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Interleukins are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins/signaling molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes), The term interleukine, (inter-) as a means of communication, (-leukin) deriving from the fact that many of these proteins are produced by leukocytes and act on leukocytes. The name is something of a relic though (the term was coined by Dr. Paetkau, University of Victoria); it has since been found that interleukins are produced by a wide variety of body cells. The function of the immune system depends in a large part on interleukins, and rare deficiencies of a number of them have been described, all featuring autoimmune diseases or immune deficiency. The majority of interleukins are synthesized by helper CD4+ T lymphocytes, as well as through monocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells. They promote the development and differentiation of T, B, and hematopoietic cells.

List[edit | edit source]

A list of interleukins:

Name Source [1] Target receptors[1][2] Target cells[1] Function[1]
IL-1 macrophages, B cells, monocytes [3], dendritic cells [3] CD121a/IL1R1, CD121b/IL1R2 T helper cells co-stimulation [3]
B cells maturation & proliferation [3]
Nk cells activation[3]
macrophages, endothelium, other inflammation[3], small amounts induce acute phase reaction, large amounts induce fever
IL-2 TH1-cells CD25/IL2RA, CD122/IL2RB, CD132/IL2RG activated[3] T cells and B cells, NK cells, macrophages, oligodendrocytes stimulates growth and differentiation of T cell response. Can be used in immunotherapy to treat cancer or suppressed for transplant patients.
IL-3 activated T helper cells[3], mast cells, NK cells, endothelium, eosinophils CD123/IL3RA, CD131/IL3RB hematopoietic stem cells differentiation and proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells [3] to e.g. erythrocytes, granulocytes
mast cells growth and histamine release[3]
IL-4 TH2-cells, just activated naive CD4+ cell, memory CD4+ cells, mast cells, macrophages CD124/IL4R, CD132/IL2RG activated B cells proliferation and differentiation, IgG1 and IgE synthesis[3]. Important role in allergic response (IgE)
T cells proliferation[3]
IL-5 TH2-cells, mast cells, eosinophils CD125/IL5RA, CD131/IL3RB eosinophils production
B cells differentiation, IgA production
IL-6 macrophages, TH2-cells, B cells, astrocytes, endothelium CD126/IL6RA, CD130/IR6RB activated B cells differentiation into plasma cells
plasma cells antibody secretion
hematopoietic stem cells differentiation
T cells, others induces acute phase reaction, hematopoiesis, differentiation, inflammation
IL-7 bone marrow stromal cells and thymus stromal cells CD127/IL7RA, CD132/IL2RG pre/pro-B cell, pre/pro-T cell, NK cells differentiation and proliferation of lymphoid progenitor cells, involved in B, T, and NK cell survival, development, and homeostasis, ↑proinflammatory cytokines
IL-8 macrophages, lymphocytes, epithelial cells, endothelial cells CXCR1/IL8RA, CXCR2/IL8RB/CD128 neutrophils, basophils, lymphocytes Neutrophil chemotaxis
IL-9 Th2-cells, specifically by CD4+ helper cells CD129/IL9R T cells, B cells Potentiates IgM, IgG, IgE, stimulates mast cells
IL-10 monocytes, TH2-cells, CD8+ T cells, mast cells, macrophages, B cell subset CD210/IL10RA, CDW210B/IL10RB macrophages cytokine production[3]
B cells activation [3]
mast cells
Th1 cells inhibits Th1 cytokine production (IFN-γ, TNF-β, IL-2)
Th2 cells Stimulation
IL-11 bone marrow stroma IL11RA bone marrow stroma acute phase protein production, osteoclast formation
IL-12 dendritic cells, B cells, T cells, macrophages CD212/IL12RB1, IR12RB2 activated [3] T cells, differentiation into Cytotoxic T cells with IL-2[3], ↑ IFN-γ, TNF-α, ↓ IL-10
NK cells IFN-γ, TNF-α
IL-13 activated TH2-cells, mast cells, NK cells IL13R TH2-cells, B cells, macrophages Stimulates growth and differentiation of B-Cells (IgE), inhibits TH1-cells and the production of macrophage inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1, IL-6), ↓ IL-8, IL-10, IL-12
IL-14 T cells and certain malignant B cells activated B cells controls the growth and proliferation of B cells, inhibits Ig secretion
IL-15 mononuclear phagocytes (and some other cells), especially macrophages following infection by virus(es) IL15RA T cells, activated B cells Induces production of Natural Killer Cells
IL-16 lymphocytes, epithelial cells, eosinophils, CD8+ T cells CD4 CD4+ T cells CD4+ chemoattractant
IL-17 subsets of T cells CDw217/IL17RA, IL17RB epithelium, endothelium, other osteoclastogenesis, angiogenesis, ↑ inflammatory cytokines
IL-18 macrophages CDw218a/IL18R1 Th1 cells, NK cells Induces production of IFNγ, ↑ NK cell activity
IL-19 - IL20R -
IL-20 - IL20R regulates proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes
IL-21 activated T helper cells, NKT cells IL21R All lymphocytes, dendritic cells costimulates activation and proliferation of CD8+ T cells, augment NK cytotoxicity, augments CD40-driven B cell proliferation, differentiation and isotype switching, promotes differentiation of Th17 cells
IL-22 - IL22R Activates STAT1 and STAT3 and increases production of acute phase proteins such as serum amyloid A, Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and haptoglobin in hepatoma cell lines
IL-23 - IL23R Increases angiogenesis but reduces CD8 T-cell infiltration
IL-24 - IL20R Plays important roles in tumor suppression, wound healing and psoriasis by influencing cell survival.
IL-25 - LY6E Induces the production IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, which stimulate eosinophil expansion
IL-26 - IL20R1 Enhances secretion of IL-10 and IL-8 and cell surface expression of CD54 on epithelial cells
IL-27 - IL27RA Regulates the activity of B lymphocyte and T lymphocytes
IL-28 - IL28R Plays a role in immune defense against viruses
IL-29 - Plays a role in host defenses against microbes
IL-30 - Forms one chain of IL-27
IL-31 - IL31RA May play a role in inflammation of the skin
IL-32 - Induces monocytes and macrophages to secrete TNF-α, IL-8 and CXCL2
IL-33 - Induces helper T cells to produce type 2 cytokine
IL-35 regulatory T cells Suppression of T helper cell activation

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Unless else specified in boxes, then ref is: Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Immunology. Paperback: 384 pages. Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; (July 1, 2007). Language: English. ISBN 0781795435. ISBN 978-0781795432. Page 68
  2. Noosheen Alaverdi & David Sehy. Cytokines - Master Regulators of the Immune System. eBioscience. URL accessed on 2008-02-28.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 Cytokine tutorial, The University of Arizona

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