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A lesson plan is a teacher's detailed description of the course of instruction for an individual lesson. While there is no one way to construct a correct lesson plan, most lesson plans contain some or all of these elements, typically in this order:
- the title of the lesson
- the amount of time required to complete the lesson
- a list of required materials
- a list of objectives. These may be stated as behavioral objectives (what the student is expected to be able to do upon completion of the lesson) or as knowledge objectives (what the student is expected to know upon completion of the lesson.
- the set or lead-in to the lesson. This is designed to focus students on the skill or concept about to be instructed. Common sets include showing pictures or models, asking leading questions, or reviewing previously taught lessons.
- the instructional component. This describes the sequence of events which will take place as the lesson is delivered. It includes the instructional input—what the teacher plans to do and say, and guided practice—an opportunity for students to try new skills or express new ideas with the modelling and guidance of the teacher.
- independent practice. This component allows students to practice the skill or extend the knowledge on their own.
- the summary. This is an opportunity for the teacher to wrap up the discussion and for the students to pose unanswered questions.
- evaluation. Some, but not all, lessons have an evaluative component where the teacher can check for mastery of the instructed skills or concepts. This may take the form of a set of questions to be answered or a set of instructions to be followed. The evaluation may be formative; that is to say, used to guide subsequent learning, or summative; that is to say, used to determine a grade or other achievement criterion.
- analysis. Often not part of a lesson plan, this component allows the teacher to reflect on the lesson and answer questions such as what went well, what needs improving, and how students reacted to the lesson.
Unit plans follow much the same format, but are intended to cover an entire unit of work, which may be delivered over several days or weeks.
In today's constructivist teaching style, the individual lesson plan is often inappropriate. Specific objectives and timelines may be included in the unit plan, but lesson plans are more fluid as they cater to student needs and learning styles. As students are asked to engage in problem or inquiry learning, rigid lesson planning with title, behavioral objectives, and specific outcomes within certain time constraints often no longer fit within modern effective pedagogy. Today, formal lesson plans are often required only of student teachers, who must be demonstrably familiar with the components of a lesson, or teachers new to the field, who have not yet internalized the flow of a lesson.
See also[edit | edit source]
References & Bibliography[edit | edit source]
Key texts[edit | edit source]
Books[edit | edit source]
- Clark, D. C. (1972). Using instructional objectives in teaching. Oxford, England: Scott, Foresman.
- Gagnon, G. W., Jr., & Collay, M. (2006). Constructivist learning design: Key questions for teaching to standards. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
- Glass, K. T. (2005). Curriculum design for writing instruction: Creating standards-based lesson plans and rubrics. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
- Gudmundsdottir, S., Reinertsen, A., & Nordtomme, N. P. (2000). Klafki's Didaktik analysis as a conceptual framework for research on teaching. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Hansen, D. A., & Johnson, V. A. (1989). Classroom lesson strategies and orientations toward work. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Holliday, A. (2002). Teachers' and students' lessons. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Hopmann, S. (2000). Klafki's model of Didaktik analysis and lesson planning in teacher education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Howell, D. R. (2007). Lesson Study: A "Win-Win" Professional Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
- Klafki, W. (2000). Didaktik analysis as the core of preparation of instruction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- LaCroix, L. (2005). Inspired English: Raising test scores and writing effectiveness through poetry and fiction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
- Landa, L. N. (1987). A fragment of a lesson based on the Algo-Heuristic Theory of Instruction. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Menck, P., & Pirags, S. (2000). Content: Still in question. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Merrill, M. D. (1987). A lesson based on the component display theory. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Mierzwik, D. (2005). Classroom record keeping made simple: Tips for time-strapped teachers. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
- Nessel, D. D., & Graham, J. M. (2007). Thinking strategies for student achievement: Improving learning across the curriculum, K-12 (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
- Nevin, A. I., Thousand, J. S., & Villa, R. A. (2002). Cooperative group lesson plans. Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes Publishing.
- Nielsen, D. M. (2006). Teaching young children: A guide to planning your curriculum, teaching through learning centers, and just about everything else (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
- Perna, D. M., & Davis, J. R. (2007). Aligning standards & curriculum for classroom success (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
- Reigeluth, C. M. (1987). Instructional theories in action: Lessons illustrating selected theories and models. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Reigeluth, C. M. (1987). Lesson blueprints based on the Elaboration Theory of Instruction. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Renzulli, J. S. (2004). The Multiple Menu Model for Developing Differentiated Curriculum for the Gifted and Talented. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
- Rosebery, A. S. (2005). "What Are We Going to Do Next?": Lesson Planning as a Resource for Teaching. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Roth, H., & Horton-Kruger, G. (2000). The art of lesson preparation. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Rude, C. A. (2008). How to succeed as a substitute teacher: Everything you need from start to finish. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
- Senn-Fennell, C. (2000). Oral and written communication for promoting mathematical understanding: Teaching examples from grade 3. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Sherin, B. L., Azevedo, F. S., & diSessa, A. A. (2005). Exploration Zones: A Framework for Describing the Emergent Structure of Learning Activities. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Sholley, B. K. (1990). Remembering learning and memory. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Skowron, J. (2006). Powerful lesson planning: Every teacher's guide to effective instruction (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
- Stevens, G. H., & Scandura, J. M. (1987). A lesson design based on instructional prescriptions from the structural learning theory. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Steinberg, E. R. (1991). Teaching computers to teach (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Stone, R. (2007). Best practices for teaching mathematics: What award-winning classroom teachers do. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
- Utter, B. (2007). Pick and plan: 100 brain-compatible strategies for lesson design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
- Villalobos, P. J., Tweit-Hull, D., & Wong, A. (2002). Creating and supporting peer tutor partnerships: Lesson plans. Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes Publishing.
- Walling, D. R. (2005). Visual knowing: Connecting art and ideas across the curriculum. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
- Williams, R. B., & Dunn, S. E. (2008). Brain-Compatible learning for the block (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Papers[edit | edit source]
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- Dumke, D. (1984). The hierarchical organization of lesson topics as learning aids in primary schools: Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht Vol 31(1) 1984, 43-49.
- Dunkin, M. J., Precians, R. P., & Nettle, E. B. (1996). Elementary student teachers' self-evaluation: Learning criteria for judging lessons and self as teacher: Journal of Classroom Interaction Vol 31(1) 1996, 11-19.
- Eichelberger, R. T. (1991). A limited view of program evaluation: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 36 (2), Feb, 1991.
- Emmer, E. T., & Gerwels, M. C. (2002). Cooperative learning in elementary classrooms: Teaching practices and lesson characteristics: The Elementary School Journal Vol 103(1) Sep 2002, 75-91.
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- Fernandez, C., Yoshida, M., & Stigler, J. W. (1992). Learning mathematics from classroom instruction: On relating lessons to pupils' interpretations: Journal of the Learning Sciences Vol 2(4) 1992, 333-365.
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- Fisher-Polites, C. (2004). We all fit in: A Program Designed to Promote Understanding Among Typical Children for Children with Disabilities: Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions Vol 6(3) Sum 2004, 181-187.
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- Gerwin, D. (2003). A Relevant Lesson: Hitler Goes to the Mall: Theory and Research in Social Education Vol 31(4) Fal 2003, 435-465.
- Gibson, S. A. (2006). Lesson Observation and Feedback: The Practice of an Expert Reading Coach: Reading Research and Instruction Vol 45(4) Sum 2006, 295-318.
- Gorbunova, E. A., & Retchitzkaya, E. G. (1983). Improvement of independent work of hearing impairments department-students when studying special subjects: Defektologiya No 2 1983, 71-74.
- Gordon, L. E., & Ellingson, L. (2006). In the eyes of the beholder: Student interpretations of sexuality lessons: Sex Education Vol 6(3) Aug 2006, 251-264.
- Graham, G., Hopple, C., Manross, M., & Sitzman, T. (1993). Novice and experienced children's physical education teachers: Insights into their situational decision making: Journal of Teaching in Physical Education Vol 12(2) Jan 1993, 197-214.
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- Hamann, D. L., Baker, D. S., McAllister, P. A., & Bauer, W. I. (2000). Factors affecting university music students' perceptions of lesson quality and teaching effectiveness: Journal of Research in Music Education Vol 48(2) Sum 2000, 102-113.
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- Thompson, M.-A. C. (1990). An action-oriented lesson for second-year college French students: Journal of Group Psychotherapy, Psychodrama & Sociometry Vol 43(2) Sum 1990, 82-84.
- Tillema, H. H. (1984). Educational materials as analyzed by teachers: Pedagogische Studien Vol 61(7-8) Jul-Aug 1984, 304-312.
- Tobias, S., & Duchastel, P. C. (1974). Behavioral objectives, sequence, and anxiety in CAI: Instructional Science Vol 3(3) Oct 1974, 231-242.
- Tsipina, N. A. (1988). Recommendations for the approximate thematic planning of reading lessons in the primary remedial classes in the schools for developmentally backward children: Defektologiya No 5 1988, 29-37.
- Tsukerman, G. A. (2003). At the source of a learning community: A microanalysis of a lesson in a first form: Voprosy Psychologii No 4 2003, 104-126.
- Turner, C. (2006). Height, foot length and threat to woodland: Positive learning from pupil relevant data: Teaching Statistics Vol 28(1) Feb 2006, 22-24.
- Van der Sijde, P. C. (1989). The effect of a brief teacher training on student achievement: Teaching and Teacher Education Vol 5(4) 1989, 303-314.
- Verpoorten, D., Poumay, M., & Leclercq, D. (2007). The Eight Learning Events Model: A pedagogic conceptual tool supporting diversification of learning methods: Interactive Learning Environments Vol 15(2) Aug 2007, 151-160.
- Vontver, L. A. (1974). A use of instructional objectives to increase learning efficiency: Journal of Medical Education Vol 49(5) May 1974, 453-454.
- Warner, L., & Craycraft, K. (1984). Writing lesson plans for active learning: Childhood Education Vol 61(1) Sep-Oct 1984, 13-17.
- Watt, H., & Burrell, A. (2006). Making the plenary session count: Education 3-13 Vol 34(1) 2006, 11-18.
- West, B., Abatemarco, D., Ohman-Strickland, P. A., Zec, V., Russo, A., & Milic, R. (2008). Project Northland in Croatia: Results and lessons learned: Journal of Drug Education Vol 38(1) 2008, 55-70.
- Whittaker, C. R., & Taylor, L. S. (1995). Do resource room teachers have sufficient planning time? : Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation Vol 6(3) 1995, 247-256.
- Wilson, L., Andrew, C., & Sourikova, S. (2001). Shape and structure in primary mathematics lessons: A comparative study in the North-east of England and St Petersburg, Russia--some implications for the daily mathematics lesson: British Educational Research Journal Vol 27(1) Jan 2001, 29-58.
- Wood, J. W., & Jones, K. H. (1994). Adapting lesson plans for mainstreamed vocational educational students: Journal of Instructional Psychology Vol 21(2) Jun 1994, 192-200.
- Zimmerlin, D., & Nelson, M. (1999). The detailed analysis of a beginning teacher carrying out a traditional lesson: The Journal of Mathematical Behavior Vol 18(3) Mar 1999, 263-279.
- Zoboroski, J. (1981). Planning for and grading LD students: Academic Therapy Vol 16(4) Mar 1981, 463-470.
Additional material[edit | edit source]
Books[edit | edit source]
Papers[edit | edit source]
Dissertations[edit | edit source]
- Alexander, S. L. (1976). An evaluation of the effects of attitude, mastery, and integration on application of lesson planning skills learned in a computer-based instructional simulation and practiced in microclassrooms by prospective teachers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Bastress, R. M. (1972). The use of behavioral objectives in planning and implementing instruction: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
- Beyerbach, B. A. (1986). Concept mapping as an approach to assessment of students' representation of structural knowledge: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Casciato, D. M. (2007). Effect of a self-evaluation checklist on the quality of student teachers' scripted lesson plans. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Demchik, V. F. (1987). The effect of varied strategies training on classroom lesson planning skills: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Foriska, T. J. (1991). Utilizing technology to improve the principals' role as instructional leader: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- George, P. G. (1979). The relationship of lesson properties and teacher communication to the task-related attention of learning disabled children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Graham, K. C. (1987). The nature of lessons and instruction in a middle school physical education class: A social interaction perspective: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Henschel, C. J. (1999). The effects of reflective practice on in-class decisions during planning, for novices. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Hsu, C.-L. (1994). The impact of systematic planning on intern teachers' planning strategies and students' learning outcomes. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Hudson, N. A. (1991). Evaluation of special education teachers: Perceptions of special education teachers and administrators: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Kreutzer, F. W. (1984). The perceptions of secondary school teachers regarding instructional development: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Micheller, J. S. (2003). Determining the intellectual quality of Internet-accessible lesson plans: A conceptual content analysis. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Murray, A. M. (1992). Training teachers to foster creativity using the 4MAT model: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Neely, A. M. (1983). An experiment in the training in cognitive monitoring and its relationship to dogmatism and impact on planning and classroom implementation performance of preservice teachers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Nerney, J. E. (2003). Toward the instruction of a positive psychology: Lessons for an undergraduate course. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Olona, M. L. (1988). The effects of Rogerian-based lesson plans on the self-esteem of migrant children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Pellegrino, A. M. (2008). The manifestation of critical thinking and metacognition in secondary American history students through the implementation of lesson plans and activities consistent with historical thinking skills. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Richey, M. J. (1984). A study of primary teacher planning behavior for reading instruction: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Rogien, L. R. (1998). The effects of cognitive strategy training in clarity of instruction on lesson planning and instruction for preservice teachers. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Semb, G. B. (1973). The effects of instructional objectives and grade-contingent points on student test performance in an introductory college course: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
- Still, J. L. (1973). Simulation design training and programmed instruction in relation to attitudinal changes of teachers toward behavioral objectives in selected Florida secondary schools: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
- Sung, K. H. (1983). The effects of differentially structured lesson plans on the elementary general music teaching behaviors of sophomore music education students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Svare, R. J. (1986). Performance in a vocational electronics computer aided instruction exercise as a function of psychological differentiation and lesson structure: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Wesolik, F. (2008). The relationship between early childhood teacher candidates' perceptions of school climate and their creation of developmentally appropriate lesson plans: A mixed methods study. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Wise, R. I. (1974). The effects of modifying instruction for reteaching: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Zengaro, F. (2007). Learning to plan for teaching: A multiple-case study of field-based experiences of three preservice teachers. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
[edit | edit source]
There are many online listings of lesson plans, including:
- Lesson Plans Page - Collection of 20,000 lessons.
- Lesson Plan Archive - Lesson plan archive in wiki format.
- Lesson Plan Library - The Lesson Plan Library offers kindergarten, elementary, middle school and high school lesson plans for all major school subjects.
- Lesson Plans from the Portal to Texas History using primary sources.
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