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A set of values that are thought to apply universally.
The discussion of universal values often start off with the discussion of Intrinsic Value versus Extrinsic Value. Roughly stated, something has an intrinsic value when it is valuable "in itself" or "for its own sake"; something has an extrinsic value if it is valuable because of something else.
Historical discussions of universal values
The first philosophical discussions of universal values seemed to occur around the same time: Confucius (551 BC – 479 BC), Plato (427 BC – ca. 347 BC), Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC), Mencius (372 BC – 289 BC).
- Ethic of reciprocity
- Confucian theory of ethics
- Ethics in religion
- Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- Human Rights
- Value system
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