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Methylenedioxypyrovalerone chemical structure

IUPAC name
CAS number
ATC code


Chemical formula {{{chemical_formula}}}
Molecular weight 275.35 g/mol
Elimination half-life
Pregnancy category
Legal status unscheduled
Routes of administration oral, insufflation, intravenous

Methylenedioxypyrovalerone, also known as MDPV or 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-pyrrolidinyl-pentan-1-one, is a stimulant drug which acts as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor, reportedly with four times the potency of methylphenidate. [1] This compound is reported to be used as a stimulant and an aphrodisiac. It has no history of medical use but has been sold as a "research chemical" for recreational use. MDPV is not specifically listed as an illegal drug in any country, but its structural similarity to illegal drugs of abuse makes it likely that it would be considered a controlled substance analogue in several countries such as the USA, Australia and New Zealand. Other analogues derived from alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone include the 4-methyl analogue pyrovalerone, as well as analogues with no substitution on the aromatic ring, and analogues with between 3 and 6 carbons on the alkyl chain. [2] These compounds have been reported as stimulants of abuse mainly in Germany and other european countries since the early 2000s, but they have remained little known and rarely used or encountered by law enforcement. [3]

MDPV is reported to produce long-lasting stimulation. There are anecdotal reports of addiction potential with higher doses. MDPV is the 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted analogue of the appetite supressant pyrovalerone, however despite its apparent structural similarity to the untrained eye, the effects of MDPV bear little resemblance to other methylenedioxyphenylalkylamine derivatives such as MDMA and methylone, instead producing purely dopaminergic stimulant effects with no empathogenic qualities. Doses used vary widely, from as little as 5mg up to hundreds of milligrams in heavy users who have developed significant tolerance to the drugs effects. The drug has been known to be administered intravenously at less than 10mg, which produces a significant stimulation along with reports of insufflation and oral doses exceding 50mg. High doses tend to produce significant and unpleasant side effects especially in novice users, including undesired over-stimulation, dizziness, nausea, anxiety, insomnia, paranoia, loss of appetite and diahorrea. Extended binges on MDPV also produce severe come-down syndrome similar to that of methamphetamine and characterised by depression, lethargy and headache. [4] [5] [6]

CAS number 687603-66-3 (MDPV freebase); 24622-62-6 (MDPV hydrochloride)

References Edit

  1. 1-[(3,4-Methylenedioxy)phenyl]-2-pyrrolidino-1-alkanones as stimulants. (Boehringer Ingelheim G.m.b.H.). Brit. (1969), 7 pp. CODEN: BRXXAA GB 1149366 19690423 Patent written in English. Priority: DE 19650523. CAN 72:21608 AN 1970:21608 CAPLUS
  2. Meltzer PC, Butler D, Deschamps JR, Madras BK. 1-(4-Methylphenyl)-2-pyrrolidin-1-yl-pentan-1-one (Pyrovalerone) analogues: a promising class of monoamine uptake inhibitors. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2006 Feb 23;49(4):1420-32.
  3. Springer D, Fritschi G, Maurer HH. Metabolism of the new designer drug alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (PPP) and the toxicological detection of PPP and 4'-methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MPPP) studied in rat urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical Life Sciences. 2003 Nov 5;796(2):253-66.

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