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Incidence[edit | edit source]
Worldwide, Krabbe disease occurs in about 1 in 100,000–200,000 births. A higher incidence (6 cases per 1,000 live births) has been reported in a few isolated communities in Israel.
Causes[edit | edit source]
Krabbe disease is caused by mutations in the GALC gene, which causes a deficiency of an enzyme called galactosylceramidase. The buildup of undigested fats affects the growth of the nerve’s protective myelin sheath (the covering that insulates many nerves) and causes severe degeneration of mental and motor skills. As part of a group of disorders known as leukodystrophies, Krabbe disease results from the imperfect growth and development of myelin. myelin (mī'ə-lĭn) Pronunciation Key A whitish, fatty substance that forms a sheath around many vertebrate nerve fibers. Myelin insulates the nerves and permits the rapid transmission of nerve impulses. The white matter of the brain is composed of nerve fibers covered in myelin.
Presentation[edit | edit source]
Infants with Krabbe disease are normal at birth. Symptoms begin between the ages of 3 and 6 months with irritability, inexplicable crying, fevers, limb stiffness, seizures, feeding difficulties, vomiting, and slowing of mental and motor development. Other symptoms include muscle weakness, spasticity, deafness, optic atrophy and blindness, paralysis, and difficulty when swallowing. Prolonged weight loss may also occur. There are also juvenile- and adult-onset cases of Krabbe disease, which have similar symptoms but slower progression.
Diagnosis[edit | edit source]
The disease may be diagnosed by its characteristic grouping of certain cells, nerve demyelination and degeneration, and destruction of brain cells.
Treatment[edit | edit source]
Although there is no cure for Krabbe disease, bone marrow transplantation has been shown to benefit mild cases early in the course of the disease. Generally, treatment for the disorder is symptomatic and supportive. Physical therapy may help maintain or increase muscle tone and circulation. A recent study in the New England Journal of Medicine reports that cord blood transplants have been successful in stopping the disease as long as they are given before overt symptoms appear. 
Prognosis[edit | edit source]
In infants, the disease is generally fatal before age 2. Patients with a later onset form of the disease have a milder course of the disease and live significantly longer.
Advocacy[edit | edit source]
Former Buffalo Bills quarterback Jim Kelly has been a leader in gaining recognition and research funding for the disease, following the diagnosis of his son, Hunter, with Krabbe disease in 1997. Hunter Kelly died of the disease August 5, 2005 at the age of 8. He was the longest known living survivor of infantile Krabbe disease.
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Notes[edit | edit source]
- Maria L. Escolar, Michele D. Poe, James M. Provenzale, Karen C. Richards, June Allison, Susan Wood, David A. Wenger, Daniel Pietryga, Donna Wall, Martin Champagne, Richard Morse, William Krivit, and Joanne Kurtzberg (2005). Transplantation of Umbilical-Cord Blood in Babies with Infantile Krabbe's Disease. New England Journal of Medicine (20): 2069-2081.
This article incorporates public domain text from The U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. 
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- The Stennis Foundation
- The Stennis Foundation's MySpace site
- Hunter's Hope Foundation
- 00174 at CHORUS
amino-acids Phenylketonuria - Alkaptonuria - Ochronosis - Tyrosinemia - Maple syrup urine disease - Propionic acidemia - Methylmalonic acidemia - Isovaleric acidemia - Primary carnitine deficiency - Cystinuria - Cystinosis - Hartnup disease - Homocystinuria - Citrullinemia - Hyperammonemia - Glutaric acidemia type 1
carbohydrates Lactose intolerance - Glycogen storage disease (type I, type II, type III, type IV, type V), Fructose intolerance, Galactosemia
Lipid storage disorders Gangliosidosis - GM2 gangliosidoses (Sandhoff disease, Tay-Sachs disease) - GM1 gangliosidoses - Mucolipidosis type IV - Gaucher's disease - Niemann-Pick disease - Farber disease - Fabry's disease - Metachromatic leukodystrophy - Krabbe disease - Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis - Batten disease - Cerebrotendineous xanthomatosis - Wolman disease - Cholesteryl ester storage disease
List of fatty acid metabolism disorders - Hyperlipidemia - Hypercholesterolemia - Familial hypercholesterolemia - Xanthoma - Combined hyperlipidemia - Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency - Tangier disease - Abetalipoproteinemia
mineral metabolism Disorders of calcium metabolism - Hypophosphatemia - Hypophosphatasia - Wilson's disease - Menkes disease - Hypermagnesemia - Hypomagnesemia - Hypercalcaemia - Hypocalcaemia
fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance Electrolyte disturbance - Hypernatremia - Hyponatremia - Respiratory acidosis - Metabolic acidosis - Lactic acidosis - Hypervolemia - Hypokalemia - Hyperkalemia - Mixed disorder of acid-base balance - Hyperchloremia - Hypochloremia - Dehydration
porphyrin and bilirubin Acatalasia - Gilbert's syndrome - Crigler-Najjar syndrome - Dubin-Johnson syndrome - Rotor syndrome - Porphyria (Acute intermittent porphyria, Gunther's disease, Porphyria cutanea tarda, Erythropoietic protoporphyria, Hepatoerythropoietic porphyria, Hereditary coproporphyria, Variegate porphyria)
glycosaminoglycan Mucopolysaccharidosis - Hurler syndrome - Hunter syndrome - Sanfilippo syndrome - Morquio syndrome
glycoprotein I-cell disease - Pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy - Aspartylglucosaminuria - Fucosidosis - Alpha-mannosidosis - Sialidosis
other Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency - Cystic fibrosis - Familial Mediterranean fever - Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
- de:Morbus Krabbe
- fr:Maladie de Krabbe
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