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An injection (often referred to as "shot") is an infusion method of putting liquid into the body, usually with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth for the material to be forced into the body. An injection follows a parenteral route of administration, that is, its effect is not necessarily local to the area in which the injection is administered; it is systemic.
There are several methods of injection or infusion, including intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous, intraosseous, and intraperitoneal. Long-acting forms of subcutaneous/intramuscular injections are available for various drugs, and are called depot injections.
Intramuscular injection[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Intramuscular injection
In an intramuscular injection, the medication is delivered directly into a muscle. Many vaccines are administered intramuscularly, as well as codeine, metoclopramide, and many other medications. Many drugs injected intramuscularly are absorbed into the muscle fairly quickly, while others are more gradual.
Generally, intramuscular injections are not self-administered, but rather by a trained medical professional. However, prescribed self-administered intramuscular injections are becoming more common for patients that require these injections routinely.
Intraperitoneal injections[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Intraperitoneal injections
Intravenous injections[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Intravenous injections
- Main article: Intravenous therapy
Subcutaneous injection[edit | edit source]
- Main article: subcutaneous injection
Depot injection[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Depot injections
A depot injection is an injection, usually subcutaneous or intramuscular, of a pharmacological agent which releases its active compound in a consistent way over a long period of time. Depot injections are usually either solid or oil-based. Depot injections may be available as certain forms of a drug, such as decanoate salts or esters. Examples of depot injections include Depo Provera and haloperidol decanoate.
The advantages of using a long-acting depot injection include increased medication compliance due to reduction in the frequency of dosing, as well as more consistent serum concentrations. However, one significant disadvantage of using a depot injection is that the drug is not immediately reversible, since it is slowly released.
When a rapid onset of action is needed, medications may be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, under the tongue, or by intranasal or oral inhalation.
Injection pain[edit | edit source]
The pain of an injection may be lessened by prior application of ice or topical anesthetic or simultaneous pinching of the skin. Recent studies suggest that forced coughing during an injection stimulates a transient rise in blood pressure which inhibits the perception of pain. Sometimes, as with an amniocentesis, a local anesthetic is given. The most common technique to reduce the pain of an injection is simply to distract the patient.
References[edit | edit source]
- Anesthesia and Analgesia 2004;98:343-5
See also[edit | edit source]
- Dart injection
- Intracardiac injection
- Intradermal injection
- Intraosseous infusion
- Intraarterial injection
- Trypanophobia - fear of injectons/needles
[edit | edit source]
- FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Data Standards Manual: Route of Administration.
- Subcutaneous Injection Sites - from healthinfotranslations.com
- Giving Medicine by Subcutaneous Injection - from healthinfotranslations.com
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