Individual differences |
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In psychopathology many processes can lead to the maintenace of symptoms once onset has begun. For example the occurence of a phobia may be maintained by continuing patterns of avoidance which prevent the occurence of oppurtunities in which the anxiety and fear can be unlearnt in the presence of the phobic stimulus.
- Ingram, R.E. & Price, J. M. (2010) Vulnerability to psychopathology: risk across the lifespan. 2nd ed. New York:Guildford.
- Ingram, R.E, Miranda, J., & Segal, Z.F.(1998). Cognitive vulnerability to depression. Washington D.C.:American Psychological Association.