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Scholarly research on jury behavior in American non-capital criminal felony trials reveals that juror outcomes appear to track the opinions of the median juror, rather than the opinions of the extreme juror on the panel, although juries were required to render unanimous verdicts in the jurisdictions studied. Thus, although juries must render unanimous verdicts, in run-of-the-mill criminal trials they behave in practice as if they were operating using a majority rules voting system.
- Patrick J. Bayer, Randi Hjalmarsson, Shamena Anwar, "Jury Discrimination in Criminal Trials" (September 2010) Economic Research Initiatives at Duke (ERID) Working Papers Series No. 55 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1673994