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| isbn = }}</ref> is the one who nurtures group or organizational environment to affect the emotional and psychological perception of an individual’s place in that group or organization. An understanding and application of group psychology and dynamics is essential for this style to be effective. The leader uses organizational culture to inspire individuals and develop leaders at all levels. This leadership style relies on creating an education matrix where groups interactively learn the fundamental psychology of group dynamics and culture from each other. The leader uses this psychology, and complementary language, to influence direction through the members of the inspired group to do what is required for the benefit of all.
 
| isbn = }}</ref> is the one who nurtures group or organizational environment to affect the emotional and psychological perception of an individual’s place in that group or organization. An understanding and application of group psychology and dynamics is essential for this style to be effective. The leader uses organizational culture to inspire individuals and develop leaders at all levels. This leadership style relies on creating an education matrix where groups interactively learn the fundamental psychology of group dynamics and culture from each other. The leader uses this psychology, and complementary language, to influence direction through the members of the inspired group to do what is required for the benefit of all.
=== Leadership "styles" (per House and Podsakoff) ===
 
In 1994 House and Podsakoff attempted to summarize the behaviors and approaches of "outstanding leaders" that they obtained from some more modern theories and research findings. These leadership behaviors and approaches do not constitute '''specific''' styles, but cumulatively they probably{{Fact|date=February 2007}} characterize the most effective style of leaders/managers of the time. The listed leadership "styles" cover:
 
 
# [[Vision statement|Vision]]. Outstanding leaders articulate an ideological vision congruent with the deeply-held values of followers, a vision that describes a better future to which the followers have an alleged moral right.
 
# Passion and [[self-sacrifice]]. Leaders display a passion for, and have a strong conviction of, what they regard as the moral correctness of their vision. They engage in outstanding or extraordinary behavior and make extraordinary self-sacrifices in the interest of their vision and [[mission]].
 
# [[Confidence]], determination, and [[persistence]]. Outstanding leaders display a high degree of [[faith]] in themselves and in the attainment of the vision they [[articulation|articulate]]. Theoretically, such leaders need to have a very high degree of self-confidence and moral conviction because their mission usually challenges the ''status quo'' and, therefore, may offend those who have a stake in preserving the established order.
 
# [[Brand|Image]]-building. House and Podsakoff regard outstanding leaders as self-conscious about their own image. They recognize the desirability of followers perceiving them as competent, credible, and trustworthy.
 
# [[role model|Role-modeling]]. Leader-image-building sets the stage for effective role-modeling because followers identify with the values of role models whom they perceived in positive terms.
 
# External representation. Outstanding leaders act as [[spokesperson]]s for their respective organizations and symbolically represent those organizations to external [[constituency|constituencies]].
 
# Expectations of and confidence in followers. Outstanding leaders communicate expectations of high [[performance]] from their followers and strong confidence in their followers’ ability to meet such expectations.
 
# Selective [[motivation|motive]]-arousal. Outstanding leaders selectively arouse those motives of followers that the outstanding leaders see as of special relevance to the successful accomplishment of the vision and mission.
 
# Frame alignment. To persuade followers to accept and implement change, outstanding leaders engage in "frame alignment". This refers to the linkage of individual and leader interpretive orientations such that some set of followers’ interests, values, and beliefs, as well as the leader’s activities, goals, and [[ideology]], becomes [[congruence|congruent]] and complementary.
 
# [[Inspiration]]al [[communication]]. Outstanding leaders often, but not always, communicate their message in an inspirational manner using vivid [[narrative|stories]], [[slogan]]s, [[symbol]]s, and [[ceremony|ceremonies]].
 
 
Even though these ten leadership behaviors and approaches do not really equate to specific styles, evidence has started to accumulate{{Fact|date=February 2007}} that a leader’s style can make a [[difference]]<!-- a difference to what, exactly? -->. Style becomes the key to the formulation and implementation of strategy{{Fact|date=February 2007}} and plays an important role in [[workgroup|work-group]] members’ activity and in [[team]] [[citizenship]]. Little doubt exists that the ''way'' (style) in which leaders influence work-group members can make a difference in their own and their people’s performance{{Fact|date=February 2007}}.
 
 
(Adopted from:
 
   
   
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==Key texts==
 
==Key texts==
 
===Books===
 
===Books===
*House, R and Podsakoff, P.M. "Leadership Effectiveness: Past Perspectives and Future Directions for Research" in Greenberg, Jerald (ed.),pp. 45-82 Organizational Behavior: The State of the Science'', Hillsdale, NJ, England: Erlbaum Associates, Inc, 1994. x, 312 pp. )
 
   
 
===Papers===
 
===Papers===

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