sociocultural and clinical factors among Saudi patients: Arab Journal of Psychiatry Vol 10(2) Nov 1999, 128-140.
- Rabinerson, D., Kaplan, B., Orvieto, R., & Dekel, A. (2002). Munchausen syndrome in obstetrics and gynecology: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology Vol 23(4) Dec 2002, 215-218.
- Rand, D. C., & Feldman, M. D. (1999). Misdiagnosis of Munchausen syndrome by proxy: A literature review and four new cases: Harvard Review of Psychiatry Vol 7(2) Jul-Aug 1999, 94-101.
- Robbins, L. (2002). Munchausen's syndrome presenting as cluster headache: Headache Quarterly Vol 13(2) 2002, 121-122.
- Sanders, M. J. (1999). Hospital protocol for the evaluation of Munchausen by Proxy: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry Vol 4(3) Jul 1999, 379-391.
- Scheier, H. A., & Libow, J. A. (1995). The Munchausen by proxy controversy: Drs. Schreir and Libow reply: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 34(3) Mar 1995, 261-262.
- Schreier, H. A., & Libow, J. A. (1993). Hurting for love: Munchausen by proxy syndrome. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
- Schreier, H. A., & Libow, J. A. (1994). Munchausen by proxy syndrome: A clinical fable for our times: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 33(6) Jul-Aug 1994, 904-905.
- Siegel, P. T., & Fischer, H. (2001). Munchausen by proxy syndrome: Barriers to detection, confirmation, and intervention: Children's Services: Social Policy, Research, & Practice Vol 4(1) 2001, 31-50.
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- Solomon, S., & Lipton, R. B. (1999). Headaches and face pains as a manifestation of Munchausen syndrome: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain Vol 39(1) Jan 1999, 45-50.
- Sorrentino, R. (2006). Review of Playing sick? Untangling the web of Munchausen syndrome, Munchausen by proxy, malingering, and factitious disorder: Psychiatric Services Vol 57(1) Jan 2006, 149.
- Tamay, Z., Akcay, A., Kilic, G., Peykerli, G., Devecioglu, E., Ones, U., et al. (2007). Corrosive poisoning mimicking cicatricial pemphigoid: Munchausen by proxy: Child: Care, Health and Development Vol 33(4) Jul 2007, 496-499.
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