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- This article is about integral theory in philosophy, psychology, and society. It is unrelated to the concept of an integral in calculus.
Integral theory is a term often used to describe the intellectual teachings and work of the American philosopher Ken Wilber. It may refer to Wilber's theories in general, or to specific aspects thereof, whether theoretical or in practical application.
Integral Theory[edit | edit source]
Integral theory refers to the systematic holistic philosophy that Ken Wilber put together, building on extensive work of previous integral thinkers like Sri Aurobindo, James Mark Baldwin, Jürgen Habermas and Jean Gebser, but also contains many new elements. Wilber intends to break away from metaphysics to develop a theory of spiritual evolution that is acceptable to the modern secular world. Integral theory is the philosophy that the California Institute of Integral Studies (CIIS) is based upon. It is also discussed on the Integral Naked website, and constitutes the syllabus of Integral University, which offers courses and degrees in conjunction with several other academic institutions.
Applications of Integral Theory[edit | edit source]
Wilber's theories in general, or specific aspects such as the Four Quadrants or Wilber and Beck's Integral Spiral Dynamics, have been applied in the world of business and business leadership (Cacioppe and Edwards, 2005; Landrum and Gardner 2005), International development (Hochachka 2005), and even marine ecology (Tissot 2005). Intersections between critical theory and integral theory have also been explored (Anderson 2006).
Other movements[edit | edit source]
Integral thought may refer variously not only to Wilber's own teachings or those that have adopted them, but also to authors that were influenced by Aurobindo but not Wilber (e.g. Indra Sen, Haridas Chaudhuri), have been influenced by both but don't necessarily follow Wilber's position, or Wilber's position only, or have broken with Wilber but retain certain elements of Integral theory.
See also[edit | edit source]
- Evolution (philosophy)
- Ken Wilber
- Holism in science
- Holon (philosophy)
- Integral thought
- Nicolai Hartmann
- Spiral Dynamics
- Spiritual evolution
References[edit | edit source]
- Daniel Gustav Anderson, Of Syntheses and Surprises: Toward a Critical Integral Theory Integral Review 3 (2006), pp. 62-81.
- Ron Cacioppe and Mark Edwards, "Seeking the Holy Grail of organisational development: A synthesis of integral theory, spiral dynamics, corporate transformation and action inquiry", Leadership and Organization Development Journal, Mar 2005 Vol 26, no.2 pp. 86 - 105
- Gail Hochachka, Developing Sustainability, Developing the Self: An Integral Approach to International and Community Development, Polis Publications, 2005.
- Nancy E. Landrum and Carolyn L. Gardner, "Using integral theory to effect strategic change", Journal of Organizational Change Management, Jun 2005, Vol 18, no.3 pp 247 - 258
- Brian N. Tissot - Integral Marine Ecology: Community-based fishery management in Hawaii, World Futures: the Journal of General Evolution, 2005 vol. 61 pp.79-96
- Ken Wilber, An integral theory of consciousness, Journal of Consciousness Studies, Volume 4, Number 1, 1997, pp. 71-92(22)
[edit | edit source]
- Integral Institute Wilber's organization
- Integral Institute: The Integral Approach - summarises Wilber's Integral Theory
- Integral Naked The by-subscription forum for Wilber's organization
- Integral World - includes a large number of online essays (some supportive, some critical) dedicated to Wilber's views.
- Integral Visioning contains articles, a forum, and a wiki
- Integral Personal Spirituality - an interactive website that proposes a new spiritual movement on the basis of Wilber's Integral Theory
- IntegralWiki - open, collaborative on-line Integral theory encyclopedia
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